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Cited references:

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Benton TG, Plaistow SJ & Coulson TN (2006) Complex population dynamics and complex causation: devils, details and demography.  Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. B. 273: 1173-1181.

Burden JP, Possee, RD, Sait SM, King LA & Hails RS (2006) Phenotypic and genotypic characterisation of persistent baculovirus populations of the cabbage moth (Mamestra brassicae) within the British Isles. Archives of Virology 151: 635-649.

Cheke RA & Tucker MN (1995) An evaluation of the potential economic returns from the strategic control approach to the management of African armyworm Spodoptera exempta populations in East Africa. Crop Protection 12: 91-103.

Cherry, A. J. (1992). Cross-infectivity of Spodoptera exempta nuclear polyhedrosis virus (SeNPV) and the infectivity of foreign viruses in S. exempta. Project Technical Report. Project A0047 Natural Resources Institute. Chatham UK. pp6

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Grzywacz D, Mushobozi W, Parnell M, Jolliffe F & Wilson K (in press) The evaluation of Spodoptera exempta nucleopolyhedrovirus (SpexNPV) for the field control of African armyworm (Spodoptera exempta) in Tanzania. Crop Protection.

Harvey AW & Mallya GA (1995) Predicting the severity of Spodoptera exempta (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) outbreak seasons in Tanzania. Bull. Ent. Res. 85: 479-487;

Hodgson DJ, Hitchman RB, Vanbergen AJ, Hails RS, Possee RD & Cory JS (2004) Host ecology determines the relative fitness of virus genotypes in mixed-genotype nucleopolyhedrovirus infections. J. Evol. Biol., 17: 1018-1025.

Ibrahim KM, Yassin Y & Elguzouli A (2004) Polymerase chain reaction primers for polymorphic microsatellite loci in the African armyworm, Spodoptera exempta (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Molecular Ecology Notes 4: 653-655.

Lee KP, Cory JS, Wilson K, Raubenheimer D & Simpson SJ (2006) Flexible diet choice offsets protein costs of pathogen resistance in a caterpillar. Proc. Roy. Soc. B., 273: 823-829.

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Mushobozi WL, Grzywacz D, Musebe R, Kimani M & Wilson K (2005) New approaches to improve the livelihoods of poor farmers and pastoralists in Tanzania through monitoring and control of African armyworm, Spodoptera exempta. Aspects of Appl. Biol. 75: 37-35.

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Njuki J, Mushobozi W & Day R (2004) Improving armyworm forecasting and control in Tanzania: a socio-economic survey. CABI Africa Regional Centre Nairobi 39. pp49.

Parnell, M., Grzywacz, D., Jones, K, A,. Brown, M., Oduor, G. & Ong’aro, J. (2002) The strain variation and virulence of granulovirus of diamond back moth (Plutella xylostella Linnaeus, Lep., Yponomeutidae) isolated in Kenya.  J. Invert. Pathol. 79: 192-196.

Redman EM (2005) Baculovirus Diversity and its Effect on Virulence. PhD Thesis, University of Stirling.

Rose DJW, Dewhurst CF & Page WW (2000) The African Armyworm Handbook: The Status, Biology, Ecology, Epidemiology and Management of Spodoptera exempta (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Natural Resources Institute, Greenwich.

Vilaplana L, Wilson K, Redman EM & Cory JS (2009) Pathogen persistence in migratory insects: high levels of vertically-transmitted virus infection in field populations of the African armyworm. Evolutionary Ecology 22pp. DOI: 10.1007/s10682-009-9296-2.

Vilaplana L, Redman EM, Wilson K & Cory JS (2008) Density related variation in vertical transmission of a virus in the African armyworm. Oecologia 155: 237-246.