Dr Andrew KerridgeSenior Lecturer
Andy is a Lecturer in Computational Chemistry and an EPSRC Career Acceleration Fellow with a multidisciplinary research background. After obtaining his PhD working with Professors Marshall Stoneham and Tony Harker in the Department of Physics at University College London, he completed a postdoctoral position in the London Centre for Nanotechnology, applying quantum chemical methodologies to problems in quantum computing. He then moved to the UCL Department of Chemistry, working on problems in actinide chemistry with Professor Nik Kaltsoyannis before obtaining his Fellowship.
Andy is a member of the Chemical Theory and Computation (CTC) research section and his current research focuses on complexes of the f-elements. Decades of nuclear energy production in the UK has left us with a significant environmental and economic problem with regard to the storage and remediation of spent nuclear fuel. In order to devise improved strategies for the management of this legacy waste a deeper understanding of fundamental f-element chemistry is required. The high radioactivity of the actinides makes experimental studies of these complexes extremely challenging and so quantum mechanical simulations can play an important role in developing this understanding. Andy is currently investigating the fundamentals of bonding in actinide and lanthanide complexes and how these can be best characterised via theoretical and computational approaches.
More information about the research carried out in Andy's group can be found here.
Soft-donor ligands for the separation of actinides from lanthanides
An important problem in the nuclear power industry is associated with the separation of two radioactive components of spent nuclear fuel. These components are characterised as long-lived minor actinide (Np, Am, Cm) and short-lived lanthanide species, respectively. These components can be managed and utilised in very different ways and their efficient separation therefore has important environmental and economic benefits.
The chemical bonding in actinide systems is believed to be subtly different to that of their lanthanide counterparts due to the greater spatial delocalisation of the 5f orbitals in the former. This leads to greater covalent character in An-ligand bonds and allows carefully selected soft-donor ligands to preferentially bind the An(III) ion. The simulation of An(III) and Ln(III) complexes, however, present a significant computational challenge and we employ state-of-the-art relativistic quantum chemical methods in order to better understand the electronic structure.
Modelling the electronic structure of macrocyclic d- and f-element complexes
The porphyrins, sometimes described as the “pigments of life” due to their central role in photosynthesis and the transport of oxygen in the cardiovascular system, are a class of molecules that have become ubiquitous in modern life. They find application in a diversity of fields, where examples include their use as photosensitisers in the photodynamic therapy of certain cancers and as essential components of a class of dye-sensitised solar cells. Expanded porphyrins have also shown promise as potential actinide detectors and sensors. We perform a variety of quantum chemical simulations of porphyrins complexes of the d- and f-block elements for application in spintronics, renewable energy and nuclear waste remediation. The porphyrin ligand is amenable to extensive modification and substitution, and we take advantage of this to ‘tune’ specific physical and chemical properties of our complexes so as to optimise their use in the aforementioned applications.
Robust measures of covalency in complexes of the f-elements
The quantification of covalency in f-element complexes is of both fundamental scientific interest and critical industrial importance. In the nuclear power industry, strategies for the remediation of spent nuclear fuel are based on the chemical separation of minor actinides from lanthanides which, in turn, is believed to be dependent on a difference in covalent character. Metal–ligand covalency is, however, difficult to quantify in complexes containing open shell ions due to the presence of strong electron correlation, manifesting itself in the form of multiconfigurational character in the electronic wavefunction. Traditional views of covalency fail in the context of a multiconfigurational wavefunction due to the breakdown of the independent particle approximation. In order to allow the question of covalency in such multiconfigurational systems to be considered, we instead turn to the (physically observable) total electron density. The topology of the electron density can be interrogated so as to give us an unambiguous partitioning of a molecule into atomic components and allows the degree of electron sharing between atoms to be quantified.
The spectroscopy of uranium complexes
The combination of relativity, electron correlation and spin-orbit coupling can place simulations of the absorption and emission spectra of actinide complexes beyond the reach of standard quantum chemical methods. We employ the complete-active-space self-consistent-field (CASSCF) approach in order to consider all of these contributions to both the ground and excited state electronic structure of uranium complexes. Much of this work is carried out on formally 5f2 U(IV) complexes and can consider more than 50,000 individual transitions. The results of these calculations help us to interpret and assign the spectra produced by experimental collaborators, and to therefore deepen our understanding of the fundamental processes responsible for the spectroscopic characteristics of these complexes.
Novel materials for the removal of radionuclides from aqueous environments.
The treatment and remediation of groundwater and other aqueous environments that have been contaminated by human-made radioactive ions (such as nuclear fission products and highly active transuranic elements) is an essential task in the cleanup of legacy nuclear power facilities. The recent accident at the Japanese Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, in which radionuclides were released into the environment, highlights the fact that such treatment can also be required in a wider environmental context. Recent experimental work has revealed that graphene oxide (GO) is an extremely effective material for the removal of radionuclides from aqueous environments (such as liquid nuclear waste or contaminated groundwater) through surface absorption. Furthermore, GO flakes coagulate so as to form large particles that can be easily removed from solution, are non-toxic and biodegradable. Our work focusses on how the physical and chemical properties of the flakes can be modified so as to optimise their ability to absorb radionuclides. Our quantum chemical studies are to be complemented by large scale classical simulations of GO flakes in order to better understand their ability to coagulate, and therefore to investigate the effect of the optimisation of absorption properties on this ability.
PhD Supervision Interests
There are always research opportunities in our group, although funding is currently not available. We have both fundamental and applied projects available, and welcome applications from self-funded students or from students seeking external funding. We will provide training in all relevant aspects of computational chemistry and subsequent analysis.
Unravelling the electronic structure and dynamics of an isolated molecular rotary motor in the gas-phase
Beekmeyer, R., Parkes, M.A., Ridgwell, L., Riley, J.W., Chen, J., Feringa, B.L., Kerridge, A., Fielding, H.H. 27/06/2017 In: Chemical Science. 8, 6141, p. 6141-6148. 8 p.
Quantification of f-element covalency through analysis of the electron density: insights from simulation
Kerridge, A. 25/06/2017 In: Chemical Communications. 53, 50, p. 6685-6695. 11 p.
Actinide covalency measured by pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy
Formanuik, A., Ana-Maria, A., Ortu, F., Beekmeyer, R., Kerridge, A., Tuna, F., McInnes, E., Mills, D. 06/2017 In: Nature Chemistry. 9, 6, p. 578-583. 6 p.
Ligand size dependence of U–N and U–O bond character in a series of uranyl hexaphyrin complexes: quantum chemical simulation and density based analysis
Di Pietro, P., Kerridge, A. 21/03/2017 In: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics. 19, 11, p. 7546-7559. 14 p.
The inverse-trans-influence in tetravalent lanthanide and actinide bis(carbene) complexes
Gregson, M., Lu, E., Mills, D., Tuna, F., McInnes, E., Hennig, C., Scheinost, A., McMaster, J., Lewis, W., Blake, A., Kerridge, A., Liddle, S. 3/02/2017 In: Nature Communications. 8, 11 p.
Electronic structure of bulk AnO2 (An = U, Np, Pu) and water adsorption on the (111) and (110) surfaces of UO2 and PuO2 from hybrid density functional theory within the periodic electrostatic embedded cluster method
Wellington, J.P.W., Kerridge, A., Austin, J., Kaltsoyannis, N. 15/12/2016 In: Journal of Nuclear Materials. 482, p. 124-134. 11 p.
Ionic adsorption on the brucite (0001) surface: a periodic electrostatic embedded cluster method study
Makkos, E., Kerridge, A., Austin, J., Kaltsoyannis, N. 1/12/2016 In: Journal of Chemical Physics. 145, 13 p.
Concomitant Carboxylate and Oxalate Formation From the Activation of CO2 by a Thorium(III) Complex
Formanuik, A., Ortu, F., Inman, C., Kerridge, A., Castro, L., Maron, L., Mills, D. 27/10/2016 In: Chemistry - A European Journal.
Topological study of bonding in aquo and bis(triazinyl)pyridine complexes of trivalent lanthanides and actinides: does covalency imply stability?
Fryer-Kanssen, I., Austin, J., Kerridge, A. 17/10/2016 In: Inorganic Chemistry. 55, 20, p. 10034-10042. 9 p.
Should environmental effects be included when performing QTAIM calculations on actinide systems?: a comparison of QTAIM metrics for Cs2UO2Cl4, U(Se2PPh2)4 and Np(Se2PPh2)4 in gas phase, COSMO and PEECM
Wellington, J.P.W., Kerridge, A., Kaltsoyannis, N. 25/09/2016 In: Polyhedron. 116, p. 57-63. 7 p.
Assessing covalency in equatorial U-N bonds: density based measures of bonding in BTP and isoamethyrin complexes of uranyl
Di Pietro, P., Kerridge, A. 7/07/2016 In: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics. 18, 25, p. 16830-16839. 10 p.
Emergence of comparable covalency in isostructural cerium(IV)– and uranium(IV)–carbon multiple bonds
Gregson, M., Lu, E., McInnes, E., Hennig, C., Scheinost, A., McMaster, J., Lewis, W., Blake, A., Kerridge, A., Liddle, S. 1/05/2016 In: Chemical Science. 7, 5, p. 3286-3297. 12 p.
White phosphorus activation by a Th(III) complex
Formanuik, A., Ortu, F., Beekmeyer, R., Kerridge, A., Adams, R., Mills, D. 14/02/2016 In: Dalton Transactions. 45, 6, p. 2390-2393. 4 p.
U−Oyl stretching vibrations as a quantitative measure of the equatorial bond covalency in uranyl complexes: a quantum-chemical investigation
Di Pietro, P., Kerridge, A. 19/01/2016 In: Inorganic Chemistry. 55, 2, p. 573-583. 11 p.
Dithio- and Diselenophosphinate Thorium(IV) and Uranium(IV) complexes: molecular and electronic structure, spectroscopy, and transmetalation reactivity
Behrle, A., Kerridge, A., Walensky, J. 21/12/2015 In: Inorganic Chemistry. 54, 24, p. 11625-11636. 12 p.
Understanding and advancing the coordination and redox chemistry of the actinides
Kerridge, A., Woodall, S., Natrajan, L.S., Kaden, P. 1/12/2015 Nuclear Future, 11
Assessing covalency in Cerium and Uranium hexachlorides: a correlated wavefunction and density functional theory study
Beekmeyer, R., Kerridge, A. 9/11/2015 In: Inorganics. 3, 4, p. 482-499. 18 p.
The importance of second shell effects in the simulation of hydrated Sr2+ hydroxide complexes
Makkos, E., Kerridge, A., Kaltsoyannis, N. 22/05/2015 In: Dalton Transactions. 44, 25, p. 11572-11581. 10 p.
Neptunyl(VI) centred visible LMCT emission directly observable in the presence of uranyl(VI)
Woodall, S., Swinburne, A.N., Ial Banik, N., Kerridge, A., Di Pietro, P., Adam, C., Kaden, P., Natrajan, L.S. 28/03/2015 In: Chemical Communications. 51, 25, p. 5402-5405. 4 p.
Yttrium complexes of Arsine, Arsenide, and Arsinidene Ligands
Pugh, T., Kerridge, A., Layfield, R. 27/03/2015 In: Angewandte Chemie International Edition. 54, 14, p. 4255-4258. 4 p.
The complete-active-space self-consistent-field approach and its application to molecular complexes of the f-elements
Kerridge, A. 03/2015 In: Computational methods in lanthanide and actinide chemistry. Chichester : Wiley p. 121-144. 24 p. ISBN: 9781118688311. Electronic ISBN: 9781118688304.
Optical excitation of MgO nanoparticles: a computational perspective
Wobbe, M.C.C., Kerridge, A., Zwijnenburg, M.A. 28/08/2014 In: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics. 16, 40, p. 22052-22061. 10 p.
Chemical bonding of lanthanides and actinides
Kaltsoyannis, N., Kerridge, A. 30/05/2014 In: The chemical bond. Weinheim, Germany : Wiley p. 337-356. 20 p. ISBN: 9783527333158. Electronic ISBN: 9783527664658.
f-Orbital covalency in the actinocenes (An = Th-Cm): multiconfigurational studies and topological analysis
Kerridge, A. 18/02/2014 In: RSC Advances. 4, 24, p. 12078-12086. 9 p.
Oxidation state and covalency in f-element metallocenes (M = Ce, Th, Pu): a combined CASSCF and topological study
Kerridge, A. 14/12/2013 In: Dalton Transactions. 42, 46, p. 16428-16436. 9 p.
Emission spectroscopy of uranium(IV) compounds: a combined synthetic, spectroscopic and computational study
Hashem, E., Swinburne, A.N., Schulzke, C., Evans, R.C., Platts, J.A., Kerridge, A., Natrajan, L.S., Baker, R.J. 7/04/2013 In: RSC Advances. 3, 13, p. 4350-4361. 12 p.
A RASSCF study of free base, magnesium and zinc porphyrins: accuracy versus efficiency
Kerridge, A. 14/02/2013 In: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics. 15, 6, p. 2197-2209. 13 p.
The coordination of Sr2+ by hydroxide: a density functional theoretical study
Kerridge, A., Kaltsoyannis, N. 14/11/2011 In: Dalton Transactions. 40, 42, p. 11258-11266. 9 p.
Quantum chemical studies of the hydration of Sr2+ in vacuum and aqueous solution
Kerridge, A., Kaltsoyannis, N. 26/04/2011 In: Chemistry - A European Journal. 17, 18, p. 5060-5067. 8 p.
All-electron CASPT2 study of Ce(eta(8)-C8H6)(2)
Kerridge, A., Kaltsoyannis, N. 06/2010 In: Comptes Rendus Chimie. 13, 6-7, p. 853-859. 7 p.
Multiconfigurational studies of organometallic cerium compounds
Kaltsoyannis, N., Coates, R., Kerridge, A. 16/08/2009
A mystery solved?: photoelectron spectroscopic and quantum chemical studies of the ion states of CeCp3+
Coates, R., Coreno, M., DeSimone, M., Green, J.C., Kaltsoyannis, N., Kerridge, A., Narband, N., Sella, A. 14/08/2009 In: Dalton Transactions. 2009, 30, p. 5943-5953. 11 p.
Are the ground states of the later actinocenes multiconfigurational?: all-electron spin-orbit coupled CASPT2 calculations on An(eta(8)-C8H8)(2) (An = Th, U, Pu, Cm)
Kerridge, A., Kaltsoyannis, N. 30/07/2009 In: Journal of Physical Chemistry A. 113, 30, p. 8737-8745. 9 p.
Is cerocene Really a Ce(III) compound?: all-electron spin-orbit coupled CASPT2 calculations on M(eta(8)-C8H8)(2) (M = Th, Pa, Ce)
Kerridge, A., Coates, R., Kaltsoyannis, N. 26/03/2009 In: Journal of Physical Chemistry A. 113, 12, p. 2896-2905. 10 p.
Structure-dependent exchange in the organic magnets Cu(II)Pc and Mn(II)Pc
Wu, W., Kerridge, A., Harker, A.H., Fisher, A.J. 05/2008 In: Physical Review B. 77, 18, 12 p.
Molecular thin films: a new type of magnetic switch
Heutz, S., Mitra, C., Wu, W., Fisher, A.J., Kerridge, A., Stoneham, M., Harker, T.H., Gardener, J., Tseng, H., Jones, T.S., Renner, C., Aeppli, G. 5/11/2007 In: Advanced Materials. 19, 21, p. 3618-3622. 5 p.
Electron dynamics in quantum gate operation
Kerridge, A., Harker, A.H., Stoneham, A.M. 18/07/2007 In: Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter. 19, 28, 7 p.
Time dependent quantum simulations of two-qubit gates based on donor states in silicon
Kerridge, A., Savory, S., Harker, A.H., Stoneham, A.M. 31/05/2006 In: Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter. 18, 21, p. S767-S776. 10 p.
Erratum: Importance of quantum tunneling in vacancy-hydrogen complexes in diamond (vol 95, pg 105502 2005)
Shaw, M.J., Briddon, P.R., Goss, J.P., Rayson, M.J., Kerridge, A., Harker, A.H., Stoneham, A.M. 14/11/2005 In: Physical Review Letters. 95, 21, 1 p.
Importance of quantum tunneling in vacancy-hydrogen complexes in diamond
Shaw, M.J., Briddon, P.R., Goss, J.P., Rayson, M.J., Kerridge, A., Harker, A.H., Stoneham, A.M. 2/09/2005 In: Physical Review Letters. 95, 10, 4 p.
Quantum behaviour of hydrogen and muonium in vacancy-containing complexes in diamond
Kerridge, A., Harker, A.H., Stoneham, A.M. 1/12/2004 In: Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter. 16, 47, p. 8743-8751. 9 p.