Energy Lancaster Seminar Series - 2016 Seminars



Setting energy policy in a changing world

Friday 12th February 2016

Charles Hendry


Our energy security is constantly subject to major unpredicted shocks - sometimes natural and sometimes manmade.
At the same time, government has an obligation to ensure the lights stay on, to reduce our carbon emissions
and to do so in a way that is most affordable for consumers. How does government set energy policy to meet these
conflicting goals?

The presenter

Professor Charles Hendry was Energy Minister from 2010-12 and the longest-serving Energy Spokesman for the
Conservative Party. During that time, he helped shape a new approach to secure the investment needed in new
power plants in the UK, whilst seeing a four-fold increase in the electricity from renewables. No longer in Parliament,
he is still closely involved in the geopolitics of energy.

The future of electricity storage in the UK

Friday 19th February 2016

Dr Andrew Pimm


As the penetration of intermittent renewables and inflexible nuclear power increases, so too does the challenge of
balancing supply and demand of electricity. Many different electricity storage technologies exist, with a range of
characteristics including size, cost, and round-trip efficiency. This seminar looks at what future mix of electricity
storage technologies that might be appropriate for the UK, policy changes that might lead to increased adoption of
storage, and a selection of new grid-scale storage technologies under development in the UK.

The presenter

Andrew Pimm is a Research Fellow in the School of Chemical and Process Engineering at the University of Leeds.
Andrew's research centres on energy storage and renewable energy. He is developing models of energy demand and
energy storage within cities, in order to understand the value of decentralised energy storage to various stakeholders
including consumers, DNOs, and storage operators. This work looks at both electricity and heat, and covers multiple
future scenarios, including smart-charging of electric vehicles.

Presentation on the Web:

Business Perspective on Low Carbon Energy Transformation

Friday 20th May 2016

Professor Gail Whiteman

The presenter

Gail Whiteman is Director of the Pentland Centre for Sustainability in Business.
Her research utilises organisation theory on knowledge to analyse how a range of actors (companies, civil society, and
local communities) make sense of ecological change, and how these actors transform and build resilience across
scales given environmental pressures and social inequities.

Electrical energy storage and grids: Taking an integrated approach from inception

Friday 10th June 2016

Dr Charalampos Patsios


Electrical Energy storage (EES) has the potential to assist the rapid decarbonisation of the UK's electrical distribution
networks. Although these benefits are proven from a strategic point of view, current adoption is lagging expectations
due to a number of cost, performance and regulatory barriers. Present improvements in EES performance and cost
reduction are slow and incremental. This is largely due to a silo approach and sequential design and operational
methods adopted by the industry regarding EES components and sub-systems. These components are often designed
agnostically as regards to their interdependencies and without proper understanding of the associated technical
thresholds. In most cases also lacking insight regarding the value streams and detailed knowledge of the actual
markets the end products will be addressing. A radically different integrated approach is required in order to make
step changes in cost and to achieve performance breakthroughs. An approach that is a systems one from inception to
validation taking into account the constraints imposed by the application on the EES technologies and vice versa.
Furthermore, many EES technologies exist at present with particular technical and economic constraints and
limitations such as power and energy density, response capabilities, efficiency, size, lifetime, cost etc. Multiple
technologies and their combinations can enhance applicability but further amplify the need for an integrated
approach by introducing a new set of interdependent design choices.

This seminar looks at the challenges associated with key trade-offs in costs and performance between EES subsystems
and their potential applications and services in distribution networks and presents a set of modelling and validation
approaches to quantify and assess them, drawing on experiences from relevant research and development projects in
the UK.

The presenter

Dr Charalampos Patsios is a Senior Research Associate in the School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering at
Newcastle University. He has significant experience in the design, modelling and control of electrical power systems
including Wind Generators, Hybrid Energy Systems, Power Electronics and Energy Storage. He is currently a coinvestigator
in the EPSRC project Multi-scale ANalysis for Facilities for Energy STorage (Manifest) and was responsible
for setting up Newcastle University’s Energy Storage Test Bed, a unique grid-connected test facility funded through a
combined £2 million grant from the EPSRC, Newcastle University and industrial partners Northern Powergrid and

Presentation on the Web:

Shale gas: science and controversy

Friday 16th September 2016

Professor Mike Stephenson


Fracking has fast become one of the most controversial topics of the 21st Century. Mass protests have taken place
both in the UK and the USA to stop the extraction of shale gas over concerns regarding the environment. Although no
commercial fracking wells are currently operating in the UK, the government has consistently advocated shale gas as a
future home-grown energy source. The government has said it is going “all-out for shale” to boost energy security and
the economy. But opponents fear fracking can cause problems including water contamination, earthquakes, and noise
and traffic pollution. Who is right? In the midst of the argument between the government and protestors, science
plays a huge part in allowing people to make an informed choice about fracking which will determine whether or not
it has a future in the UK.

The talk looks at the science behind two particularly sensitive areas: water contamination and fugitive emissions. It
looks at these areas in details examine the peer-reviewed evidence on both sides of the argument (for and against).
The talk will finish up on the importance of science in informing debates and improving policy and regulation.

The presenter

Mike Stephenson is Director of Science and Technology at the British Geological Survey. He began his career as a
schoolteacher in rural Africa and stayed there for nearly ten years but returned to Britain to pursue research in the
Middle East and Asia, including highlights in Oman, Jordan, Pakistan, Iran and Afghanistan. Mike has degrees from
Imperial College and Sheffield University and runs the Science Programme at BGS, the UK's national geoscience and
data centre, with 520 scientists and technologists. He has professorships at Nottingham and Leicester universities and
has published over seventy peer-reviewed papers, while also acting on the editorial boards of several journals, and as
Editor-in-Chief of an Elsevier geological journal. His new book 'Returning Carbon To Nature: Coal, Carbon Capture and
Storage' (Elsevier) looks at carbon capture and storage as part of the carbon cycle and climate change, and at coal and
its place in future.

Presentation on the Web:

New Building Blocks for Si-based Photonics: SiGeSn-based Detectors & III/V-Nanowire Laser

Friday 4th November 2016

Professor Jörg Schulze


Recent years have seen a lot of experimental effort directed towards integrating photonics with electronics. The
Group-IV elements Si and Ge are the dominating materials of semiconductor electronics. However, their application to
optoelectronics is limited due to their indirect bandgap and the concomitant low efficiency in optoelectronic
applications. Recent experiments have, therefore, focused on the investigation of GeSn and SiGeSn alloys that could
potentially be used as direct bandgap Group-IV-materials for an efficient on-chip integration of photonics and
electronics. The relaxed alloy Ge(1-y)Sn(y) has been predicted to become a direct bandgap material for y > 0.073 [1],
while pseudomorphic Ge(1-y)Sn(y) is predicted to have a direct bandgap for y > 0.19 [2]. A number of experimental
studies have been performed to fabricate and characterize Ge(1-y)Sn(y) bulk [3-6] and quantum well [7]
photodetector devices. Because of the large lattice mismatch between Ge and Sn (14 %), the growth of Ge(1-y)Sn(y)
alloys with a large percentage of Sn is difficult to achieve on Si and Ge substrates. The ternary alloy SiGeSn allows one
to decouple bandgap and lattice constant [8] and is, therefore, a particularly interesting candidate for optoelectronic
applications. Several groups have reported the successful fabrication of SiGeSn alloys by Chemical Vapor Deposition
[9-11] and Molecular Beam Epitaxy [12]; bulk SiGeSn-photodiodes have been fabricated and analyzed [13].
Furthermore, a number of proposals concerning photonic devices such as light-emitting diodes or modulators with
Multi-Quantum-Well structures in their active regions have been made [14, 15]. For those devices, additional
advantages such as a lower intensity of Auger processes have been predicted [16]. The talk presents results on the
growth and characterization of SiGeSn alloys integrated on Si substrates and their use in optoelectronic devices. It
further highlights the recent success in the fabrication of III/V nanowire Laser monolithically integrated on Si [17] and
discuss the future of Si-based integrated circuits with logic and photonic elements.


1. L. Jiang, J. D. Gallagher, C. L. Senaratne, T. Aoki, J. Mathews, J. Kouvetakis, and J. Menéndez, “Compositional dependence of the direct
and indirect band gaps in Ge1−ySny alloys from room temperature photoluminescence: implications for the indirect to direct gap crossover in
intrinsic and n-type materials,” Semicond. Sci. Tech. 29, 115028 (2014).
2. A. A. Tonkikh, C. Eisenschmidt, V. G. Talalaev, N. D. Zakharov, J. Schilling, G. Schmidt, and P. Werner, “Pseudomorphic GeSn/Ge(001)
quantum wells: examining indirect band gap bowing,“ Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(3), 032106 (2013).
3. J. Mathews, R. Roucka, J. Xie, S.-Q. Yu, J. Menéndez and J. Kouvetakis, “Extended performance GeSn/Si(100) p-i-n photodetectors for full
spectral range telecommunication applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 133506 (2009).
4. R. Roucka, J. Mathews, C. Weng, R. T. Beeler, J. Tolle, J. Menéndez, and J. Kouvetakis, “High-performance near-IR photodiodes: a novel
chemistry-based approach to Ge and Ge-Sn devices integrated on Silicon,” IEEE J. Quant. Electron. 47, 213 (2011).
5. J. Werner, M. Oehme, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, A. Schirmer, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Germanium-Tin p-i-n photodetectors integrated on
Silicon grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 061108 (2011).
6. D. L. Zhang, C. L. Xue, B. W. Cheng, S. J. Su, Z. Liu, X. Zhang, G. Z. Zhang, C. B. Li, and Q. M. Wang, “High-responsivity GeSn short-wave
infrared p-i-n photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 141111 (2013) .
7. M. Oehme, D. Widmann, K. Kostecki, P. Zaumseil, B. Schwartz, M. Gollhofer, R. Koerner, S. Belcher, M. Kittler, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze,
“GeSn/Ge multiquantum well photodetectors on Si substrates,” Opt. Lett. 39, 4711 (2014).
8. V. R. D’Costa, Y.-Y. Fang, J. Tolle, J. Kouvetakis, and J. Menéndez, “Tunable optical gap at a fixed lattice constant in group-IV
semiconductor alloys“, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 107403 (2009).
9. R. A. Soref, J. Kouvetakis and J. Menendez, “Advances in SiGeSn/Ge technology,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc., 958, 0958–L01–08 (2007).
10. L. Jiang, C. Xu, J. D. Gallagher, R. Favaro, T. Aoki, J. Menéndez, and J. Kouvetakis, “Development of light emitting group IV ternary alloys
on Si platforms for long wavelength optoelectronic applications,” Chem. Mater. 26 (8), 2522–2531R (2014).
11. S. Wirths, D. Buca, Z. Ikonic, P. Harrison, A. T. Tiedemann, B. Holländer, T. Stoica, G. Mussler, U. Breuer, J. M. Hartmann, D. Grützmacher,
S. Mantl, “SiGeSn growth studies using reduced pressure chemical vapor deposition towards optoelectronic applications,” Thin Solid Films 557,
183–187 (2014).
12. T. Yamaha, O. Nakatsuka, S. Takeuchi, W. Takeuchi, N. Taoka, K. Araki, K. Izunome, and S. Zaima, “Growth and characterization of
heteroepitaxial layers of GeSiSn ternary alloy,“ ECS Trans 50(9), 907–913 (2013).
13. R. T. Beeler, D. J. Smith, J. Kouvetakis, and J. Menéndez, “GeSiSn photodiodes with 1 eV optical gaps grown on Si(100) and Ge(100)
platforms,“ IEEE J. Photovolt. 2(4), 434–440 (2012).
14. P. Moontragoon, R. A. Soref, Z. Ikonic, “The direct and indirect bandgaps of unstrained SixGe1−x−ySny and their photonic device
applications“, J. Appl. Phys. 112(7), 073106 (2012).
15. G. Sun, R. A. Soref, H. H. Cheng, “Design of a Si-based lattice-matched room-temperature GeSn/GeSiSn multi-quantum-well mid-infrared
laser diode,“ Opt. Express 18(19), 19957 (2010).
16. R. Soref, “Silicon-based silicon–germanium–tin heterostructure photonics“, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. Math. Phys. Eng. Sci. 372,
20130113 (2014).
17. B. Mayer, L. Janker, B. Loitsch, J. Treu, T. Kostenbader, S. Lichtmannecker, T. Reichert, S. Morkötter, M. Kaniber, G. Abstreiter, C. Gies, G.
Koblmüller, J. J. Finley, “Monolithically Integrated High-β Nanowire Lasers on Silicon“, Nano Lett., 2016, 16 (1), pp 152–156, DOI:

The presenter

J. Schulze studied experimental physics at the TU Braunschweig, Germany. In 2000 he received the Ph.D. degree
(Dr.-Ing.) in EE from the EE&IT Faculty of the University of the German Federal Armed Forces Munich. From the
same faculty he received in 2004 his post-doctoral degree (Habilitation). He was active as Senior Consultant for
Technical Risk Management and as Head of Competence Field "Robust Design Optimization" in Siemens
Corporate Technology (2005-2008). Since 2008 he is working at the University of Stuttgart, Germany, as
Professor of EE and Head of the Institute of Semiconductor Engineering. His main interest is directed to group-
IV-based epitaxy, nano-electronics, photonics, quantum electronics, and spintronics.

Professor Jörg Schulze is the head of the Institute for Semiconductor Engineering at Stuttgart University.

Self-driving vehicles and their impact on the efficiency and safety of future transport

Friday 25th November 2016

Alexander Krauss

The presenter

Alexander Krauss currently holds the position of Senior Vice President for Automotive testing, certification, technical consulting at TÜV SÜD. Based Munich, his responsibilities include the global strategy, P&L budget and investment for the Automotive operations of TÜV SÜD worldwide including the direct operative responsibility of the Automotive staff and business in Germany.

Presentation on the Web: