Department of History Lancaster University
Search Site
You are here: Home >
Professor Aristotle Kallis

Professor Aristotle Kallis


Bowland College
Lancaster University
United Kingdom

Tel: +44 1524 594297


Twentieth Century

My main research interests are situated in three main fields:

  1. the study of extremism, with particular emphasis on interwar fascism (generic concept and comparison of case-studies) and the contemporary extreme/populist right. I am particularly interested in the ideological foundations of extremist discourses, the dynamics and patterns of their diffusion, as well as their ‘mainstreaming' effect (namely, effect on ‘mainstream' political parties and social attitudes);
  2. the forces behind the facilitation and radicalisation of mass violence in a comparative, global context;
  3. totalitarian regimes, modernism, and the urban environment, with the main focus on Fascist Rome but also interests in the study of interwar Berlin and Moscow. 

PhD Supervision Interests

Aristotle Kallis would be very interested in supervising students with interests in the following broad fields:

fascism and totalitarianism

modern propaganda

violence, genocide, terrorism

urban studies

German and Italian history/politics

Greek interwar history

modern and contemporary 'political religions'

Current Teaching

HIST232: Nationalism and genocide in twentieth-century Europe

HIST233: The making of the 'totalitarian city'

HIST452: Research modern history

Current Research

I am currently working on three projects:

Fascist Rome (1922-43). This project, which combines urban, cultural and intellectual history, examines the way in which Fascism attempted to re-create 'space' and symbolism in Rome with a view to transforming the city as a statement of its universal(ist) project - in other words, as the symbolic 'sacred' space of a universal fascist 'political religion'. It analyses the Fascist regime's universalist intentions (placed in a wider framework of urbanistic debates, both inside Italy and across Europe/ the world) and examines the extent to which they were translated into practice in the two decades of Fascist rule.Research for the project has been funded by the British Academy (2007-08). A research monograph (titled Rome, 1922-43: the making of the fascist capital) is expected to be published in 2012 (Palgrave Macmillan).

Fascism, 'fascist regime', and 'para-fascism'. This project has evolved in the context of a partnership of thirteen international scholars, with two research workshops organised by Antonio Costa Pinto and myself in Lisbon (October 2009, February 2011). We are currently editing a collective volume that deals with the dynamics of the diffusion (and adaptation) of ‘fascist' ideas and practices (pioneered in Fascist Italy and/or National Socialist Germany) across Europe during the 1920s/1930s; and the complex hybridisation that occurred at the time between fascist regimes and authoritarian dictatorships. Publication of this volume (to which I will also contribute a detailed, comparative theoretical chapter) is expected in late 2012.

Authority, 'licence', and 'spaces of violence': on the dynamics of transgressive mass violence. This research project intends to provide new insights into how mass murderous violence is facilitated, unleashed, and diffused in a particular environment as a dynamic, poly-centric process. It starts from the premise that resort to extra-ordinary violence is a transgressive act that (i) becomes possible in the wake of a special derogation of ethical, cultural, and/ or legal norms; and (ii) usually produces the momentum for further, more profound trangressive behaviour, based on a combination of authorisation, empowerment, and initiative. The project focuses on the overarching mechanisms that legitimise and precipitate the discharge of violence as both collective and individual, hierarchical and spontaneous undertaking. At the heart of this analysis lies the concept of licence as the critical facilitator and precipitant of violence. In this context of this research licence refers to a mandate, derogation or dispensation that generates (and then contributes to) a habitat of violence - a specific milieu of extreme empowerment and diminished accountability for violence against other humans of a kind that, in 'normal' circumstances, would be proscribed.

My main focus is on ‘spaces of violence' - namely, incidental, institutional, ad hoc or invisible spaces where transgressive violence becomes the norm (whether for a limited or an indefinite period of time). I am especially interested in how mass violence unfolds as a spatially conditioned phenomenon in each case and how the mechanics of ‘licence' define those spaces in the first instance. This research has brought me to a theoretical and empirical examination of different spaces (prisons, institutionalised camps, death camps or public locations where transgressive violence occurred through collective agency). 

Career Details

I taught at the Universities of Edinburgh (2001-2002) and Bristol (2002-2003) before being appointed at Lancaster University, first in the Department of European Languages and Cultures (2003-2010) and then in the Department of History (2010-). 

Professional Role

I am Technology and Information officer for the Department of History. I am also member of the Faculty Information Technology Committee and the Web Strategy Group; and Senior User in the University's pilot programme 'Web Content Creation programme'.

Research Grants

British Academy Project Grant (2007)

Leverhulme Research Fellowship (2005)

Leverhulme Early-Career Fellowship (2003)

Web Links

My profile:

The external portal for my course HIST232 (Mass violence in the 20th century):

Other Interests and Hobbies

Photography and travel, cinema and theatre, information technology, exploring urban spaces


Breaking the taboos and “mainstreaming” the extreme: the debates on restricting Islamic symbols in Europe

Kallis, A. 2013 Right-wing populism in Europe: politics and discourse. Wodak, R., Khosravinik, M. & Mral, B. (eds.). London: Bloomsbury Academic, p. 55-70 16 p.

Research output: Contribution in Book/Report/ProceedingsChapter (peer-reviewed)

Far-right “contagion” or a failing “mainstream”?: how dangerous ideas cross borders and blur boundaries

Kallis, A. 2013 In: Democracy and Security. 9, 3, p. 221-246 26 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article


Landscapes of ‘othering’ in postwar and contemporary Germany: the limits of the ‘culture of contrition’ and the poverty of the mainstream

Kallis, A. 10/2012 In: Studies in Ethnicity and Nationalism. 12, 2, p. 387-407 21 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article

The 'Third Rome' of Fascism: Demolitions and the Search for a New 'Urban Syntax'

Kallis, A. 2012 In: Journal of Modern History. 84, 1, p. 40-79 40 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article


Race and ethnicity

Kallis, A. 2011 Europe in a global context. Krossa, A. S. (ed.). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, p. 128-140 13 p.

Research output: Contribution in Book/Report/ProceedingsChapter

‘Reconciliation’ or ‘conquest’?: the opening of the via della Conciliazione and the fascist vision for the ‘Third Rome’

Kallis, A. 2011 Rome: Continuing Encounters between Past and Present. Caldwell, D. & Caldwell,. L. (eds.). Ashgate, p. 129-152 29 p.

Research output: Contribution in Book/Report/ProceedingsChapter (peer-reviewed)

'Framing' Romanità: The Celebrations for the Bimillenario Augusteo and the Augusteo–Ara Pacis Project

Kallis, A. 10/2011 In: Journal of Contemporary History. 46, 4, p. 809-831 23 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article

‘In miglior tempo … ’: what fascism did not build in Rome

Kallis, A. 2011 In: Journal of Modern Italian Studies. 16, 1, p. 59-83 25 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article


Fascism, ‘licence’, and genocide: from the chimera of rebirth to the authorisation of mass murder

Kallis, A. 2010 Rethinking the nature of fascism: comparative perspectives. Costa Pinto, A. (ed.). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, p. 227-269 43 p.

Research output: Contribution in Book/Report/ProceedingsChapter (peer-reviewed)

Fascism and the Jews: from the internationalization of fascism to a 'fascist anti-Semitism'

Kallis, A. 2010 In: Holocaust Studies. 15, 1-2, p. 15-34 20 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article

Neither fascist nor authoritarian: The 4th of August regime in Greece (1936-1941) and the dynamics of fascistisation in 1930s Europe

Kallis, A. 1/12/2010 In: East Central Europe. 37, 2-3, p. 303-330 28 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article


Nazi propaganda decision-making: the hybrid of ‘modernity’ and ‘neo-feudalism’ in Nazi wartime propaganda

Kallis, A. 2009 In: Portuguese Journal of Social Science. 8, 2, p. 61-84 24 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article

Genocide and Fascism: The Eliminationist Drive in Fascist Europe

Kallis, A. 2009 New York: Routledge. 426 p.

Research output: Book/Report/ProceedingsBook


Nazi Propoganda and the Second World War.

Kallis, A. A. 2007 Palgrave-Macmillan. 1 p.

Research output: Book/Report/ProceedingsBook


Too many facscisms?

Kallis, A. A. 2006 Fascism past and present, west and east.. Griffin, R., Loh, W. & Umland, A. (eds.). Stuttgart: ibidem-Verlag, p. 136-140 5 p.

Research output: Contribution in Book/Report/ProceedingsChapter

Racial politics and biomedical totalitarianism in interwar Europe.

Kallis, A. A. 2006 Blood and homeland: eugenics and racial nationalism in Central and Eastern Europe, 1900-1940.. Turda, M. & Weindling, P. J. (eds.). Budapest: CEU Press, p. 389-416 28 p.

Research output: Contribution in Book/Report/ProceedingsChapter

Perversions of Nationalism in modern Europe.

Kallis, A. A. 2006 Nationalism in historical perspective.. Herb, G. H. (ed.). New York: Praeger, p. 131-149 19 p.

Research output: Contribution in Book/Report/ProceedingsChapter

National socialist propaganda and World War II (1939-1945).

Kallis, A. A. 2006 Basingstoke: Palgrave.

Research output: Book/Report/ProceedingsBook

Fascism 'charisma' and 'charismatisation': Weber's model of 'charismatic domination' and interwar European fascism.

Kallis, A. A. 2006 In: Totalitarian Movements and Political Religions. 7, 1, p. 25-43 19 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article

The Jewish Community of Salonica under Siege: The Antisemitic Violence of the Summer of 1931.

Kallis, A. A. 1/04/2006 In: Holocaust and Genocide Studies. 20, 1, p. 34-56 23 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article


Nazi propaganda in the Second World War.

Kallis, A. 12/2005 Palgrave

Research output: Working paperOther


Totalitarianism and totalitarian dictatorship in the twentieth century.

Kallis, A. A. 2004 History in dispute. de Quenoy, P. (ed.). St Martin's Press, Vol. 16, (Twentieth-century European social and political movements. First series)

Research output: Contribution in Book/Report/ProceedingsChapter


To Expand or Not to Expand? Territory, Generic Fascism and the Quest for an "Ideal Fatherland".

Kallis, A. A. 1/04/2003 In: Journal of Contemporary History. 38, 2, p. 238-60 179 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article

"Fascism", "Para-fascism" and "Fascistization": On the Similarities of Three Conceptual Categories.

Kallis, A. A. 1/04/2003 In: European History Quarterly. 33, 2, p. 219-50 170 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article

The facism reader.

Kallis, A. A. 2003 London: Routledge.

Research output: Book/Report/ProceedingsBook

History, education and the construction of a common European citizenship.

Kallis, A. A. 2003 Political learning and citizenship in Europe. Roland-Levy, C. & Ross, A. (eds.). London: Trentham Books, p. 45-67 23 p.

Research output: Contribution in Book/Report/ProceedingsChapter

  • The century of genocide

    01/09/2006 → 31/12/2007
    This is a web project funded by the Lancaster University Alumni Fund. The purpose of the project is to showcase the work of students who took the course 'Genocide in 20th-century Europe' (Department o ... Read more»

Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences

| Home | About | Undergraduate | Postgraduate | Staff |
| Research | Regional Heritage Centre | News and Events | Contact Us |
Department of History, Bowland College, Lancaster University, LA1 4YT, UK | Tel: +44 (0) 1524 593155 Fax: +44 (0) 1524 846102 E-mail:
Privacy and Cookies Notice

Save this page: delicious logo Digg It Reddit Reddit Facebook Stumble It Stumble It!