First View

IDEOLOGY IN THE MULTIMODAL DISCOURSE OF TELEVISION DOCUMENTARIES ON IRISH TRAVELLERS’ AND GYPSIES’ COMMUNITIES IN THE UK

Roberta Piazza

Download Full Text

  • Relying upon a Critical Discourse Analysis approach to the media, this paper explores the way in which, in a sample of documentaries broadcast on public and commercial television, the minority community of travellers and gypsies is represented. Starting from the premise that what is reported in factual films of this type is always a mediated and interpreted vision of reality, the paper highlights different aspects of the film narrative from the voice of the main narrator who orchestrates the various segments in the films, to the questions asked by the reporter. A brief mention of the images at the opening of the films completes the analysis and indicates that in some cases, rather than divulging information about these barely known groups, journalists produce a film that entertains and/or shocks the viewers.
    1. Anderson, D. and Burns, J. (1991). Paying attention to television. In J. Bryant and D. Zillmann (eds.), Responding to the Screen: Reception and Reaction Processes. Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum. pp. 3-25.
    2. Baym, G. (2000). Constructing moral authority: We in the discourse of television news. Western Journal of Communication 64(1), 92-111.
    3. Bhatia, A. (2015). Discursive Illusions in Public Discourse. London: Routledge
    4. Blommaert, J. (2005). Discourse: A Critical Introduction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    5. Boudana, S. (2015) Impartiality is not fair: Toward an alternative approach to the evaluation of content bias in news stories. Journalism, 17(5), 600 – 618.
    6. Bubel, C. (2008). Film audiences as overhearers. Journal of Pragmatics 40(1): 55-71.
    7. Bruzzi, S. (2000). A New Documentary: A Critical Introduction. London &New York: Routledge.
    8. Calzada-Pérez, M. (1998). Studying prejudices: An ideological approach to Alan Bennett’s Bed among the Lentils. Text-Interdisciplinary Journal for the Study of Discourse 18(1): 39-66.
    9. Chapman, S. (2011). Pragmatics. Houndmills, Basingstoke: Palgrave McMillan
    10. Clayman, S.  (1992). Footing in the achievement of neutrality: The case of news interview discourse. In Drew, P. and J. Heritage (eds.) Talk at Work: Interaction in Institutional Settings. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. pp. 163-198.
    11. Clayman, S. (1993). Reformulating the question: A device for answering/not answering questions in news interviews and press conferences. Text-Interdisciplinary Journal for the Study of Discourse 13(2): 159-188.
    12. Corner, J. (2002). Performing the real: Documentary diversions. Television & New Media, 3(3): 255-69.
    13. Dahlgren, P. (1988). What’s the meaning of this? Viewers’ plural sense-making of TV news. Media, Culture and Society 10: 285-301.
    14. Equality and Human Rights Commission (March 2016). England’s most disadvantaged groups: Gypsies, Travellers and Roma. An Is England Fairer review spotlight (pdf available on line)
    15. Emmertsen, S. (2007). Interviewers’ challenging questions in British broadcast debate interviews. Journal of Pragmatics 39(3): 570-591.
    16. Fairclough, N. (1995). Critical Discourse Analysis. Harlow: Pearson
    17. Gaber, I. (2016) Book review of Piazza, R., Haarman, H. and A. Caborn (eds), Values and Choices in Television Discourse: A View from Both Sides of the Screen. Journal of British Cinema and Television, 13(4), 637-639.
    18. Gabrielatos, C. and P. Baker (2008). Fleeing, Sneaking, Flooding.A Corpus Analysis of Discursive Constructions of Refugees and Asylum Seekers in the UK Press, 1996-2005 Journal of English Linguistics  36(1): 5-38.
    19. Goffman, E. (1986) Frame Analysis. Boston: Northeastern.
    20. Heritage, J. and D. Greatbatch (1989). On the institutional character of institutional talk: The case of news interviews. Discourse in Professional and Everyday Culture. Linko ping, Department of Communication Studies, University of Linko ping, Sweden pp. 47-98.
    21. Holloway, S. (2005). Articulating Otherness? White rural residents talk about Gypsy-Travellers Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 30: 351-367.
    22. Jaworski, A. and J. Coupland (2005). Othering in gossip: ‘you go out and have a laugh and you pull yeah okay but like…’. Language in Society 34(5): 667-694.
    23. Kabachnik, P. (2009). To choose, fix, or ignore culture? The cultural politics of Gypsy and Traveler mobility in England Social and Cultural Geography 10(4): 461-479.
    24. Kress, G. and T. van Leeuwen (1996). Reading Images. London & New York: Routledge.
    25. Labov, W. and Waletzky, J. (1967). Narrative analysis: Oral versions of personal experience. In J. Helm (ed.), Essays on the Visual and Verbal Arts. Seattle, WA: Washington University Press. pp.12-44.
    26. Lichtenstein, O. (2015). Documentary-making: A commercial and public broadcaster perspective. In R. Piazza, L. Haarman and A. Caborn (eds.), Values and Choices in Television Discourse. Houndmills, Basingstoke: Palgrave McMillan, pp. 216-222.
    27. Martin, J. and P. White (2005). The Language of Evaluation. Appraisal in English. Houndmills, Basingstoke: Palgrave MacMillan.
    28. Montgomery, M. (2007). The Discourse of Broadcast News. London: Routledge.
    29. Mueller, F. and V. Crone (2015). The reel claiming the real: An actor network approach to understanding the achievement and management of documentary authority and authenticity. Journal of Applied Journalism & Media Studies 4(2): 293-308.
    30. Nichols, B. (2001). Introduction to Documentary. Bloomington/Indianapolis, IN: Indiana University Press.
    31. Oxburgh, G. Myklebust, T. and T. Grant (2010). The question of question types in police interviews: A review of the literature from a psychological and linguistic perspective. The International Journal of Speech, Language and the Law 17(1): 45-66.
    32. Piazza, R. Bednarek, M. and F. Rossi (eds.) (2015). Telecinematic Discourse. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: Benjamin.
    33. Petruck , M. (1996). Frame semantics. In J. Verschueren, J. Östman, J. Blommaert and C. Bulcaen (eds.), Handbook of Pragmatics. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins, pp. 1-13.
    34. Piazza, R. and L. Haarman (2016). A pragmatic cognitive model for the interpretation of verbal-visual communication in television news programmes. Visual Communication 15(4): 461-486.
    35. Pollak, A. (2008). Analyzing TV documentaries. In R. Wodak and M. Krzyzanowski (eds.), Qualitative Discourse Analysis in the Social Sciences.  Houndsmill Basingstoke: Palgrave McMillan. pp. 77- 95.
    36. Poole, E. (2002). Reporting Islam: Media Representations of British Muslims. London &New York: I.B.Tauris.
    37. Powell, R. (2008). Understanding the stigmatization of Gypsies: Power and the dialectics of (dis)identification. Housing, Theory and Society 25(2): 87–109.
    38. Reisigl, M. and R. Wodak (2001). Discourse and Discrimination: Rhetorics of Racism and Anti-Semitism. London: Routledge.
    39. Riggins, S. (1997). The rhetoric of othering. In S. Riggins (ed.), The Language and Politics of Exclusion: Others in Discourse. Thousands Oakks, CA: Sage. pp. 1-30.
    40. Routt, W. (1991). The truth of the documentary. Continuum: The Australian Journal of Media and Culture 5(1): 65-66.
    41. Sacks. H (1992). Lectures on Conversation Volume I & II. Oxford: Blackwell.
    42. Sarangi, S. (2003). Institutional, professional, and lifeworld frames in interview talk. In H. van den Berg et al. (eds.), Analyzing Race Talk: Multidisciplinary Approaches to the Interview. Cambridge: CUP pp. 64-84.
    43. Sarangi, S. and C. Candlin (2003). Categorization and explanation of risk: A discourse analytical perspective. Health, Risk& Policy 5(2): 115-24.
    44. Scannell, P. (1996). Radio, Television and Modern Life. London: Sage.
    45. Scott, M., 2004, WordSmith Tools version 4, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    46. Sedlak, M. (2000). ‘You really do make an unrespectable foreign policy.’ In R. Wodak and T.Van Dijk (eds.), Racism at the Top: Parliamentary Discourses on Ethnic Issues in Six European States. Klagenfurt, Austria: Drava-Verlag. pp. 107-168.
    47. Sinclair, J. (1991). Corpus, Concordance, Collocation. Oxford: OUP.
    48. Smith, P. (2013). Heroic endeavours: flying high in New Zealand reality television. In N. Lorenzo-Dus and P. Garcés-Conejos Blitvich (eds.), Real Talk. Houndmills, Basingstoke & New York: Palgrave McMillan pp.140- 165.
    49. Sperber, D. and D. Wilson (1995). Relevance: Communication and Cognition. Oxford/Cambridge: Blackwell Publishers.
    50. Tannen, D. (1979). What’s in a frame? Surface evidence for underlying expectations. In R. Freedle (ed.), New Directions in Discourse Processing. Norwood: Ablex. pp. 137-181.
    51. Tannen, D. (ed.) (1993). Framing in Discourse. Oxford: OUP.
    52. Tannen, D. and Wallat, C. (1987). Interactive frames and knowledge schemes in interaction: Examples from a medical examination/interview. Social Psychology Quarterly 50(2), 205-216.
    53. Thussu, D. K. (2008). News as entertainment: The rise of global infotainment. London: Sage.
    54. Van Dijk, T. (2000). New(s) racism: A discourse analytical approach. In S. Cottle (ed.),  Ethnic Minorities and the Media. Milton Keynes, UK: Open University Press. pp. 33-49.
    55. Van Dijk, T. (2005). Contextual knowledge management in discourse production. In R. Wodak and P. Chilton (eds.), A New Agenda in (Critical) Discourse Analysis. Amsterdam and Philadelphia, PA: John Benjamins. pp. 71-100.
    56. Van Dijk, T. (2006a). Discourse and manipulation. Discourse & Society 17(3), 359-383.
    57. Van Dijk, T. (2006b). Ideology and discourse analysis. Journal of Political Ideologies 11(2), 115-140.
    58. Van Leeuwen, T. (1991). Conjunctive structure in documentary film and television. Continuum: Journal of Media & Cultural Studies 5(1): 76-114.
    59. Van Leeuwen, T. (2008). Discourse and Practice. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    60. Walsh, M. (2010). Gypsy Boy London: Hodden & Stoughton
    61. Wiggin, A. and C. Miller (2003). ‘Uncle Sam Wants You!’ Exploring verbal-visual juxtapositions in television advertising. In L. Scott and R. Batra (eds.), Persuasive Imagery. A Consumer Perspective. Mahwah, NJ/London: Lawrence Erlbaum.


FEAR APPEAL CONSTRUCTION IN THE DAILY MAIL ONLINE: A CRITICAL DISCOURSE ANALYSIS OF ‘PRIME MINISTER CORBYN AND THE 100 0 DAYS THAT DESTROYED BRITAIN

Andrew Panay

Download Full Text

  • The rhetorical fear appeal is a technique of political communication that seeks to elicit an emotional response in receivers with the intention of provoking them to political action desired by the rhetor. This paper examines a single example of fear appeal construction in the British press, the Mail Online’s ‘Prime Minister Corbyn and the 1000 days that Destroyed Britain’ (2015), through analysis of its use of two defining political myths, a conservative myth of declinism, and the utopia/anti-utopia binary myth. I firstly examine the origins and contemporary uses of fear appeals as techniques of political persuasion, before going on to examine how these are constructed. I then go on to analyse the Mail Online article’s use of these two powerful political myths, one, declinism, which I argue is utilised descriptively for the purposes of discourse construction, and the other, utopia/anti-utopia, which is utilised instructively.  Finally, I propose a method of analysis combining recent approaches to the critical discourse analysis of myth with the cognitive-motivational-relational theory of emotion drawn from social psychology, in order to show how the Mail Online article is constructed as a discursive fear appeal.
    1. Baccolini, R. and M. Moylan (eds.) (2003). Dark Horizons: Science Fiction and the Dystopian Imagination. London: Routledge.
    2. Bennett, A. (2016). ‘EU referendum: a timeline of Remains’ ‘Project Fear’ campaign.’ The Telegraph, June 20th.
    3. Black, L and H. Pemberton (2013). The benighted decade? Reassessing the 1970s. In L. Black, H. Pemberton and P. Thane (eds.), Reassessing 1970’s Britain. Manchester: Manchester University Press. pp 3-25.
    4. Bottici, C. and B. Challand (2006). Rethinking political myth: The clash of civilisations as a self-fulfilling prophecy. European Journal of Social Theory 9 (3): 315-336.
    5. Charteris-Black, J. (2014). Analysing Political Speeches: Rhetoric, Discourse and Metaphor. London: Palgrave-Macmillan.
    6. Charteris-Black, J. (2005). Politicians and Rhetoric: The Persuasive Power of Metaphor. London Palgrave-Macmillan.
    7. Conboy, M. (2005). Tabloid Britain. London: Routledge.
    8. Conway, M., Grabe, M. E. and K. Grieves (2007). Villains, victims and the virtuous in Bill O’Reilly’s ‘No-Spin Zone’. Journalism Studies 8 (2): 197-223.
    9. De Castella, K., McGarty, C. and L. Musgrove (2009). Fear appeals in political rhetoric about terrorism: An analysis of speeches by Australian Prime Minister Howard. Political Psychology 30 (1): 1-26.
    10. Eccleshall, R. (1984). Conservatism. In R. Eccleshall et al (eds.), Political Ideologies: An Introduction. London: Routledge. pp. 60-91.
    11. Fairclough, I. and N. Fairclough (2012). Political Discourse Analysis. London: Routledge.
    12. Fairclough, N. (2003). Analysing Discourse: Textual Analysis for Social Research. London: Routledge.
    13. Flood, C. (2002). Political Myth. London: Routledge.
    14. Gordon, T. (2014). ‘I admit it: The man who coined project fear label.’ Herald Scotland, 21st December.
    15. Green, C. (2014). ‘Scottish independence: BBC Scotland’s referendum coverage “institutionally biased”, Alex Salmond claims.’ The Independent Online, 14th September.
    16. Gunter, J. (2015). ‘Tory theme of Corbyn’s “threat to national security” draws criticism.’ The Guardian.com, September 13.
    17. Harris, S.A. (2015). ‘Alex Salmond insists BBC bias affected outcome of Scottish Independence Referendum.’ The Huffington Post UK, 18th September.
    18. Hay, C. (2010). Chronicles of a death foretold: The winter of discontent and construction of the crisis of British Keynesianism. Parliamentary Affairs 63 (3): 446-470.
    19. Kelsey, D. (2012). Remembering to forget: Supporting and opposing the war on terror through the myth of the Blitz Spirit after the July 7th Bombings. Critical Approaches to Discourse Analysis Across Disciplines 6 (1): 23-37.
    20. Kelsey, D. (2015). Media, Myth and Terrorism. London: Palgrave-Macmillan.
    21. Kelsey, D. (2016). Hero mythology and right-wing populism. Journalism Studies 17 (8): 1-17.
    22. Kelsey, D. (2013). Myths, Monarchs and Prime Ministers: ‘Blitz Spirit’ discourses of royalty and Tony Blair in British newspaper responses to the July 7th bombings. JOMEC Journal 1 (3): 1-17.
    23. Kumar, K. (1987). Utopia and Anti-Utopia in Modern Times. London: Blackwell.
    24. Lazarus, R. (1994). Emotion and Adaptation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    25. Lule, J. (2001). Daily News, Eternal Stories: The Mythological Role of Journalism. New York: The Guildford Press.
    26. McAlear, R. (2010). The value of fear: Toward a rhetorical model of dystopia. Interdisciplinary Humanities 27 (2): 24-42.
    27. Middleton, R. (2013). Brittan on Britain: Decline, declinism and the ‘traumas of the 1970s’. In L. Black et al (eds.), Reassessing 1970’s Britain. Manchester: Manchester University Press. pp 123-147.
    28. Moylan, T. (2000). Scraps of the Untainted Sky: Science Fiction, Utopia, Dystopia. New York: Westview Press.
    29. Pfau, M. W. (2007). Who’s afraid of fear appeals? Philosophy and Rhetoric 40 (2): 216-237.
    30. Richardson, J. E. (2007). Analysing Newspapers: An Approach from Critical Discourse Analysis. London: Palgrave Macmillan.
    31. Sargent, L. T. (2010). Utopianism: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    32. Sargisson, L. (2007). The curious relationship between politics and utopia. In T. Moylan and R. Baccolini (eds.), Utopia Method Vision: The Use Value of Social Dreaming. London: Verlag Peter Lang. pp. 26-45.
    33. Taylor, F. (2003). Munitions of the Mind: A History of Propaganda from the Ancient World to the Present Day. Manchester: Manchester University Press.
    34. Thomas, D. (2015). ‘Prime Minister Corbyn and the 1000 days that destroyed Britain.’ The Mail Online, 23rd August. 
    35. Tomlinson, J. (2000). The Politics of Decline: Understanding Post War Britain. London: Longman.
    36. Tomlinson, J. (2013). The politics of declinism. In L. Black et al (eds.), Reassessing 1970s Britain. Manchester: Manchester University Press. pp 47-61.
    37. Wodak, R. and M. Krzyzanowski (eds.) (2008). Qualitative Discourse Analysis in the Social Sciences. London: Palgrave Macmillan.
    38. Wodak, R. (ed.) (2016). Methods of Critical Discourse Analysis. London: Sage.
    39. Wright, O. (2016). ‘Michael Gove accused of “desperate” and “hypocritical” scaremongering over migration in EU debate.’ Independent Online, 20th May.
    40. Van Dijk, T. (2008). Discourse and Power. London: Palgrave-Macmillan.


 

MURDERERS, MOONWALKERS AND MARKETS: A CORPUS BASED CRITICAL DISCOURSE ANALYSIS OF THE INTERNATIONAL BACCALAUREATE (IB) IN CANADIAN NEWSPAPERS

Saira Fitzgerald

Download Full Text

  • This paper examines the discursive construction of the International Baccalaureate (IB) in a 1.5 million word corpus of Canadian newspapers to see how different discourses not only reflect public perceptions but also shape them. The study combines corpus-driven and corpus-based methods together with critical discourse analysis to identify patterns of language that work to build up ‘notions of typicality’ (Hardt-Mautner 1995) in discourses surrounding the IB. Collocational and concordance analysis reveal a positive discourse prosody (Stubbs 2001) with underlying ideas of quality and morality. These values and attitudes, indicative of wider public opinion (majority discourse), have real world implications in terms of advantaging one group while disadvantaging another.
    1. Brindle, A. (2016). A corpus analysis of discursive constructions of the Sunflower Student Movement in the English-language Taiwan press. Discourse and Society 27(1): 3-19.
    2. Central News Agency. (n.d.) About us. Retrieved Sep. 20, 2016 from http://www.cna.com.tw/about/info.aspx
    3. Chen, Y-M. (2009). Quotation as a key to the investigation of ideological manipulation in news trans-editing in the Taiwan press. TTR: traduction, terminologie, redaction 22(2): 203-238.
    4. Fang, Y. J. (1994). ‘Riots’ and demonstrations in the Chinese press: A case study of language and ideology. Discourse & Society 5(4): 463-481.
    5. Fang, Y. J. (2001). Reporting the same events? A critical analysis of Chinese print news media texts. Discourse & Society 12(5): 585-613.
    6. Feng, M., Brewer, P. R. and B. L. Ley (2012). Framing the Chinese baby formula scandal: A comparative analysis of US and Chinese news coverage. Asian Journal of Communication 22(3): 253-269.
    7. Flowerdew, J., Li, D. C. and S. Tran (2002). Discriminatory news discourse: Some Hong Kong data. Discourse & Society 13(3): 319-345.
    8. Hisao, H-C. (2006). Media and social movement: From Wild Strawberry to Sun Flower. Journal of Communication Research and Practice 6(1): 151-167.
    9. Hsiao, Y-C. (2006). Changes in demographic characteristics and political attitudes of newspaper readers in Taiwan: 1992~2004. Taiwan Foundation for Democracy 4(3): 37-70.
    10. Kuo, S. H. (2007). Language as ideology: Analyzing quotations in Taiwanese news discourse. Journal of Asian Pacific Communication 17(2): 281-301.
    11. Kuo, S. H. and M. Nakamura (2005). Translation or transformation? A case study of language and ideology in the Taiwanese press. Discourse & Society 16(3): 393-417.
    12. Merriam-Webster’s Online Dictionary. (n.d.). Retrieved April 9, 2016, from http://www.merriam-webster.com/
    13. Milosevic, M., Chishlom, J., Kilman, L. and T. Henriksson (2014). World Press Trends 2014. Paris, France: WAN-IFRA.
    14. Ministry of Education, Taiwan. (2015). The revised Chinese dictionary. Retrieved Sep 20, 2016 from http://dict.revised.moe.edu.tw/cbdic/index.html
    15. Romberg, A. D. (2014). Sunshine heats up Taiwan politics, affects PRC tactics. China Leadership Monitor 44(2): 1-20.
    16. Scollon, R. and S. Scollon (1997). Point of view and citation: Fourteen Chinese and English versions of the ‘same’ news story. Text-Interdisciplinary Journal for the Study of Discourse 17(1): 83-126.
    17. Teo, P. (2000). Racism in the news: A critical discourse analysis of news reporting in two Australian newspapers. Discourse & Society 11(1): 7-49.
    18. Tranchese, A., and S. A. Zollo (2013). The construction of gender-based violence in the British printed and broadcast media. Critical Approaches to Discourse Analysis across Disciplines 7(1): 141-163.
    19. Van Dijk, T. A. (1998). Ideology: A Multidisciplinary Approach. London: Sage.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
    20. Yang, J. (2003). Framing the NATO air strikes on Kosovo across countries comparison of Chinese and US newspaper coverage. Gazette 65(3): 231-249.
    21. Yuen, S. (2014). Under the shadow of China: Beijing’s policy towards Hong Kong and Taiwan in comparative perspective. China Perspectives; Wanchai 2: 69-76.


HIDDEN MESSAGES IN NEWS: A COMPARISON OF ENGLISH-LANGUAGE AND CHINESE-LANGUAGE NEWSPAPERS THAT REPORT SUNFLOWER STUDENT MOVEMENT IN TAIWAN

Chih-Hai Chiao and Ju Chuan Huang

Download Full Text

  • This study compared the ideologies of U.S. newspapers and Taiwanese newspapers by examining how they reported the Sunflower Student Movement (SSM) in Taiwan. Twenty-seven news reports were selected from New York Times, United Daily News (Taiwanese newspaper written in Chinese), and Focus Taiwan (Taiwanese newspaper written in English). The results showed that the three newspapers framed the event differently. The New York Times reported the SSM from a distanced viewpoint, whereas the United Daily News was explicitly partial to the government by dramatizing the damage and condemning the violence in the occupation. In contrast with the other two newspapers, Focus Taiwan seemed implicitly biased toward the government by highlighting the conflicts in the movement while trying to report the event relatively plainly. Through critical discourse analysis, this study highlights how newspapers reconstructed the event differently with underlying ideologies.
    1. Anthony, L. (2013). A critical look at software tools in corpus linguistics. Linguistic Research 30(2): 141-161.
    2. Anthony, L. (2014). AntConc (Version 3.4.3) [Computer Software]. Tokyo, Japan: Waseda University. Available from http://www.laurenceanthony.net/
    3. Bagnall, N. F. (1994). The International Baccalaureate in Australia and Canada: 1980-1993 (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Melbourne.
    4. Bagnall, N. F. (2010). Education without Borders: Forty years of the International Baccalaureate, 1970-2010. Saarbrucken: VDM Verlag Dr Muller.
    5. Baker, P. (2005). Public Discourses of Gay Men. London: Routledge.
    6. Baker, P. (2006). Using Corpora in Discourse Analysis. London, UK: Continuum.
    7. Baker, P. (2010). Sociolinguistics and Corpus Linguistics. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
    8. Baker, P. (2013). From gay language to normative discourse: A diachronic corpus analysis of Lavender Linguistics conference abstracts 1994-2012. Journal of Language and Sexuality 2(2): 179-205.
    9. Baker, P. (2014). ‘Bad wigs and screaming mimis’: Using corpus-assisted techniques to carry out critical discourse analysis of the representation of Trans people in the British press. In C. Hart and P. Cap (eds.), Contemporary Critical Discourse Studies. London, UK: Bloomsbury. pp. 211-235.
    10. Baker, P. (2015). Does Britain need any more foreign doctors? Inter-analyst consistency and corpus-assisted (critical) discourse analysis. In N. Groom, M. Charles, and S. John (eds.), Corpora, Grammar and Discourse: In Honour of Susan Hunston. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. pp. 283-300.
    11. Baker, P. (2016). The shapes of collocation. International Journal of Corpus Linguistics 21(2): 139-164.
    12. Baker, P., Gabrielatos, C., KhosraviNik, M., Krzyżanowski, M., McEnery, T., and R. Wodak (2008). A useful methodological synergy? Combining critical discourse analysis and corpus linguistics to examine discourses of refugees and asylum seekers in the UK press. Discourse & Society 19(3): 273-306.
    13. Baker, P., Gabrielatos, C., and T. McEnery (2013a). Sketching Muslims: A corpus driven analysis of representations around the word “Muslim” in the British press 1998-2009. Applied Linguistics 34(3): 255-278.
    14. Baker, P., Gabrielatos, C., and T. McEnery (2013b). Discourse Analysis and Media Attitudes: The Representation of Islam in the British Press. New York: Cambridge University Press.
    15. Baker, P., Hardie, A., and T. McEnery (2006). A Glossary of Corpus Linguistics. Edinburgh University Press.
    16. Baker, P., and E. Levon (2015). Picking the right cherries? A comparison of corpus-based and qualitative analyses of news articles about masculinity. Discourse & Communication 9(2): 1-16.
    17. Baker, P., and E. Levon (2016). ‘That’s what I call a man’: Representations of racialised and classed masculinities in the UK print media. Gender and Language 10(1): 106-139.
    18. Baker, P., and T. McEnery (2005). A corpus-based approach to discourses of refugees and asylum seekers in UN and newspaper texts. Journal of Language and Politics 4(2): 197-226.
    19. Baker, P., and T. McEnery (2014). ‘Find the doctors of death’: Press representation of foreign doctors working in the NHS, a corpus-based approach. In A. Jaworski and N. Coupland (eds.), The Discourse Reader (3rd edn.). New York, NY: Routledge. pp. 465-480.
    20. Baker, P., and T. McEnery (eds.) (2015). Corpora and Discourse Studies: Integrating Discourse and Corpora. New York, NY: Palgrave, Macmillan.
    21. Baker, W. (2014). ‘Curricular choice’ in Ontario public secondary schools: Exploring the policy and practice of the International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme (Unpublished master’s thesis). The University of Western Ontario.
    22. Baluja, T., and K. Hammer (2012, September 6). From $3,000 to zero, fees vary wildly for prestigious high-school program. The Globe and Mail. Retrieved from http://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/national/education/from-3000-to-zero-fees-vary-wildly-for-prestigious-high-school-program/article4255400/
    23. Blackburn, R. (1991). The International Baccalaureate: A curriculum at upper secondary level and a university entrance examination. In P. Jonietz and D. Harris (eds.), World Yearbook of Education 1991: International Schools and International Education. London: Kogan Page. pp. 6-14.
    24. Bunnell, T. (2011). The International Baccalaureate in the United States: From Relative inactivity to imbalance. The Educational Forum 75: 66-79.
    25. Bunnell, T. (2012). Global Education under Attack: International Baccalaureate in America. Frankfurt: Peter Lang.
    26. Cambridge, J. (2002). Global product branding and international education. Journal of Research in International Education 1(2): 227-243.
    27. Coates, H., Rosicka, C., and M. MacMahon-Ball (2007). Perceptions of the International Baccalaureate DiplomaProgramme among Australian and New Zealand Universities. Retrieved from  http://www.ibo.org/en/about-the-ib/research/programme-impact-research/diploma-studies/
    28. Daly, K. (2012). An exploration of Virginia law on recognition, university officials, and perceptions of the International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme (Unpublished PhD thesis). George Mason University, USA.
    29. Davis, M. (2015). The Corpus of Contemporary American English (COCA): 520 million words, 1990-2015. Available at http://corpus.byu.edu/coca/
    30. Doherty, C. (2009). The appeal of the International Baccalaureate in Australia’s educational market: A curriculum of choice for mobile futures. Discourse: Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education 30(1): 73-89.
    31. Firth, J. R. (1957). Papers in Linguistics 1934-1951. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    32. Fitzgerald, S. (2015). Perceptions of the International Baccalaureate (IB) in Ontario universities. Canadian Journal of Education 38(3): 1-34.
    33. Fitzgerald, S. (in press). Perceptions of the International Baccalaureate (IB) in Canadian universities. Canadian Journal of Higher Education.
    34. Gabrielatos, C., and P. Baker (2008). Fleeing, sneaking, flooding: A corpus analysis of discursive constructions of refugees and asylum seekers in the UK Press, 1996-2005. Journal of English Linguistics 36(1): 5-38.
    35. Hahn, A. M. (2003). The intersection of language, power and international education: A critical discourse analysis of the International Baccalaureate Organization (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Columbia University.
    36. Hardt-Mautner, G. (1995). ‘Only connect.’ Critical discourse analysis and corpus linguistics. Retrieved from http://ucrel.lancs.ac.uk/papers/techpaper/vol6.pdf
    37. Hoey, M. (2005). Lexical Priming: A New Theory of Words and Language. London: Routledge.
    38. Hunston, S. (2002). Corpora in Applied Linguistics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    39. Hunston, S. (2004). Counting the uncountable: Problem of identifying evaluation in a text and in a corpus. In A. Partington, J. Morley and L. Haarman (eds.), Corpora and Discourse. Bern: Peter Lang. pp. 157-188.
    40. International Baccalaureate Organization. (2014). Myth and Facts about the International Baccalaureate. Retrieved from http://www.midwestibschools.org/Countering_IB_Myths_in_Your_School_Community_2014.pdf
    41. International Baccalaureate Organization. (2016). Juggling the IB and OSSD. Retrieved from http://www.ibo.org/about-the-ib/the-ib-by-region/ib-americas/americas-regional-conference/2016-americas-conference/
    42. International Baccalaureate Organization. (2017). Mission. Retrieved from http://www.ibo.org/about-the-ib/mission/
    43. Jenkins, C. (2003). Perceptions of the IB Diploma Programme. Retrieved from http://www.ibo.org/en/about-the-ib/research/programme-impact-research/diploma-studies/
    44. KhosraviNik, M. (2010). The representation of refugees, asylum seekers and immigrants in British newspapers: A critical discourse analysis. Journal of Language and Politics 9(1): 1-28.
    45. Louw, B. (1993). Irony in the text or insincerity in the writer? The diagnostic potential of semantic prosodies. In M. Baker, G. Francis and E. Tognini-Bonelli (eds.), Text and Technology: In Honour of John Sinclair. Amsterdam: John Benjamns. pp. 157-176.
    46. Marchi, A., and C. Taylor (2009). If on a winter’s night two researchers…A challenge to assumptions of soundness of interpretation. Critical Approaches to Discourse Analysis across Disciplines 3(1): 1-20.
    47. Mautner, G. (2007). Mining large corpora for social information: The case of elderly. Language in Society 36: 51-72.
    48. Mautner, G. (2008). Analyzing newspapers, magazines and other print media. In R. Wodak and M. Krzyżanowski (eds.), Qualitative Discourse Analysis in the Social Sciences. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 30-53.
    49. Mautner, G. (2009a). Corpora and critical discourse analysis. In P. Baker (ed.), Contemporary Corpus Linguistics. London: Continuum. pp. 32-46.
    50. Mautner, G. (2009b). Checks and balances: How corpus linguistics can contribute to CDA. In R. Wodak and M. Meyer (eds.), Methods of Critical Discourse Analysis (2nd edn.). London, UK: Sage. pp. 122-143.
    51. McEnery, T., and A. Hardie (2012). Corpus Linguistics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    52. O’Halloran, K., and C. Coffin (2004). Checking overinterpretation and underinterpretation: Help from corpora in critical linguistics. In C. Coffin, A. Hewings and K. O’Halloran (eds.), Applying English Grammar: Functional and Corpus Approaches. London, UK: Hodder Arnold. pp. 275-297.
    53. Paris, P. G. (2003). The International Baccalaureate: A Case Study on why students choose to do the IB. International Education Journal 4(3): 232-243.
    54. Partington, A. (2004). ‘Utterly content in each other’s company’: Semantic prosody and semantic preference. International Journal of Corpus Linguistics 9(1): 131-156.
    55. Partington, A. (2015). Corpus-assisted comparative case studies of representations of the Arab world. In P. Baker and T. McEnery (eds.), Corpora and Discourse Studies: Integrating Discourse and Corpora. New York, NY: Palgrave, Macmillan. pp. 220-243.
    56. Resnik, J. (2012). The denationalization of education and the expansion of the International Baccalaureate. Comparative Education Review 56(2): 248-269.
    57. Seal, C. (2003). Methodology versus scholarship? Overcoming the divide in analysing identity narratives of people with cancer. Journal of Language and Politics 2(2): 289-309.
    58. Sinclair, J. (1991). Corpus, Concordance, Collocation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    59. Stubbs, M. (1996). Text and Corpus Analysis: Computer-Assisted Studies of Language and Culture. Oxford: Blackwell.
    60. Stubbs, M. (2001). Words and Phrases: Corpus Studies of Lexical Semantics. Oxford: Blackwell.
    61. Tarc, P. (2007). What is the “international” of the International Baccalaureate? Towards a periodization of IB in the world (Unpublished PhD thesis). York University, Toronto.
    62. Tarc, P. (2009). Global Dreams, Enduring Tensions: International Baccalaureate Program in a Changing World. New York: Peter Lang.
    63. Tarc, P., and L. Beatty (2012). The emergence of the International Baccalaureate Diploma in Ontario: Diffusion, pilot study and prospective research. Canadian Journal of Education 35(4): 341-375.
    64. Tarver, E. T. (2010). University admissions officers’ perceptions of student performance within the International Baccalaureate Diploma Program (Unpublished PhD thesis). Louisiana State University.
    65. Tognini-Bonelli, E. (2004). Working with corpora: Issues and insights. In C. Coffin, A. Hewings and K. O’Halloran (eds.), Applying English Grammar: Functional and Corpus Approaches. London, UK: Hodder Arnold. pp. 11-24.
    66. van Leeuwen, T. (1996). The representation of social actors. In C. R. Caldas-Coulthard and M. Coulthard (eds.), Texts and Practices: Readings in Critical Discourse Analysis. New York, NY: Routledge. pp. 32-70.
    67. Whitehead, K. (2005). Advertising advantage. The International Baccalaureate, social justice and the marketisation of schooling. Paper presented at the Australian Association for Research in Education Annual Conference, University of Western Sydney, Parramatta. Retrieved from http://www.aare.edu.au/05pap/whi05426.pdf
    68. Wodak, R. (ed.) (2013). Critical Discourse Analysis, Volume 1: Concepts, History, Theory. Los Angeles, CA: Sage.
    69. Wodak, R., and M. Meyer (eds.) (2016). Methods of Critical Discourse Studies (3rd edn.). Los Angeles, CA: Sage.