People

« Back

Research Areas

Design, Human-computer interaction, Industrial design, Product design, Service design

Dr Leon Cruickshank

Dr Leon Cruickshank

Reader

The LICA Building
Lancaster University
Bailrigg
Lancaster
United Kingdom
LA1 4YW


Tel: +44 1524 510874

Affiliations

ImaginationLancaster
HighWire Doctoral Training Centre

PhD Supervision Interests

Open Innovation and Mass Creativity User Centred and User-Led Design Interactive TV Technology and Society Design Methodology Design Theory and Philosophy

Current Teaching

Teaching in Design and Innovation, Design Fundamentals, Design and Marketing, HCI and Design, and Multi-Disciplinary Design Methods.

Research Interests

Conference Papers

Media Communication, Consumption and Use: The changing role of the designer. Dr. Leon Cruickshank, Martyn Evans, DRS Conference, Sheffield, June 2008

New Media / New Problems / New Methods - A Case Study of Interactive Video Production in Industry , IASDR, Hong Kong 2007

Journal Articles

Informing the design of virtual environments for personal work with physical information technologies, Roger Whitham, Dr. Leon Cruickshank, Interacting With Computers (Submitted)

As digital information technologies come to replace their physical predecessors, what properties of the paper-based work environment still remain important for personal work? This paper considers the needs individual work places on the work environment and how these needs are met by both physical and digital information technologies.The core theme of this paper is communication with the self. Two areas are discussed in detail. Firstly, controlling future action through reminding and representing problems, to assist in problem solving activities. Secondly, the shortcomings of digital information technologies for personal work are discussed, and possible directions for addressing these shortcomings suggested. A design approach to resolving these issues is suggested, accompanied with an example software artefact design.

'Making Interactive TV Easier to Use: Interface Design for a Second Screen Approach' Dr. Leon Cruickshank, Dr. Annette Hill, Dr. Emmanuel Tsekleves, Roger Whitham, Dr. Koko Kondo, The Design Journal, Vol. 10, No. 3, December 2007.

This paper describes a project that adopted an innovative user-led approach to produce a novel redevelopment of presentation and interaction strategies for Interactive Television (iTV). The approach involves making technical expediency subservient to the aspirations and frustrations of users through an ethnographic study. In this case 20 households set the scope the project and of involving these collaborative users in an ongoing participatory design and user testing process that aims to bend technology towards users rather than concentrating on the technologically expedient solution. This project called UITS (User-Led iTV Services) and undertaken in collaboration with Westminster University with a budget of £73 000 over two years funded by HEIF2 through the West Focus consortium. The outcomes of this project described in this paper present some significant changes to the way iTV could operate. Some of these were systemic changes (for example pay-as-you-go iTV) but the major proposal was the employment of a supplementary second screen on which (almost) all graphical information was displayed, freeing the main screen to show TV programme all of the time. Through in-home testing we found this was dramatically more accessible in terms of legibility, adaptability and less intrusive on general TV viewing. It also facilitated a 'lean back' mode of interaction more harmonious to current TV practices; iTV services operated more like integrated interactive magazines.The success of this project led to a follow-on called BITE, funded through HEIF3 for £105 000 over 2 years broadening the scope of investigation it has also been presented at workshops in CHI2006 (Monteral) and EuroiTV 2006. It was the subject of a daylong knowledge transfer event at the Business Design Centre, London, 14th June 2007 (http://dea.brunel.ac.uk/uits). We were invited to publish a description of the more technical HCI aspects of UITS in the Usability Professionals Association's User Experience Magazine, published Volume 6, Issue 3, 2007.

'Rapid Prototyping and Fast User Trial of Multimedia Broadcast and Cellular Services' Int. J Mobile Communications, J. Cosmas, L. Cruickshank, L. Elgohari, T. Itagaki, K. Krishnapillai, A. Lucas, L. Zheng. Vol. 3, No. 3, 2005, pp 263 - 286

This paper describes a new approach to interface and service design in interactive TV as part of the IST (EU) funded project CISMUNDUS. CISMUNDUS was one of the key EU projects establishing the capabilities and possible applications of the newly developed UMTS ('3G') telecommunications networks and interactive TV; it included partners such as Philips Research, France Telecom, Rye, IRT and Motorola. This paper describes a novel approach to the development of services for this new hybrid environment that draws together iTV and Telco networks. This approach allows for the almost automatic translation of service design from a very accessible wildly used simulation / authoring software (Macromedia Director) into MHP the much less accessible language of iTV broadcast. I led the user interface design and information architecture of the new services developed in the prototyping process in addition to a broader contribution to the design of the simulation design tools. A practical demonstration of this system and using live broadcast media was presented as part of the IST media village at the IBC (International Broadcasting Conference) 2005.

'C Space an adaptive, user led communication service exploiting the convergence of DVB-T and UMTS in portable devices'. Leon Cruickshank. Mobile Entertainment: User Centred Perspectives organised by CRIC, University of Manchester, 25-27th March 2004. MOBILE ENTERTAINMENT: User-centered Perspectives, Edited by Karenza Moore & Jason Rutter. ISBN: 1-84052-012-4

C Space is a series of user mediated, virtual reality environments that are location aware and situated within specific geographical locations (for example a park or city square) by data-casting to mobile devices using DVB-T (terrestrial digital TV) technology, in essence this is a system that allows the broadcasting of virtual reality environments that overlay specific geographical areas and are accessed through a portable (PDA-like) terminal.C Space was part of a large European Union (IST) funded research project called CISMUNDUS (Convergence of IP-based Services for Mobile Users and Networks in DVB-T and UMTS Systems) exploring the convergence of mobile phone technology and digital broadcast in mobile devices. The aim of CISMUNDUS was to design, make and field test devices and services that exploit the possibilities of combining DVB-T (terrestrial digital TV) with UMTS (3G telecom technology) in mobile devices. This project had a total funding €8.1 million (€4.3 of which came from industrial partners including Philips Research, IRT, RYE and France Telecom).

'A Provocative Educational Application of a New Approach to Design Methodology'. Leon Cruickshank. Wonderground, 1-4th November 2006, Design Research Society International Conference, Lisbon

Design methodology is not often formally addressed in either the education of designers or by practicing designers. There is a danger that design methodology separates from and becomes irrelevant to design practice, a danger amplified by a move towards either design science or a full acceptance of the implications of a hermetical / rhiosomic interpretation of design methods. This paper argues that rather than promoting a true, accurate or even desirable design methodology, the debate can be redrawn and that design method and methodology can be separated and considered in different frames of reference. The design of design methodics to a broader audience represents a significant re-contextualisation of the debates surrounding the position of design methodology in education. This paper argues that design methodology is essentially an unknowable, individual component and that design methods are thinking tools that can be explainable, modifiable and are portable between designers. These assertions have been applied to a series of workshops across a broad range of subjects and abilities with over 400 students in total at Brunel University, UWE, Glamorgan University and Gwent and Exeter Colleges of Art. This provocative process results very quickly in animated discussions with students about method and methodology. It offers an approach that accelerates the normal implicit communication of design methods now under threat with the pressure being placed on traditional studio education.

Additional Information

Examination and Review

Project Reviewer, Bionets project, a 4 year FP7 project funded through the Future Technologies Call.

External Examiner, BA (Hons) Digital 3D Design, 2005-2009, The University of Salford.

Selected Publications

The Innovation Dimension: Designing in a Broader Context

Cruickshank, L. 2010 In: Design Issues. 26, 2, p. 17-26 10 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article

In Press

The Citizen in Open Design

Cruickshank, L. 2013 Gower Publishing Company.

Research output: Book/Report/ProceedingsBook

2013

Studios in software engineering education: Towards an evaluable model

Bull, C., Whittle, J. & Cruickshank, L. 05/2013 ICSE '13 Proceedings of the 2013 International Conference on Software Engineering. New York: ACM, p. 1063-1072 10 p.

Research output: Contribution in Book/Report/ProceedingsPaper

The Citizen in Design and Innovation: Post-Structural Perspectives

Cruickshank, L. 2013 In: Design Philosophy papers.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article

2012

Exploring New Forms of Online Collaborative Design: Workshop Discussion Paper

Cruickshank, L., Bohemia, E., Blythe, M., Fain, N., Kovacevic, A. & Sterie, J. 2012 University of Zagreb.

Research output: Book/Report/ProceedingsProceedings

NETS: a design tool for activating social networks

Mortati, M. & Cruickshank, L. 2012 In: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour and Research. 18, 4, p. 509-523 15 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article

Designing creative frameworks: Design thinking as an engine for new facilitation approaches

Cruickshank, L. & Evans, M. 2012 In: International Journal of Arts and Technology. 5, 1, p. 73-85 13 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article

Nets: applied cognitive design tools for social networks

Cruickshank, L. & Mortati, M. 2012 In: International Journal of Arts and Technology. n/a, n/a, p. n/a

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article

2011

A Need to Develop Designerly Approaches to Identify the Core of Design

Jung, J., Evans, M. & Cruickshank, L. 2011

Research output: Contribution to conferenceConference paper

Design and SMEs: the trigger of creative ecosystems

Cruickshank, L. & Mortati, M. 2011

Research output: Contribution to conferenceConference paper

Challenging Traditional KT: Co-designing Innovative Approaches to Knowledge Exchange

Herfurth, L. & Cruickshank, L. 2011

Research output: Contribution to conferenceConference paper

IDEAS at Daresbury

Cruickshank, L., Fogg, H. & Whitham, R. 2011 Lancaster: Lancaster University.

Research output: Book/Report/ProceedingsOther report

Understanding Design Interventions in Democratic Innovation: a Toolkit Approach

Cruickshank, L. & Carolan, N. 2011 In: Design Research Journal. 2, 10, p. 33-38 6 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article

The fluidity of the ‘magic circle’: using playful interventions in the design process

Wood, R. T., Coulton, P. & Cruickshank, L. 09/2011 4 p.

Research output: Contribution to conferenceConference paper

2010

Designing Company Interactions: Innovation In Knowledge Exchange

Cruickshank, L. 2010

Research output: Contribution to conferenceConference paper

The Net approach: Social Networks in action and Design cognitive tools

Mortati, M. & Cruickshank, L. 2010

Research output: Contribution to conferenceConference paper

The Case for a Re-evaluation of Deconstruction and Design: Against Derrida, Eisenman and their Choral Works

Cruickshank, L. 2010 O Triunfo do Desenho. Corte-Real, E. (ed.). Lisboa, Portugal: Livros Horizonte, p. 353-361 9 p.

Research output: Contribution in Book/Report/ProceedingsChapter

Applied Imagination - Designing Innovative Knowledge Transfer Approaches

Cruickshank, L., Mather, A. & Evans, M. 2010 Innovation Through Knowledge Transfer. Howlett, R. J. (ed.). Berlin: Springer-Verlag, p. 219-229 11 p. (Smart Innovation, Systems and Technologies, 2010; vol. 5, no. 4)

Research output: Contribution in Book/Report/ProceedingsChapter (peer-reviewed)

The Innovation Dimension: Designing in a Broader Context

Cruickshank, L. 2010 In: Design Issues. 26, 2, p. 17-26 10 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article

2009

Designing for User Generated Contributions: Changing approaches in industry

Cruickshank, L. & Evans, M. 2009

Research output: Contribution to conferenceConference paper

Using Imagination - Designing Innovative Knowledge Transfer Approaches

Cruickshank, L. & Mather, A. 2009

Research output: Contribution to conferenceConference paper

The case for a re-evaluation of deconstruction and design: against Derrida, Eisenman and their choral works

Cruickshank, L. 2009 In: The Radical Designist. 3, 8 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article

IDEAS: A Knowledge Platform for Innovation, Competitive Performance and Economic Development

Cruickshank, L., Mather, A. & Howells, J. 2009 The 32nd ISBE (Institute for Small Business and Entrepreneurship) Conference - Liverpool, 3rd to 6th November 2009.

Research output: Contribution in Book/Report/ProceedingsConference contribution

Designing cultures? Post-disciplinary Practices.

Buscher, M. & Cruickshank, L. 04/2009 In: Proceedings of the 8th European Academy Of Design Conference: Connexity. 1st-3rd April 2009, The Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen, Scotland.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article

2008

Media Communication, Consumption and Use: The changing role of the designer

Cruickshank, L. & Evans, M. 2008

Research output: Contribution to conferenceConference paper

2007

Making interactive TV easier to use: interface design for a second screen approach

Cruickshank, L., Tsekleves, E., Whitham, R., Hill, A. & Kondo, K. 11/2007 In: The Design Journal. 10, 3, p. 41-53 13 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article

Interacting with digital media at home via a second screen

Tsekleves, E., Cruickshank, L., Hill, A., Kondo, K. & Whitham, R. 1/12/2007 Multimedia Workshops, 2007. ISMW '07. Ninth IEEE International Symposium on. Computer Society, I. E. E. E. (ed.). Los Alamitos: IEEE, p. 201-206 6 p.

Research output: Contribution in Book/Report/ProceedingsPaper

Designing interactive TV with users in mind

Cruickshank, L., Tsekleves, E., Hill, A., Kondo, K. & Whitham, R. 2007 In: User Experience Magazine (Usability Professionals Association). 6, 3

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article

MAKING INTERACTIVE TV EASIER TO USE:INTERFACE DESIGN FOR A SECOND SCREEN APPROACH.

CRUICKSHANK, L., TSEKLEVES, E., WHITHAM, R. & HILL, A. 14/12/2007 In: The Design Journal. 10, 3

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article

2006

User-Led Interactive Television, Identifying and Addressing Some of the Barriers to Accessible Interactive TV

Cruickshank, L., Hill, A., Tsekleves, E. & Kondo, K. 2006

Research output: Contribution to conferenceConference paper

A Provocative Educational Application of a New Approach to Design Methodology.

Cruickshank, L. 1/11/2006 p. 20

Research output: Contribution to conferenceOther

2005

Rapid Prototyping and Fast User Trial of Multimedia Broadcast and Cellular Services.

Cruickshank, L., Cosmas, J., Elgohari, T. & Itagaki, K. 1/09/2005 In: International Journal of Mobile Communications. 3, 3, p. 263-286 24 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article

2004

Disseminating & Promoting Cultural Heritage Sites to People "on the move" employing Digital Television

Tsekleves, E., Cosmas, J. & Cruickshank, L. 2004

Research output: Contribution to conferenceConference paper

2003

Converged DVB-T and GPRS Service Scenarios and Application Production Tools

Berg, M., Cosmas, J., Itigaki, T., Cruickshank, L., Lucas, A., Krishnapillai, K., Zheng, L. & Elgohari, L. 2003

Research output: Contribution to conferenceConference paper

Simulation and User Trial Results of a Converged DVB-T and GPRS Sports Service

Cosmas, J., Itigaki, T., Cruickshank, L., Elgohari, L., Harris, G. & Lucas, A. 2003

Research output: Contribution to conferenceConference paper

2002

Converging DVB-T and UMTS Mobile Service Requirements and User Interface Design

Elgohari, L., Lucas, A., Krishnapillai, K., Zheng, L., Cosmas, J., Cruickshank, L. & Itigaki, T. 2002 EPSRC.

Research output: Book/Report/ProceedingsProceedings

System Concept of a Novel Convergence DVB-T and UMTS Mobile System

Cosmas, J., Itigaki, T., Cruickshank, L., Zheng, L., Krishnapillai, K., Lucas, A. & Elgohari, L. 2002 p. 97-100 4 p.

Research output: Contribution to conferenceConference paper

2001

Design Philosophy into Teaching - The Development of Innovative Pedagogic Strategies in Graphic Design

Cruickshank, L. 2001 Glasgow: The Glasgow School of Art Press.

Research output: Book/Report/ProceedingsProceedings

2000

Process as Practice

Cruickshank, L. 2000

Research output: Contribution to conferencePoster

The Augmenting of Textual Conversation with User Created Icons

Cruickshank, L. & Barfield, L. 2000 Iconic communication. Barker, P. G. & Yazdani, M. (eds.). Bristol: Intellect Books

Research output: Contribution in Book/Report/ProceedingsChapter

1999

Facilitating the Evolution of a User Driven Iconotextual Internet Patois

Cruickshank, L. & Hughes, B. 1999

Research output: Contribution to conferenceConference paper

The Changing Role of the Designer

Cruickshank, L. 1999

Research output: Contribution to conferenceConference paper

Playing in the Park of the Future

Cruickshank, L. 1999

Research output: Contribution to conferenceConference paper

Augmenting Textual Communication with User Centred Icons

Cruickshank, L., Barnfield, L., Slocombe, S. & Yazdani, M. 1999

Research output: Contribution to conferenceConference paper

Generative Tools, Using the postmodern

Cruickshank, L. 1999

Research output: Contribution to conferenceConference paper

Facilitating the evolution of a user driven iconotextual internet patois

Cruickshank, L. & Hughes, B. 1999 In: Digital Creativity. 10, 2, p. 79-89 11 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article

1998

A Rational for Non-Heirarchical Design Processes

Cruickshank, L. 1998

Research output: Contribution to conferenceConference paper

  • London Creative and Digital Fusion

    01/07/2012 → 30/06/2014
    London Creative and Digital Fusion is a two-year project for the Greater London Authority, financed by the European Regional Development Fund. It aims to support up to 1,000 ambitious, growth-focused ... Read more»
  • DeEP: Design in European Policies

    01/03/2012 → 28/02/2014
    Funded under the ‘first action plan’ of the European Design Innovation Initiative (EDII), DeEP aims to create an understanding of the impact of design innovation policies by building frameworks an ... Read more»
  • Beyond the Castle

    01/02/2012 → 01/02/2013
    ... Read more»
  • The Creative Exchange

    09/01/2012 → 31/12/2016
    We bring together pioneering companiesand the best academic thinkers to explore the potential of something we are callingdigital public space where anyone, anywhere, anytime can access, explore and cr ... Read more»
  • PROUD

    01/01/2012 →
    PROUD is a €4.8 million euro, 3 year project funded by the EU INTERREG programme. Lead in the UK by Dr. Leon Cruickshank, this project uses new co-design processes as a knowledge exchange mechanism. ... Read more»
  • Citizens Transforming Society: Tools for Change

    01/11/2011 → 30/01/2015
    The social media boom has transformed our lives, shaping everything from the way we shop and socialise to how we do business. Change-hungry citizens have turned to mobile digital communications du ... Read more»
  • IDEAS at Daresbury

    01/03/2009 →
    The IDEAS programme aimed at improving and maintaining economic performance of participating businesses by delivering new and specifically tailored knowledge to 40 high-tech SMEs situated at Daresbury ... Read more»