pile of books
 Ling 131: Language & Style  
 Ling 131 - Suggested Readings

Topics:   Intro - 1 - 2 - 3 - 4 - 5 - 6 - 7 - 8 - 9 - 10 - 11 - 12 - 13

Introductory session

Read chapter 1 of Mick Short's Exploring the Language of Poems, Plays and Prose.

If you're interested in the history of stylistics or the concept of foregrounding (which, as we mentioned previously, is a cornerstone of stylistic analysis), you might also like to read the introduction and chapter 2 of J. Douthwaite's (2000) Towards a Linguistic Theory of Foregrounding (Edizioni dell'Orso: Turin).

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Topic 1

The recommended textbook for this course is:

Short, Mick (1996) Exploring the Language of Poems, Plays and Prose, London: Longman.

In each topic below we indicate the essential reading in bold type and add alternatives and other relevant readings (in case you would like to explore the topic in more detail) in unbold type.

For this topic we'd like you to read:

Short, Mick (1996) Exploring the Language of Poems, Plays and Prose, London: Longman, chapter 1, pp. 1-35.

In addition, there are the following alternative readings (or extra readings if you want to read more - we would particularly recommend the chapter from Simpson's 1997 book):

Carter, Ron (1993) 'Between languages: grammar and lexis in Thomas Hardy's "The Oxen"', in Peter Verdonk (ed.) (1993) Twentieth-century Poetry: From Text To Context, London: Routledge, chapter 5, pp. 57-67.

Leech, Geoffrey N. (1969) A Linguistic Guide to English Poetry, London: Longman, chapters 1 and 2.

Short, Mick (1993) 'To analyse a poem stylistically: "To Paint a Water Lily" by Ted Hughes', in Peter Verdonk (ed.) (1993) Twentieth-century Poetry: From Text To Context, London: Routledge chapter 1, pp. 5-20.

Simpson, Paul (1997) Language Through Literature, London: Routledge chapter 2, pp. 23-59.

Verdonk, Peter (1993) 'Poetry and public life: a contextualised reading of Seamus Heaney's "Punishment"', in Peter Verdonk (ed.) (1993) Twentieth-century Poetry: From Text To Context, London: Routledge chapter 9, pp. 112-33.

Widdowson, Henry (1983) 'The Conditional Presence of Mr Bleaney' in Ronald Carter (ed.) Language and Literature, London: Allen & Unwin chapter 1, pp. 18-26.

A good dictionary of stylistics which you might like to refer to throughout the course is:

Wales, Katie (1989) A Dictionary of Stylistics, London: Longman.

 

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Topic 2

If you have not yet read it, read chapter 1 of Mick Short's Exploring the Language of Poems, Plays and Prose. Otherwise, read:

Simpson, Paul (1997) Language Through Literature, chapter 3, or
one or more of the other readings mentioned in the Topic 1 reading list above.

If you want elementary books to look up things about grammar in, we recommend:

Crystal, David (1988) Rediscover English Grammar, Harmondsworth: Penguin.

Leech, Geoffrey et al.(1989, 2000) An A-Z of English Grammar and Usage, London: Longman.

The model of grammar which we are using on the course is derived from:
Leech, Geoffrey Margaret Deuchar and Robert Hoogenraad (1982) English Grammar for Today, London: Macmillan.

You can also have a look at the Internet Grammar of English, at University College, London, and available free to UK universities.

 

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Topic 3

Mick Short (1996) Exploring the Language of Poems, Plays and Prose, London: Longman, chapter 2 and/or
G. N. Leech (1969) A Linguistic Guide to English Poetry, London: Longman, chapter 3.

Alternatives are:

Simpson, Paul (1997) Language Through Literature, London: Routledge, chapters 2 and 3, or
Verdonk, Peter (2002) Stylistics, Oxford: OUP, chapters 1 and 2.

 

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Topic 4

To learn in more detail about SPOCA analysis, read carefully through the SPOCA checksheet which is part of this session and then read chapter 5 ('Clauses': pp. 75-92) of:

Leech, Geoffrey, Margaret Deuchar and Robert Hoogenraad (1982) English Grammar for Today, London: Macmillan

If you want to read more on a particular grammatical concept, try using the indexes of the grammar books in the Topic 2 reading or the Internet Grammar of English, on the University College, London website.

 

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Topic 5

We would like you to read:

Short, Mick (1996) Exploring the Language of Poems, Plays and Prose, London: Longman, ch. 3, and/or

Leech (1969) A Linguistic Guide to English Poetry, London: Longman pp. 9-12 and pp. 49-51.

Other useful readings on sound symbolism and sound patterning are:

Bolinger, Dwight (1980) Language, the Loaded Weapon, London: Longman chapter 3.

Epstein, Edmund L (1978) Language and Style, London: Methuen, chapter 3

Knowles, Gerry (1987) Patterns of Spoken English, London: Longman, pp. 38-42, 60-63, 84-8, 113-4.

Leech, Geoffrey. N. (1969) A Linguistic guide to English Poetry, London: Longman, chapter 6

Short, Mick, (1996) Exploring the Language of Poems, Plays and Prose, London: Longman, chapter 4.

Wales, Katie (1990, 2001) A Dictionary of Stylistics, London: Longman, entries for sound symbolism, onomatopoeia, phonaesthesia etc.

If you want to brush up on your knowledge of the sounds of English, the following books are useful:

Rogers, Henry (2000) The Sounds of Language: An Introduction to Phonetics, London: Longman.

Knowles, Gerry (1987) Patterns of Spoken English, London: Longman.

 

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Topic 6

Short, Mick (1996) Exploring the Language of Poems, Plays and Prose, Longman, chapters 3 (on style variation) and the entries on Style in The Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics and/or Katie Wales's Dictionary of Stylistics.

And, if you have time, read chapter 11 (on authorial and text style).

(A) Other useful material on language variation:

Leech, Geoffrey, Margaret Deuchar and Robert Hoogenraad (1982) English Grammar for Today, London: Macmillan, has a chapter on speech and writing (chapter 8, pp. 133-43) and one on tenor and domain (chapter 9: 145-57).

Other readable books devoted entirely to language variation are:

Crystal, David and Donald Davy (1969) Investigating English Style, London: Longman.

Freeborn, Denis (1996) Style: Text Analysis and Linguistic Criticism, London: Macmillan, chapter 21 (pp. 265-82) is devoted to news report.

Freeborn, D., P. French and D. Langford (1986) Varieties of English: An Introduction to the Study of Language, London: Macmillan.

O'Donnell, William and Loretta Todd (1980) Variety in Contemporary English, London: Unwin.

Routledge's Interface series also contains a set of small books, each on one particular variety of language (e.g. the language of advertising, the language of newspapers).

(B) Other useful readings on authorial and text style:

Leech, Geoffrey and Mick Short (1981) Style in Fiction, London: Longman, chapter 3 and chapter 2.

Routledge's Interface series also contains a set of small books, each on one particular variety of language (e.g. the language of advertising, the language of newspapers).

 

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Topic 7

Read carefully through the checksheet for this topic, and:

Leech, Geoffrey, Margaret Deuchar and Robert Hoogenraad (1982) English Grammar for Today, London: Macmillan, chapter 6 (which is on coordination and subordination).

 

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Topic 8

Short, Mick (1996) Exploring the Language of Poems, Prose and Plays, London: Longman, chapter 9.

Other useful readings are:

Leech, Geoffrey and Short, Mick (1981) Style in Fiction, London: Longman, pp. 173-185 and chapter 8;

Fowler, Roger (1986, 1996) Linguistic Criticism, Oxford: OUP, chapter 9, 'Point of View' (This last chapter is particularly good on ideological viewpoint).

Simpson, Paul (1993) Language, Ideology and Point of View, London: Routledge, chapters 1 and 2.

 

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Topic 9

Read carefully through your Speech Presentation Guidesheet.

Read chapter 10 of Mick Short's (1996) Exploring the Language of Poems, Prose and Plays, London: Longman.

If you want to read more, try:

Leech, Geoffrey and Short, Mick (1981) Style in Fiction, London: Longman, pp. 318-336, and/or

Carter, Ron (1982) Language and Literature, London Allen & Unwin, chapter 5 'Style and Interpretation in Hemingway's "Cat in the Rain"', pp. 64-80.

 

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Topic 10

Short, Mick (1996) Exploring the Language of Poems, Prose and Plays, London: Longman, chapter 11.

If you have time, read chapter 3 of Leech and Short, Style in Fiction, London: Longman. Concentrate on the analyses of the texts, and compare them to what we've highlighted when discussing the passage from Jane Gardam's Bilgewater.

Other readings which you might find useful when preparing for writing prose stylistics essays are:

Short, Mick (1996) Exploring the Language of Poems, Plays and Prose, London: Longman, chapter 12.

Leech, Geoffrey and Mick Short (1981) Style in Fiction, London: Longman, chapter 3.

The latter compares three passages from short stories by three different authors Joseph Conrad, D. H. Lawrence and Henry James). Interestingly, another stylistician, Walter Nash, analysed the Lawrence passage (plus a little bit more) independently and came to very similar analytical conclusions. If you want to compare the two accounts, Nash's article is:

Nash, Walter (1982) 'On a passage from Lawrence's Odour of Chrysanthemums'. In Ron Carter (ed.) Language and Literature: An introductory reader, London Allen & Unwin, pp.101-20.

There is also an article which includes a discussion of the Bilgewater passage (based on work done when preparing an analysis of the passage for the Language and Style course):

Short, Mick, Jonathan Culpeper and Elena Semino (2000) 'Language and context in Jane Gardam's Bilgewater'. In Tony Bex, Michael Burke and Peter Stockwell (eds) Contextualized Stylistics, Amsterdam: Rodopi Press, pp.131-51.

 

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Topic 11

Short, M. (1997) Exploring the Language of Poems, Plays and Prose, London: Longman, pp. 195-212.

Other useful; readings are:

Culpeper, Jonathan (2001) Language and Characterisation: People in Plays and Other Texts, London: Longman, pp. 172-80

Bennison, Neil (1998) 'Accessing character through conversation: Tom Stoppard's Professional Foul' in Jonathan Culpeper, Mick Short and Peter Verdonk (1998) Exploring the Language of Drama: From Text to Context, London: Routledge, pp. 67-82.

Lowe, Valerie (1998) '"Unhappy" confessions in The Crucible: a pragmatic explanation' in Jonathan Culpeper, Mick Short and Peter Verdonk (1998) Exploring the Language of Drama: From Text to Context, London: Routledge, pp. 128-41.

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Topic 12

Short, M. (1997) Exploring the Language of Poems, Plays and Prose, London:Longman, pp. 212-17 and chapter 8.

Other useful readings are:

Simpson, Paul (1997) Language Through Literature, London: Routledge chapter 5, pp. 23-59.

Bennison, Neil (1998) 'Accessing character through conversation: Tom Stoppard's Professional Foul' in Jonathan Culpeper, Mick Short and Peter Verdonk (1998) Exploring the Language of Drama: From Text to Context, London: Routledge, pp. 67-82.

Cooper, Marilyn (1998) 'Implicature, convention and The Taming of the Shrew' in Jonathan Culpeper, Mick Short and Peter Verdonk (1998) Exploring the Language of Drama: From Text to Context, London: Routledge, pp. 54-66.

Culpeper, Jonathan (1998) '(Im)politeness in dramatic dialogue' in Jonathan Culpeper, Mick Short and Peter Verdonk (1998) Exploring the Language of Drama: From Text to Context, London: Routledge, pp. 83-95.

Culpeper, Jonathan (2001) Language and Characterisation: People in Plays and Other Texts, London: Longman, chapters 4 and 5.

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Topic 13

Simpson, Paul (1998) 'Odd talk: studying the discourses of incongruity' in Jonathan Culpeper, Mick Short and Peter Verdonk (1998) Exploring the Language of Drama: From Text to Context, London: Routledge, pp. 34-53.

Tan, Peter (1998) 'Advice on doing your stylistics essay on a dramatic text: an example from Alan Ayckbourn's The Revengers' Comedies' in Jonathan Culpeper, Mick Short and Peter Verdonk (1998) Exploring the Language of Drama: From Text to Context, London: Routledge, pp. 161-71.

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