The Florentine Duomo, the Cathedral of Santa Maria del Fiore, dominates both the Piazza del Duomo and in the distant view the whole city of Florence, its dome matching in height the surrounding hills. It is part of a monumental complex consisting of the Cathedral, the Baptistry and the Campanile, all completed in geometric patterns of polychrome marble. Construction commenced to replace the earlier Cathedral of Santa Reparata in 1296, the first architect being Arnolfo di Cambio. His successors included Giotto, Francesco Talenti and Filippo Brunelleschi, the building taking one hundred and seventy-five years to complete. Brunelleschi was responsible for the dome which was completed from 1420-36. It is a masterpiece of architectural engineering, being completed without the use of supporting formwork. Brunelleschi achieved this by using brickwork laid in consecutive rings in horizontal courses bound together in a vertical herringbone pattern. It was built over the existing octagonal crossing drum. It is double shelled and supported by eight slightly arched rims, the outer shell being thinner than the inner one. It is capped by a white marble lantern, designed by Brunelleschi, and completed after his death in 1446 by Michelozzo. This is in turn capped by a bronze ball and cross by Verrocchio. The Gothic interior is comprised of large grey stone arches in the nave which reach the clerestorey beneath a sculptured balcony. The arches are supported on massive piers and pilasters with complex Composite capitals. The crossing is surrounded on three sides (the fourth being the nave) by a coronet of Gothic chapels. The building has important stained glass, dating from 1434-1445, and a marble pavement from 1526-1660. Ruskin credits Brunelleschi with being the key figure in revival of Classical architectural ideas ( Works, 23.214). He claims the Duomo is the one building whose ornament shows how perfect Renaissance workmanship could be on a Gothic structural framework in the hands of artists such as Verrochio and Ghiberti ( Works, 11.17). In The Flamboyant Architecture of the Valley of the River Somme (1869) he couples the Cathedral's south door with the north transcept door of Rouen as the 'two most beautiful Gothic pieces of work in the world' ( Works, 19.262). He was less praiseworthy of the building's spatial experience, comparing it unfavourably with the smaller Spanish Chapel of Sta. Maria Novella in Mornings in Florence ( Works, 23.363-68).