LING201 - Linguistic Methodology

Bibliography

General Subject-related Technical topics
Accent Studies Case studies
Applied Linguistics Ethical issues
Conversation Analysis Ethnography
Corpus Linguistics Field notes
Critical Discourse Analysis Focus groups
Discourse Analysis Interviews
Educational Research Qualitative analyses
English Language Teaching Quantitative analyses
First Language Acquisition SPSS
Language and Gender Questionnaire design
Language Impairment Transcription
Literacy Research
Language and Power
Phonetics
Phonology
Psycholinguistics
Second Language Acquisition
Sign Language Acquisition
Sociolinguistics
Syntax
Testing
Text Analysis
General
  • Adam F. and M. Healy 2000: A Practical Guide to Postgraduate Research. Dublin: Blackhall Publishing.
  • Bailey A. 1996: A Guide to Field Research. California. Pine Forge Press.
  • Bem, D.J. 2002: Writing the empirical journal article. In Darley, J. M., Zanna, M. P., and Roediger III, H. L. (eds.): The Complete Academic: A Career Guide. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. Also available from http://comp9.psych.cornell.edu/dbem/writing_article.html 
  • Blaxter Lorraine, Christina Hughes, Malcolm Tight 2001: How to Research. Buckingham: Open University Press.
  • Booth, W. G. Colomb and J. Williams 1995: The craft of research. London: University of Chicago Press.
  • Botha, R. P. 1973: The justification of linguistic hypotheses. The Hague: Mouton de Gruyter.
  • Cooley, L. and J. Lewkowicz 2003: Dissertation writing in practice. Turning ideas into text. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.
  • Goddard, A. 1993: Researching language: English project work at 'A' level and beyond. Lancaster: Framework Press.
  • Greenfield, T. (ed.) 2002: Research Methods for Postgraduates. London: Arnold.
  • Hatch, E. and A. Lazaraton: The research manual: design and statistics for applied research.
  • Lancaster University Library page on Study Skills and Research Methods
  • Porte, G. K. 2002: Appraising research in second language learning. A practical approach to critical analysis of quantitative research. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
  • Robson, C. 2002: Real world research. A resource for social scientists and practitioner-researchers. 2nd ed. Oxford: Blackwell.
  • Sebba, M. 2000: Focussing on Language: a student's guide to research planning, data collection, analysis and writing up. Lancaster: Definite Article Publications. 
  • Schutze, C. 1996: The empirical base of linguistics. Chicago: Chicago University Press.
  • Turabian, K. 1996: A manual for writers of term papers, theses and dissertations. London: University of Chicago Press.
  • Van Wagenen, R. K. 1991: Writing a thesis: substance and style. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
  • Wray, A., K. Trott, and A. Bloomer 1998: Projects in linguistics: a practical guide to researching language. London: Arnold. 

 

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Subject-related
Accent Studies
  • Foulkes, P. & Docherty, G. (1999) Urban Voices London: Arnold.
  • Hughes, A. & Trudgill, P. (1996) English Accents and Dialects London: Arnold.
  • Kerswill, Paul (1995a). Phonological convergence and dialect contact: Evidence from citation forms. Language Variation and Change 7:195-207.
  • Kerswill, Paul (1996a). Children, adolescents and language change. Language Variation and Change 8: 177-202. 
  • Kerswill, Paul & Williams, Ann (2002c). ‘Salience’ as an explanatory factor in language change: evidence from dialect levelling in urban England. In M. C. Jones & E. Esch (eds.) Language change. The interplay of internal, external and extra-linguistic factors. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. 81-110.
  • Kerswill, Paul (2003). Dialect levelling and geographical diffusion in British English. In D. Britain and J. Cheshire (eds.) Social Dialectology. In honour of Peter Trudgill. Amsterdam: Benjamins. 223-243.
  • Williams, Ann & Kerswill, Paul (1997). Investigating dialect change in an English new town. In Alan Thomas (ed.) Issues and methods in dialectology. Bangor: Department of Linguistics, University of Wales, Bangor, 46-54.
  • Torgersen, Eivind & Kerswill, Paul (2004 fc). Internal and external motivation in phonetic change: dialect levelling outcomes for an English vowel shift. Journal of Sociolinguistics 8/1.
  • Watt, D., Docherty, G.J., & Foulkes, P. (2003). First accent acquisition: a study of phonetic variation in child-directed speech. Proceedings of the 15th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences, Barcelona, August 2003. 1959-1962. 
  • Watt, D. (1998). One vowel short: the (reported) merger of NURSE and NORTH in Tyneside English. In Paradis, C., Vincent, D., Deshaies, D. & Laforest, M. (eds.). Papers in Sociolinguistics: NWAVE-26 à l'Université Laval. Québec: Éditions Nota bene. 149-158. 
  • Watt, D. (2000). Phonetic parallels between the close-mid vowels of Tyneside English: are they internally or externally motivated? Language Variation and Change 12(4): 69-101.* 
  • Watt, D. (2002).'I don't speak with a Geordie accent, I speak, like, the Northern accent': contact-induced levelling in the Tyneside vowel system. Journal of Sociolinguistics 6(1): 44-63.* 
  • Wells, J. (1982) Accents of English: an introduction. Cambridge: CUP
  • Wells, J. (1982) Accents of English: the British Isles. Cambridge: CUP
  • Wells, J. (1982) Accents of English: Beyond the British Isles. Cambridge: CUP
Applied Linguistics
  • British Association for Applied Linguistics (BAAL) guidelines on good practice in applied linguistics. Available: www.baal.org/goodprac.html 
  • Pennycook, A. 2001: Critical Applied Linguistics: A Critical Introduction. London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Conversation Analysis
  • Hutchby Ian and Robin Wooffitt 1998: Conversation Analysis: An Introduction. Cambridge: Polity Press.
  • Roger, D. and P. Bull 1988: Conversation: An Interdisciplinary Perspective. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
Corpus Linguistics
  • Granger, S. (ed.) 1998: Learner English on Computer. London: Longman.
  • Huston, S. 2002: Corpora in Applied Linguistics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Johansson, S. and S. Oksefjell. (eds.) 1998: Corpora and corsslinguistic research: theory, method and case studies. Amsterdam/Atlanta, GA.
  • McEnery, T. and A. Wilson 2001: Corpus linguistics. 2nd ed. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
  • Oostdijk N. and P. de Haan (eds) 1994: Corpus-based Research into Language. Amsterdam: Rodopi.
  • Stubbs, M. 1996: Text and corpus analysis: computer-assisted studies of language and culture. Oxford: Blackwell.
  • Stubbs, M. 2001: Words and Phrases: corpus studies of lexical semantics. Oxford: Blackwell.
  • Wilson, A., A. McEnery and S. P. Botley. 2000: Multilingual corpora in teaching and research. Amsterdam: Rodopi.
Critical Discourse Analysis
  • Chouliaraki, Lilie and Norman Fairclough (1999) Discourse in Late Modernity: Rethinking Critical Discourse Analysis. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
  • Fairclough, N. 1992: Discourse and Social Change. Cambridge: Polity Press.
Discourse Analysis
  • Schiffrin, D. 1994: Approaches to Discourse. Oxford: Blackwell.
Educational research
  • Bell, J. 1993: Doing your research project: a guide for first-time researchers in education and social science. 2nd ed. Open University Press.
  • Brown, A. and P. Dowling. 1988: Doing research/reading research: a mode of interrogation for education. Falmer Press.
  • Clark J. 1997: Educational Research: Philosophy, Politics, Ethics. Massey University Press: Palmerston North, New Zealand.
  • Hitchcock, G. and D. Hughes 1989: Research and the Teacher. London: Routledge.
  • Hymes, D. 1982: Language in Education: Ethnolinguistic Essays. Washington DC: Centre for Applied Linguistics.
  • Morrison K. R. B. 1993: Planning and Accomplishing School-centre Evaluation. Norfolk: Peter Francis Publishers.
  • Schostak, J. F. 2002: Understanding, Designing and Conducting Qualitative Research in Education: Framing the Project. Buckingham: Open University Press.
English Language Teaching
  • Brown, J. D. and T. S. Rodgers. 2003: Doing second language research. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Long, M. H. 1991: Focus on form: a design feature in language teaching methodology, in K. De Bot, R. Grinsberg and C. Kramsch, eds. Foreign language research in cross-cultural perspective. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Pp. 39-52.
  • McDonough, J. and S. McDonough. 1997: Research methods for English language teachers. London: Arnold.
  • Nunan, D. 1999: Research Methods in Language Learning. Cambridge: CUP.
First Language Acquisition
  • Crain, S. and R. Thornton. 1998: Investigations in Universal Grammar. A guide to experiments on the acquisition of syntax and semantics. London: MIT Press.
  • Foster-Cohen, S. 1999: An introduction to child language development. London: Longman. (Appendix 1: Tools for studying children’s language)
  • Lust, B., S. Flynn, C. Foley and Y. Chien. 1999: How do we know what children know: problems and advances in establishing scientific methods for the study of language acquisition and linguistic theory, in W. C. Ritchie and T. K. Bhatia, eds. Handbook of child language acquisition. San Diego: Academic Press. Pp. 427-456.
  • McDaniel, D., C. Mckee and H. Smith Cairns. 1996: Methods for assessing children’s syntax. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
  • Miller, J. F., T. Klee, P. Rhea and R. Chapman. 1981: Assessing language production in children. Experimental procedures. Baltimore: University Park Press.
  • Rispoli, M. 2002: Theory and methods in the study of the development of case and agreement: a response to Schutze. Journal of Child Language 29, 151-159.
  • Schutze, C. 2001: Productive inventory and case/agreement contingencies: a methodological note on Rispoli (1999). Journal of Child Language 28, 507-515.
Language impairment
  • Butler, K.G. 1994: Assessment across disorders. Perspectives, practices and procedures. Aspen Publishers.
  • Leonard, L. B. 1996: Assessing morphosyntax in clinical settings, in D. McDaniel, C. Mckee and H. Smith Cairns, eds. Methods for assessing children’s syntax. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Pp. 287-302.
Research on language and gender
  • Gender and genre bibliography compiled Jane Sunderland, Ren-Feng Duann and Paul Baker and members of the Gender and Language Research Group at LAEL.
Literacy research
  • Graddol, D. et al. ( eds ) 1993: Researching language and literacy in social context. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
Research on language and power
  • Cameron, Deborah, Elizabeth Fraser, Penelope Harvey, Ben Rampton and Kay Richardson 1992: Researching Language: Issues of Power and Method. London: Routledge.
  • Fairclough, N. 1989: Language and Power. London: Longman.
Phonetics
  • Fox, A. (2000) Prosodic Features and Prosodic Structure Oxford: OUP
  • Hardcastle, W. J. & Laver, J. (1997) Handbook of Phonetics Sciences. Oxford: Blackwell
  • Ladefoged, P. & Maddieson, I. (1996) The Sounds of the World’s Languages. Oxford: Blackwell.
  • Ladefoged, P. (2001) A Course in Phonetics. (Fourth edition). Orlando: Harcourt
  • Ladefoged, P. (2003) Phonetic Data Analysis: An Introduction to Fieldwork and Instrumental Techniques. Oxford: Blackwell
  • Laver, J. (1994) Principles of Phonetics Cambridge: CUP
Phonology
  • Burton-Roberts, N., Carr, P., & Docherty, G. (2000) Phonological Knowledge. Oxford: OUP
  • Shockey, L. (2003) Sound Patterns of Spoken English. Oxford: Blackwell.
  • Goldsmith, J. A. (eds) (1996) The Handbook of Phonological Theory. Oxford: Blackwell
  • Goldsmith, J. A. (eds) (1999) Phonological Theory: The Essential Readings. Oxford: Blackwell.
  • Harris, J. (1994) English Sound Structure. Oxford: Blackwell
Psycholinguistic research
  • Bub, D. N. 2000: Methodological issues confronting PET and fMRI studies of cognitive function. Cognitive Neuropsychology 17, 5: 467-484.
  • Buchel, C., C. Frith and K. Friston. 1999: Functional integration: methods for assessing interactions among neural systems using brain imaging, in C. M. Brown and P. Hagoort, eds. The neurocognition of language. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Pp. 337-358.
  • Cummins, R. 1983: The nature of psychological explanation. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
  • Gass, S.M. 2001: Sentence matching: a re-examination. Second Language Research 17, 4: 421-441.
  • Gass, S.M., C. G. Madden, D. R. Preston and L. Selinker, eds. 1989: Variation in second language acquisition: psycholinguistic issues. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. 
  • Heredia, R. and M. T. Stewart. 2002: On-line methods in bilingual spoken research, in R. Heredia and J. Altarriba, eds. Bilingual sentence processing Elsevier.
  • Hu, G. 2002: Psychological constraints on the utility of metalinguistic knowledge in SLA. Studies in Second Language Acquisition 24, 3: 347-386.
  • Hulstijn, J. 2000: The use of computer technology in experimental studies of SLA: a survey of some techniques and some ongoing studies. Language Learning and Technology 3, 2: 32-43.
  • Juffs, A. 2001: Psycholinguistically oriented second language research. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics 21.
  • Kline, P. 1998: The new psychometrics: science, psychology and measurement. London: Routledge.
  • Marinis T. 2003: Psycholinguistic techniques in second language acquisition research. Second Language Research 19, 2: 144-161.
  • Mckee, C. 1996: Online methods, in D. McDaniel, C. Mckee and H. Smith Cairns, eds. Methods for assessing children’s syntax. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Pp. 189-208.
  • Sommer, B. and R. Sommer. 2001: A practical guide to behavioral research. Tools and techniques, 5th edition ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Second Language Acquisition research
Sign Language Acquisition
  • Morgan, G. and B. Wool. (eds.) 2002: Directions in sign language acquisition. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Sociolinguistic research
  • Bryman A. 2001: Social Research Methods. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Duranti A. 1997: Linguistic Anthropology. Cambridge: CUP.
  • Frankfort-Nachmias C. and D. Nachmias 1992: Research Methods in the Social Sciences. London: Edward Arnold.
  • Gilbert N. (ed.) 2001: Researching Social Life. London: Sage.
  • Herzog T. 1996: Research Methods and Data Analysis in the Social Sciences. London: Edward Arnold.
  • Kress, G. 1989: Linguistic Processes in sociocultural practice. 2nd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Langford, D. 1994: Analysing talk: investigating verbal interaction in English. Macmillan.
  • Milroy, L. 1983: Observing and Analysing Natural Language. Oxford: Blackwell.
  • Silverman, D. 2001: Interpreting Qualitative data: methods for analyzing talk. text and interaction. 2nd ed. London: Sage Publications.
  • Selwyn N. and K. Robson 1998: Using e-mail as a Research Tool. Social Research Update. Issue 21. http://www.soc.surrey.ac.uk/sru/SRU21.html 
  • Wolfram, W. and R. W. Fasold 1974: The Study of Social Dialects in American English. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
  • Wolfson, N. 1976: Speech events and natural speech: some implications for sociolinguistic methodology. Language in Society 5 (2): 189-209.
Syntax
  • Cowart, W. 1997: Experimental syntax. Applying objective methods to sentence judgments. Thousand Oaks: Sage.
  • Crain, S. and R. Thornton. 1998: Investigations in Universal Grammar. A guide to experiments on the acquisition of syntax and semantics. London: MIT Press.
  • Kortmann, B. 2002: New prospects for the study of English dialect syntax: impetus from syntactic theory and language typology, in S. Barbiers, L. Cornips and S. Van Der Kleij, eds. Syntactic microvariation. Amsterdam, Meertens Institute.
  • McDaniel, D., C. Mckee and H. Smith Cairns. 1996: Methods for assessing children’s syntax. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
  • Schutze, C. 1996: The empirical base of linguistics. Chicago: Chicago University Press.
Testing
  • Elder, C., et al. (eds.) 2001: Experimenting with uncertainty. Essays in honour of Alan Davies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Kline, P. 1998: The new psychometrics: science, psychology and measurement. London: Routledge.
  • McNamara, T. 1996: Measuring second language performance. London: Longman.
  • North, B. 1993: The development of descriptors on scales of language proficiency: perspectives, problems and a possible methodology based on a theory of measurement. Washington, DC: The National Foreign Language Centre.
  • Shohamy, E. 2001: The power of tests: a critical perspective on the uses of language tests. London: Longman.
Text Analysis
  • Bauer, M. W. and G. Gaskell. (eds.) 2000: Qualitative researching with text, image and sound. Sage.
  • Carter, R. 1997/2001: Working with texts: a core book for language analysis. London: Routledge.

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Technical aspects of linguistic research
Case studies
  • Bassey, M. 1999: Case study research in educational settings. Buckingham: Open University Press.
  • Brown, J. D. and T. S. Rodgers. 2003: Doing second language research. Oxford: Oxford University Press. (Chapter 2)
  • Gillham, W.E.C. 2000: Case study research methods. London: Continuum.
  • Stake, R.E. 1995: The art of case study research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
  • Yin, R. K. 2003: Case study research. Design and methods. 3rd ed. London: Sage Publications.
Ethical issues
  • Association of Social Anthropologists of the UK and the Commonwealth. Ethical guidelines for good research practice: http://les1.man.ac.uk/asa/ethics.htm 
  • Bulmer M. (ed.) 1982: Social Research Ethics. London: Macmillan.
  • Dingwall R. 1980: Ethics and ethnography. Sociological Review 28: 871-89.
  • Honan R. 1991: The Ethics of Social Research. London: Longman.
  • Kimmel A. J. 1988: Ethics and Values in Applied Social Research. London: Sage.
  • Lee, R. M. 1993: Doing Research on Sensitive Topics. London: Sage Publications.
  • Sieber J. E. 1992: Planning Ethically Responsible Research: A Guide for Students and Internal Review Boards. London: Sage Publications.
  • Smith, L. M. 1990: Ethics in qualitative field research: an individual perspective. In E. W. Eisner and A. Peshkin (eds) Qualitative Enquiry in Education: the Continuing Debate. Teachers’ College Press.
  • Soltis J. 1990: ‘The ethics of qualitative research.’ In E. W. Eisner and A. Peshkin (eds) Qualitative Enquiry in Education: the Continuing Debate. Teachers’ College Press.
  • Thomson S. 1996: Paying Respondents and Informants. Social Research Update. Issue 14. http://www.soc.surrey.ac.uk/sru/SRU14.html 
  • Wolf D. (ed.) 1996: Feminist Dilemmas in Fieldwork. Oxford: Westview Press.
Ethnography
  • Agar, Michael 1996: The professional stranger: an informal introduction to ethnography. San Diego: Academic Press.
  • Atkinson, P. 1990: The ethnographic imagination: textual constructions of reality. London: Routledge.
  • Atkinson P., Coffey A., Delamont S., Lofland J. and Lofland L. 2001: The Handbook of Ethnography. London: Sage Publications.
  • Clifford J. and G. E. Marcus (eds.) 1986: Writing Culture: The Poetics and Politics of Ethnography. California: University of California Press.
  • Dingwall R. 1980: Ethics and ethnography. Sociological Review 28: 871-89.
  • Fetterman D. M. 1998: Ethnography. 2nd Edition. London: Sage Publications.
  • Hammersley, M. and P. Atkinson 1995: Ethnography: Principles in practice. 2nd ed. London: Routledge.
  • Pink S. 2001: Doing Visual Ethnography. London: Sage.
  • Saville-Troike, M. 1989: The Ethnography of Communication: An Introduction. Oxford: Blackwell.
  • Ward K. J. 1999: Cyber-ethnography and the emergence of the virtually new community. Journal of Information Technology 14: 95-105.
  • Wolcott H. E. 1999: Ethnography: A Way of Seeing. London: AltaMira Press.
Field Notes
  • Emerson R. M., Fretz R. I. and L. L. Shaw 1995: Writing Ethnographic Fieldnotes. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Focus groups
  • Barbour, R. S. and J. Kitzinger (eds) 1999: Developing Focus Group Research: Politics, Theory and Practice. London: Sage.
  • Greenbaum T. L. 2000: Moderating Focus Groups. California: Sage Publications.
  • Krueger R. A. 1988/1994: Focus Groups: a Practical guide for Applied Research. California: Sage Publications.
  • Litosseliti, L. 2004: Using focus groups in research. Continuum Research Methods. Continuum.
  • Morgan D. L. 1988/1997: Focus Groups as Qualitative Research. London: Sage.
  • Myers, G. 1998: Displaying opinions: Topics and disagreement in focus groups. Language in Society 27 (1): 85-111.
  • Puchta, C. and J. Potter 1999: Asking elaborate questions: Focus groups and the management of spontaneity. Journal of Sociolinguistics 3: 314-35.
  • Stewart D. W. and P. N. Shamdasani 1990: Focus Groups: Theory and Practice. California: Sage Publications.
Interviews
  • Arksey Hilary and Peter Knight 1999: Interviewing for Social Scientists: An Introductory Resource with Examples. London: Sage Publications.
  • Breakwell Glynis M. 1990: Interviewing. London: Routledge.
  • ---- 1998: Interviewing: Problems in Practice. London: Routledge.
  • Briggs C. I. 1986: Learning How to Ask: A Sociolinguistic Appraisal of the Role of the Interview in Social Science Research. Cambridge: CUP.
  • Foddy, W. 1993: Constructing questions for interviews and questionnaires: theory and practice in social research. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Houtkoop-Steenstra, H. 2000: Interaction and the Standardized Survey Interview: The Living Questionnaire. Cambridge: CUP.
  • Keats, D. M. 2001: Interviewing: A Practical Guide for Students and Professionals. Buckingham: Open University Press.
  • Kvale S. 1996: Interviews: An Introduction to Qualitative Research Interviewing. London: Sage Publications.
  • Merton R. K., M. Fiske and P. L. Kendall 1990: The Focused Interview: A Manual of Problems and Procedures. New York: The Free Press.
  • Oppenheim A. N. 1992: Questionnaire Design, Interviewing and Attitude Measurement. London: Pinter.
  • Weiss R. S. 1994: Learning from Strangers: The Art and Method of Qualitative Interview Studies. New York: The Free Press.
  • Wengraf T. 2001: Qualitative Research Interviewing. London: Sage.
Qualitative research
  • Denzin N. K. and Y. S. Lincoln 1998: The Landscape of Qualitative Research: Theories and Issues. London: Sage.
  • Denzin N. K. and Y. S. Lincoln 1998: Collecting and Interpreting Qualitative Materials. London: Thousand Oaks.
  • Janesick, V. J. 1998: Stretching Exercises for Qualitative Researchers. London: Sage Publications.
  • Johnstone, B. 2000: Qualitative Methods in Sociolinguistics. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Mason, J. 2000: Qualitative Researching. London: Sage Publications.
  • Miles M. and M. A. Huberman 1994: Qualitative Data Analysis. Beverley Hills: Sage.
  • Ribbons, J. and R. Edwards 1998: Feminist Dilemmas in Qualitative Research: Public Knowledge and Private Lives. London: Sage.
  • Schostak, J. F. 2002: Understanding, Designing and Conducting Qualitative Research in Education: Framing the Project. Buckingham: Open University Press.
  • Silverman D. 1993: Interpreting Qualitative Data. London: Sage Publications.
  • Wolcott, H. E. 1990: On seeking – and rejecting – validity in quantitative research. In E. W. Eisner and A. Peshkin (eds) Qualitative Enquiry in Education: the Continuing Debate. Teachers’ College Press.
Quantitative analyses
  • Balnaves M. and P. Caputi 2001: Introduction to Quantitative Research Methods: An Investigative Approach. London: Sage Publications.
  • Butler, C. 1985: Statistics in Linguistics. Oxford: Blackwell.
  • Coolican, H. 1999: Research methods and statistics in psychology, 3rd ed. London: Hodder & Stoughton.
  • Dancey, C. and J. Ready. 1999: Statistics without maths for psychology. Prentice Hall Regents.
  • Gorard, S. 2001: Quantitative Methods in Educational Research: The Role of Numbers Made Easy. London: Continuum.
  • Greene, J. and M. D'Oliveira. 1999: Learning to use statistical tests in psychology: a student's guide, 2nd ed. Milton Keynes: Open University Press.
  • Grimmett, G. and D. Stirzaker. 2001: Probability and random processes. 3rd edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Hatch, E. and H. Farhady. 1982: Research design statistics for applied linguistics. Rowley, MA: Newbury House.
  • Hatch, E. and A. Lazaraton. 1991: Design and statistics for applied linguistics. New York: Newbury House.
  • Heyes, S., M. Hardy, P. Humphreys and P. Rookes. 1993: Starting statistics in psychology and education. 2nd edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Howell, D. 1997: Statistical methods for psychology. 4th edition ed. Belmont, CA: Duxbury Press.
  • Kline, P. 1998: The new psychometrics: science, psychology and measurement. London: Routledge.
  • Oakes, M.P. 1998: Statistics for corpus linguistics. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
  • The Royal Statistical Society and the UK Data Archive. 2002: Preserving and sharing statistical material. Available online from http://www.rss.org.uk/publications/brochures/PreservingSharing.pdf 
  • Rowntree, D. 1981: Statistics without tears. An introduction for non-mathematicians. London: Pinguin.
  • Wolcott, H. E. 1990: On seeking – and rejecting – validity in quantitative research. In E. W. Eisner and A. Peshkin (eds) Qualitative Enquiry in Education: the Continuing Debate. Teachers’ College Press.
  • Young, R. and R. Bayley. 1996: VARBRUL analysis for SLA research, in R. Bayley and D. R. Preston, eds. Second language acquisition and linguistic variation. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Pp. 253-306.
SPSS
  • Kinnear, P. R. and C. D. Gray. 2000: SPSS for Windows made simple. Release 10. Hove: Psychology Press.
  • Pallant, J. 2001: SPSS survival manual. A step-by-step guide to analysing using SPSS for windows (version 10). Open University Press.
Questionnaire design
  • Alderson, J.C. 1992: Validating questionnaires. CRILE Working Paper Series 15.
  • Block, D. 1998: Exploring interpretations of questionnaire items. System 26: 403-425.
  • Converse, J.M. and S. Presser 1986: Survey questions: handcrafting the standardized questionnaire. Sage University Papers. Series on Quantitative Applications in the Social Sciences, Series No. 07-063. Newbury Park: Sage Publications.
  • Dornyei, Z. 2003: Questionnaires in second language research. Construction, administration and processing. Lawrence Erlbaum.
  • Foddy, W. 1993: Constructing questions for interviews and questionnaires: theory and practice in social research. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Fowler F. J. 1993: Survey Research Methods. 2nd Edition. London: Sage Publications.
  • Frazer Lorelle and Meredith Lawley 2000: Questionnaire Design and Administration. Brisbane: John Wiley and Sons.
  • Gillham, B. 2000: Developing a Questionnaire. London: Continuum.
  • Litwin, M.S. 1995: How to measure survey reliability and validity. Thousand Oaks: Sage.
  • Low, G.D. 1988: The semantics of questionnaire rating scales. Evaluation and Research in Education 2, 2: 69-79.
  • Low, G.D. 1996: Intensifiers and hedges in questionnaire items and the lexical invisibility hypothesis. Applied Linguistics 17, 1: 1-37.
  • Oppenheim A. N. 1992: Questionnaire Design, Interviewing and Attitude Measurement. London: Pinter.
  • Peterson, R. A. 2000: Constructing Effective Questionnaires. London: Sage Publications.
  • Slembrouck, S. 1988: Questions and questionnaires, answers and answerraires. In A. Littlejohn and M. Melouk (eds.): Research methods and processes. Lancaster University, 76-90.
  • Wilson M. and S. McLean 1994: Questionnaire Design: a Practical Introduction. Newton Abbey, C. Antrim: University of Ulster Press.
Transcription
  • Baldry, A., and Thibault, P. J. 2004: Multimodal transcription and text analysis. Equinox.
  • Bucholtz, M. 2001: The politics of transcription. Journal of Pragmatics 32, 1439-65.
  • Coates, J. and J. Thornborrow 1999: Myths, lies and audiotape: some thoughts on data transcripts. Discourse and Society 10 (4), 594-7.
  • Crowdy, S. 1994: Spoken corpus transcription. Literary and Linguistic Computing 9, 1: 25-28.
  • Edwards, J. 1992: Design principles in the transcription of spoken discourse, in J. Svartvik, ed. Directions in corpus linguistics. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. Pp. 129-144.
  • Edwards, J. 1995: Principles and alternative systems in the transcription, coding and markup of spoken discourse, in G. Leech, G. A. Myers and J. A. Thomas, eds. Spoken English on computer. London: Longman. Pp. 19-34.
  • Edwards, J. and M. Lampert. (eds.) 1993: Talking data: transcription and coding in discourse research. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
  • Feldweg, H. 1993: Transcription, storage and retrieval of data, in C. Perdue, ed. Adult language acquisition: crosslinguistic perspectives. Volume I: Field methods. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Pp. 108-130.
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  • Johansson, S. 1994: Encoding a corpus in machine-readable form: the approach of the text encoding initiative, in B. Atkins and A. Zampolli, eds. Computational approaches to the lexicon. Oxford: Calderon Press. Pp. 83-102.
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  • Ochs, E. 1979: Transcription as theory. In Elinor Ochs and Bambi B Schieffelin Developmental Pragmatics. New York: Academic Press. (Reprinted in Adam Jaworski and Nikolas Coupland, 1999, The Discourse Reader, London: Routledge, pp 167-82.)
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  • Retherford, K. S. 2000: Guide to the analysis of transcripts. 3rd edition ed. Eau Claire, Wisconsin: Thinking Publications.
  • Sokolov, J. L. and C. E. Snow. 1994: Transcript analysis using the Child Language Data Exchange System, in J. L. Sokolov and C. E. Snow, eds. Handbook of research in language development using CHILDES. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Pp. 1-25.
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Last modified by Florencia Franceschina on 30 April 2004
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