Dr Carly Stevens

Lecturer

Research Overview

Carly is a plant ecologist and soil biogeochemist with an interest in how global change is impacting on our environment. In particular she is interested in how atmospheric nitrogen deposition is impacting on ecosystems and how they function

Published research

Carly’s work includes over 50 peer reviewed journal papers (see link above), including a paper on how atmospheric nitrogen deposition is reducing plant species richness in the UK which was published in Science in 2004 and has been cited more than 450 times. Since then she has published several other papers in high impact journals such as Science and Nature.

Carly’s research touches on a number of aspects of global change with a focus on how ecosystems are impacted.

Carly has received funding for her research from a range of organisations including:

  • Natural Environmental Research Council (NERC),
  • Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC)
  • Department for Environment, Food & Rural Affairs (DEFRA)
  • Leverhulme Trust

Current research

Carly’s current research projects include:

  • NERC funded Temporal variation in Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (T-BESS)
  • Nutrient Network
  • Lancaster University funded Building a tree-scape of sulphur pollution in China
    • USGS funded Evidence for shifts in plant species diversity along nitrogen deposition gradients: a first synthesis for the United States

Roles

Carly is admissions tutor for undergraduate programmes in Ecology and Conservation.

Carly is currently:

  • associate editor of the European Geosciences Union’s Copernicus journal SOIL
  • associate editor of the British Ecological Society journal Functional Ecology
  • a review panel member for NERC

Teaching

Carly’s teaching includes:

Outreach

Carly leads an outreach programme called Science Hunters which uses computer games to teach ecology

Personal nitrogen footprint tool for the United Kingdom
Stevens, C., Leach, A., Dale, S., Galloway, J. 1/07/2014 In: Environmental Science: Processes and Impacts. 16, 7, p. 1563-1569. 7 p.
Journal article

Increasing soil nutrient loads of European semi-natural grasslands strongly alter plant functional diversity independently of species loss
Helsen, K., Ceulemans, T., Stevens, C., Honnay, O. 01/2014 In: Ecosystems. 17, 1, p. 169-181. 13 p.
Journal article

Simulated nitrogen deposition effects on soil fauna from a semiarid Mediterranean ecosystem in central Spain
Ochoa-Hueso, R., Rocha, I., Stevens, C., Manrique, E., Luciañez, M.J. 01/2014 In: Biology and Fertility of Soils. 50, 1, p. 191-196. 6 p.
Journal article

Effect of nitrogen addition, form and clipping on competitive interactions between grassland species
Stevens, C., Gowing, D.J.G. 2014 In: Journal of Plant Ecology. 7, 3, p. 222-230. 9 p.
Journal article

Predicting invasion in grassland ecosystems: is exotic dominance the real embarrassment of richness?
Seabloom, E.W., Borer, E.T., Buckley, Y., Cleland, E.E., Davies, K., Firn, J., Harpole, W.S., Hautier, Y., Lind, E., Macdougall, A., Orrock, J.L., Prober, S.M., Adler, P., Alberti, J., Michael Anderson, T., Bakker, J.D., Biederman, L.A., Blumenthal, D., Brown, C.S., Brudvig, L.A., Caldeira, M., Chu, C., Crawley, M.J., Daleo, P., Damschen, E.I., D'antonio, C.M., Decrappeo, N.M., Dickman, C.R., Du, G., Fay, P.A., Frater, P., Gruner, D.S., Hagenah, N., Hector, A., Helm, A., Hillebrand, H., Hofmockel, K.S., Humphries, H.C., Iribarne, O., Jin, V.L., Kay, A., Kirkman, K.P., Klein, J.A., Knops, J.M.H., La Pierre, K.J., Ladwig, L.M., Lambrinos, J.G., Leakey, A.D.B., Li, Q., Li, W., Mcculley, R., Melbourne, B., Mitchell, C.E., Moore, J.L., Morgan, J., Mortensen, B., O'halloran, L.R., Pärtel, M., Pascual, J., Pyke, D.A., Risch, A.C., Salguero-gómez, R., Sankaran, M., Schuetz, M., Simonsen, A., Smith, M., Stevens, C., Sullivan, L., Wardle, G.M., Wolkovich, E.M., Wragg, P.D., Wright, J., Yang, L. 1/12/2013 In: Global Change Biology. 19, 12, p. 3677-3687. 11 p.
Journal article

Differential effects of oxidised and reduced nitrogen on vegetation and soil chemistry of species-rich acidic grasslands
Dorland, E., Stevens, C.J., Gaudnik, C., Corcket, E., Rotthier, S., Wotherspoon, K., Jokerud, M., Vandvik, V., Soons, M.B., Hefting, M.M., Aarrestad, P.A., Alard, D., Diekmann, M., Duprè, C., Dise, N.B., Gowing, D.J.G., Bobbink, R. 09/2013 In: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution. 224, 9
Journal article

Soil chemistry and fertility alterations in response to N application in a semiarid Mediterranean shrubland
Ochoa-hueso, R., Stevens, C.J., Ortiz-llorente, M.J., Manrique, E. 1/05/2013 In: Science of the Total Environment. 452-453, p. 78-86. 9 p.
Journal article

Testing the influence of topography and material properties on catchment-scale soil moisture patterns using remotely sensed vegetation patterns in a humid temperate catchment, northern Britain
Graham Milledge, D., Warburton, J., N. Lane, S., J. Stevens, C. 15/04/2013 In: Hydrological Processes. 27, 8, p. 1223-1237. 15 p.
Journal article

Life-history constraints in grassland plant species: a growth-defence trade-off is the norm
Lind, E.M., Borer, E., Seabloom, E., Adler, P., Bakker, J.D., Blumenthal, D.M., Crawley, M., Davies, K., Firn, J., Gruner, D.S., Stanley Harpole, W., Hautier, Y., Hillebrand, H., Knops, J., Melbourne, B., Mortensen, B., Risch, A.C., Schuetz, M., Stevens, C., Wragg, P.D., Van Der Putten, W. 04/2013 In: Ecology Letters. 16, 4, p. 513-521. 9 p.
Journal article

Regional contingencies in the relationship between aboveground biomass and litter in the world’s grasslands
O’Halloran, L., Borer, E., Seabloom, E., MacDougall, A., Cleland, E., McCulley, R., Hobbie, S., Harpole, W., DeCrappeo, N., Chu, C., Firn, J., Hagenah, N., Hofmockel, K., Knops, J., Li, W., Melbourne, B., Morgan, J., Orrock, J., Prober, S., Stevens, C. 6/02/2013 In: PLoS ONE. 8, p. e54988.
Journal article

Impact of nitrogen deposition at the species level
Payne, R., Dise, N.B., Stevens, C., Gowing, D.J.G. 15/01/2013 In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 110, 3, p. 984-987. 4 p.
Journal article

Determining the cost of in-field mitigation options to reduce sediment and phosphorus loss.
Bailey, A., Deasy, C., Quinton, J., Silgram, M., Jackson, B., Stevens, C. 01/2013 In: Land Use Policy. 30 , 1, p. 234-242. 9 p.
Journal article

Intra-specific spatial aggregation in acidic grasslands: effects of acidification and nitrogen deposition on spatial patterns of plant communities
Damgaard, C., Ejrnæs, R., Stevens, C. 01/2013 In: Journal of Vegetation Science. 24, 1, p. 25-32. 8 p.
Journal article

Inferring nitrogen deposition from plant community composition
Payne, R.J., Caporn, S.J.M., Stevens, C., Carroll, J., Gowing, D.J.G., Dise, N.B. 2013 In: Ecological Indicators. 26, p. 1-4.
Journal article

Nitrogen deposition and terrestrial biodiversity
Clark, C., Bai, Y., Bowman, B., Cowles, J., Fenn, M., Gilliam, F., Phoenix, G., Siddique, I., Stevens, C., Sverdrup, H., Throop, H. 2013 In: Encyclopedia of Biodiversity. Elsevier Academic Press 18 p.
Entry for encyclopedia/dictionary

Extensive management promotes plant and microbial nitrogen retention in temperate grassland
De Vries, F., Bloem, J., Quirk, H., Stevens, C., Bol, R., Bardgett, R. 5/12/2012 In: PLoS ONE. 7, 12, 12 p.
Journal article

Ellenberg N value, tissue chemistry and soil chemistry 15 years after the cessation of nitrogen addition
Stevens, C., Mountford, J., Bardgett, R., Gowing, D.J.G. 08/2012 In: Plant and Soil. 357, 1-2, p. 309-319. 11 p.
Journal article

Biological flora of the British Isles: Campanula rotundifolia
Stevens, C., McAllister, H., Wilson, J. 05/2012 In: Journal of Ecology. 100, 3, p. 821-839. 19 p.
Journal article

Response to Comments on “Productivity Is a Poor Predictor of Plant Species Richness”
Grace, J., Adler, P., Seabloom, E., Borer, E., Hillebrand, H., Hautier, Y., Hector, A., Harpole, W., O’Halloran, L., Anderson, T., Bakker, J., Brown, C., Buckley, Y., Collins, S., Cottingham, K., Crawley, M., Damschen, E., Davies, K., DeCrappeo, N., Fay, P., Firn, J., Gruner, D., Hagenah, N., Jin, V., Kirkham, K., Knops, J., La Pierre, K., Lambrinos, J., Li, W., Melbourne, B., Mitchell, C., Moore, J., Morgan, J., Orrock, J., Prober, S., Stevens, C., Wragg, P., Yang, L. 2012 In: Science. 335, 6075, p. 1441-1441. 1 p.
Journal article

Terricolous lichens as indicators of nitrogen deposition: Evidence from national records
Stevens, C., Smart, S., Henrys, P., Maskell, L., Crowe, A., Simkin, J., Preston, C., Cheffings, C., Whitfield, C., Rowe, E., Gowing, D., Emmett, B. 2012 In: Ecological Indicators. 20, p. 196-203. 8 p.
Journal article

Addressing the impact of atmospheric nitrogen deposition on European grasslands
Stevens, C., Gowing, D.J.G., Wotherspoon, K., Alard, D., Aarrestad, P., Bleeker, A., Bobbink, R., Diekmann, M., Dise, N.B., Dupre, C., Dorland, E., Gaudnik, C., Rottier, S., Soons, M., Corcket, E. 11/2011 In: Environmental Management. 48, 5, p. 885-894. 10 p.
Journal article

Grassland species composition and biogeochemistry in 153 sites along environmental gradients in Europe
Stevens, C., Dupre, C., Dorland, E., Gaudnik, C., Gowing, D.J.G., Diekmann, M., Alard, D., Bobbink, R., Corcket, E., Mountford, J., Vandvik, V., Aarrestad, P., Muller, S., Dise, N.B. 07/2011 In: Ecology. 92, 7, p. 1544. 1 p.
Journal article

Soil heterogeneity buffers community response to climate change in species-rich grassland
Fridley, J., Grime, J., Askew, A., Moser, B., Stevens, C. 05/2011 In: Global Change Biology. 17, 5, p. 2001-2011. 11 p.
Journal article

Changes in species composition of European acid grasslands observed along an international gradient of nitrogen deposition
Stevens, C., Dupre, C., Dorland, E., Gaudnik, C., Bleeker, A., Alard, D., Dise, N., Bobbink, R., Fowler, D., Corcket, E., Mountford, J., Vandvik, V., Aarrestad, P., Muller, S., Diekmann, M. 04/2011 In: Journal of Vegetation Science. 22, 2, p. 207-215. 9 p.
Journal article

Abundance of introduced species at home predicts abundance away in herbaceous communities
Firn, J., Moore, J., MacDougall, A., Borer, E., Seabloom, E., HilleRisLambers, J., Harpole, W., Cleland, E., Brown, C., Knops, J., Prober, S., Pyke, D., Farrell, K., Bakker, J., O’Halloran, L., Adler, P., Collins, S., D’Antonio, C., Crawley, M.J., Wolkovich , E., La Pierre, K., Melbourne, B., Hautier, Y., Morgan, J., Leakey, A., Kay, A., McCulley, R., Davies, K., Stevens, C., Chu, C., Holl, K., Klein, J., Fay, P., Hagenah, N., Kirkham, K., Buckley, Y. 03/2011 In: Ecology Letters. 14, 3, p. 274-281. 8 p.
Journal article

Ecosystem responses to differing ratios of reduced and oxidised nitrogen inputs
Stevens, C., Manning, P., van den Berg, L., Lamers, L., de Graaf, M., Wamelink, W., Boxman, A., Bleeker, A., Vergeer, P., Arroniz-Crespo, M., Limpens, J., Bobbink, R., Dorland, E. 03/2011 In: Environmental Pollution. 159, 3, p. 665-676. 12 p.
Journal article

Detecting the footprint of changing atmospheric nitrogen deposition loads on acid grasslands in the context of climate change
Gaudnik, C., Corcket, E., Clement, B., Delmas, C., Gombert, S., Muller, S., Stevens, C., Alard, D. 2011 In: Global Change Biology. 17, 11, p. 3351-3365. 15 p.
Journal article

Impacts of atmospheric pollution on the plant communities of British acid grasslands
Payne, R., Stevens, C., Dise, N.B., Gowing, D.J.G., Pilkington, M., Phoenix, G., Emmett, B., Ashmore, M.R. 2011 In: Environmental Pollution. 159, 10, p. 2602-2608. 7 p.
Journal article

Impacts of nitrogen deposition on vascular plants in Britain: an analysis of two national observation networks
Henrys, P.A., Stevens, C.J., Smart, S.M., Maskell, L.C., Walker, K.J., Preston, C.D., Crowe, A., Rowe, E.C., Gowing, D.J., Emmett, B.A. 2011 In: Biogeosciences. 8, 12, p. 3501-3518. 18 p.
Journal article

Nitrogen as a threat to European terrestrial biodiversity
Dise, N.B., Ashmore, M.R., Belyazid, S., Bobbink, R., De Vries, W., Erisman, J., Spranger, T., Stevens, C., van den Berg, L. 2011 In: The European nitrogen assessment . Cambridge : Cambridge University Press
Chapter (peer-reviewed)

Nitrogen processes in terrestrial ecosystems
Butterbach-Bahl, K., Gundersen, P., Ambus, P., Augustin, P., Beier, C., Boeckx, P., Dannenmann, M., Gimeno, B., Kiese, R., Kitzler, B., Ibrom, A., Rees, R., Smith, K., Stevens, C., Vesala, T., Zechmeister-Boltenstern, S. 2011 In: The European nitrogen assessment. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press
Chapter (peer-reviewed)

Productivity is a poor predictor of plant species richness
Adler, P., Seabloom, E., Borer, E., Hillebrand, H., Hautier, Y., Hector, A., Harpole, W., O'Halloran, L., Grace, J., Anderson, T., Bakker, J., Biederman, L., Brown, C., Buckley, Y., Calabrese, L., Chu, C., Cleland, E., Collins, S., Cottingham, K., Crawley, M.J., Damschen, E., Davies, K., DeCrappeo, N., Fay, P., Firn, J., Frater, P., E.I., G., Gruner, D., Hagenah, N., HilleRisLambers, J., Humphryes, H., Jin, V., Kay, A., Kirkham, K., Klein, J., Knops, J., La Pierre, K., Lambrinos, J., Li, W., MacDougall, A., McCulley, R., Melbourne, B., Mitchell, C., Moore, J., Morgan, J., Mortenson, B., Orrock, J., Prober, S., Pyke, D., Risch, A., Schuetz, M., Smith, M., Stevens, C., Sullivan, L.L., Wang, G., Wragg, P., Wright, J., Yang, J. 2011 In: Science. 333, 6050, p. 1750-1753. 4 p.
Journal article

The effect of nitrogen deposition on the species richness of acid grasslands in Denmark: A comparison with a study performed on a European scale
Damgaard, C., Jensen, L., Frohn, L., Borchsenius, F., Nielsen, K., Ejrnæs, R., Stevens, C. 2011 In: Environmental Pollution. 159, 7, p. 1778-1782. 5 p.
Journal article

The impact of nitrogen deposition on acid grasslands in the Atlantic region of Europe
Stevens, C., Dupre, C., Dorland, E., Gaudnik, C., Gowing, D.J.G., Bleeker, A., Diekmann, M., Alard, D., Bobbink, R., Fowler, D., Corcket, E., Mountford, J., Vandvik, V., Aarrestad, P., Muller, S., Dise, N.B. 2011 In: Environmental Pollution. 159, 10, p. 2243-2250. 8 p.
Journal article

Environmental myopia – a diagnosis and remedy
Silvertown, J., Tallowin, J., Stevens, C., Power, S., Morgan, V., Emmett, B., Hester, A., Grime, J., Morecroft, M., Jicks, R., Buxton, R., Poulton, P., Jinks, R., Bardgett, R. 10/2010 In: Trends in Ecology and Evolution. 25, 10, p. 556-561. 6 p.
Journal article

Hillslope scale surface runoff, sediment and nutrient losses associated with tramline wheelings
Silgram, M., Jackson, D.R., Bailey, A., Quinton, J., Stevens, C. 05/2010 In: Earth Surface Processes and Landforms. 35, 6, p. 699-706. 8 p.
Journal article

Contributing understanding of mitigation options for phosphorus and sediment to a review of the efficacy of contemporary agricultural stewardship measures.
Deasy, C., Quinton, J.N., Silgram, M.S., Bailey, A.P., Jackson, B., Stevens, C.J. 02/2010 In: Agricultural Systems. 103, 2, p. 105-109. 5 p.
Journal article

Changes in species richness and composition in European acidic grasslands over the past 70 years: the contribution of cumulative atmospheric nitrogen deposition
Dupre, C., Stevens, C., Ranke, T., Bleeker, A., Peppler-Lisbach , C., Gowing, D., Dise, N., Dorland, E., Bobbink, R., Diekmann, M. 01/2010 In: Global Change Biology. 16, 1, p. 344-357. 14 p.
Journal article

Contribution of acidification and eutrophication to declines in species richness of calcifuge grasslands along a gradient of atmospheric nitrogen deposition
Stevens, C., Thompson, K., Grime, J., Long, C., Gowing, D. 2010 In: Functional Ecology. 24, 2, p. 478-484. 7 p.
Journal article

Nitrogen deposition causes widespread loss of species richness in British habitats
L.C., M., Smart, S., Bullock, J., K., T., Stevens, C. 2010 In: Global Change Biology. 16, 2, p. 671-679. 9 p.
Journal article

Nitrogen deposition threatens species richness of grasslands across Europe
Stevens, C., Dupre, C., Dorland, E., Gaudnik, C., Gowing, D., Bleeker, A., Diekmann, M., Alard, D., Bobbink, R., Fowler, D., Corcket, E., Mountford, J., Vandvik, V., Aarrestad, P., Muller, S., Dise, N. 2010 In: Environmental Pollution. 158, 9, p. 2940-2945. 6 p.
Journal article

Point Source Ammonia Emissions are Having a Detrimental Impact On Prairie Vegetation
Stevens, C., Tilman, D. 2010 In: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution. 211, 1-4, p. 435-441. 7 p.
Journal article

The effects of minimal tillage, contour cultivation and in-field vegetative barriers on soil erosion and phosphorus loss.
Stevens, C.J., Quinton, J.N., Bailey, A.P., Deasy, C., Silgram, M., Jackson, D.R. 12/2009 In: Soil and Tillage Research. 106, 1, p. 145-151. 7 p.
Journal article

Identifying indicators of atmospheric nitrogen deposition in calcifugous grasslands
Stevens, C., Maskell, L., S.M., S., S.J.M., C., Dise, N., Gowing, D. 10/2009 In: Biological Conservation. 142, 10, p. 2069-2075. 7 p.
Journal article

Pollution swapping in arable agricultural systems.
Stevens, C.J., Quinton, J.N. 06/2009 In: Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology. 39, 6, p. 478-520. 43 p.
Journal article

Regional trends in soil acidification and metal mobilisation related to acid deposition
Stevens, C., Dise, N., Gowing, D. 01/2009 In: Environmental Pollution. 157, 1, p. 313-319. 7 p.
Journal article

Mitigating diffuse pollution inputs to freshwaters from agriculture. [Oral]
Deasy, C., Quinton, J.N., Stevens, C.J., Silgram, M., Jackson, R., Stoate, C., Szczur, J., Bailey, A.P. 2009
Speech

Mitigation options for sediment and phosphorus losses from winter-sown arable crops.
Deasy, C., Quinton, J.N., Silgram, M.S., Bailey, A.P., Jackson, B., Stevens, C.J. 2009 In: Journal of Environmental Quality. 38, 5, p. 2121-2130. 10 p.
Journal article

Policy implications of pollution swapping.
Stevens, C.J., Quinton, J.N. 2009 In: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth Part B: Hydrology, Oceans and Atmosphere. 34, 8-9, p. 589-594. 6 p.
Journal article

The impact of atmospheric nitrogen deposition on grasslands: species composition and biogeochemistry
Stevens, C. 2009 Saarbrücken : VDM Verlag. 139 p. ISBN: 9783639144147.
Book

Investigating source areas of eroded sediments transported in concentrated overland flow using rare earth element tracers.
Stevens, C.J., Quinton, J.N. 15/06/2008 In: CATENA. 74, 1, p. 31-36. 6 p.
Journal article

Field Testing of Mitigation Options (Final report to Defra for contract PE0206).
Deasy, C., Quinton, J.N., Silgram, M., Jackson, R.J., Bailey, A.P., Stevens, C.J. 2008 Lancaster : Lancaster University & DEFRA, 54 p.
Working paper

Mitigation options for phosphorus and sediment (MOPS): Reducing pollution in surface runoff from arable fields.
Deasy, C., Quinton, J.N., Stevens, C.J., Silgram, M., Jackson, R., Bailey, A.P. 2008 In: Land management in a changing environment : Agriculture and the environment VII : proceedigs of the SAC and SEPA biennial conference, Edinburgh, 26-27 March 2008. p. 114-119. 6 p. ISBN: 1854828673, 9781854828675.
Chapter

Mitigation options for phosphorus and sediment (MOPS): Reducing pollution in surface runoff from arable fields. [Oral]
Deasy, C., Quinton, J.N., Stevens, C.J., Silgram, M., Jackson, R., Bailey, A.P. 2008
Speech

Understanding the Contribution of Grass Uplands to Water Quality (Final report to Defra for contract WQ0121).
Stevens, C.J., Quinton, J.N., Orr, H., Reynolds, B., Deasy, C., Armstrong, A. 2008 Lancaster : Lancaster University & DEFRA, 72 p.
Working paper

Making ecological science policy-relevant: issues of scale and disciplinary integration
Stevens, C., Thomas, M., Fraser, I., Mitchley, J. 2007 In: Landscape Ecology. 22, 6, p. 799-809. 10 p.
Journal article

Mitigation options for phosphorus and sediment (MOPS): Tillage treatments and the use of vegetative barriers.
Quinton, J.N., Deasy, C., Stevens, C.J., Silgram, M., Jackson, R., Bailey, A.P. 2007 In: Diffuse phosphorus loss, risk assessment, mitigation options and ecological effects in river basins : the 5th International Phosphorus Workshop (IPW5), 3-7 September 2007 in Silkeborg, Denmark. Tjele, Denmark : Faculty of Agricultural Sciences p. 295-297. 3 p. ISBN: 8791949203, 9788791949203.
Chapter

Nitrogen Deposition and Loss of Biological Diversity: Agricultural Land Retirement as a Policy Response
Fraser, I., Stevens, C. 2007 In: Land Use Policy. 25, 4, p. 455-463. 9 p.
Journal article

Field testing of mitigation options for phosphorus and sediment (MOPS).
Stevens, C.J., Quinton, J.N. 2006 In: Proceedings of the SAC and SEPA biennial conference : managing rual diffuse pollution. p. 244-248. 5 p.
Chapter

Loss of forb diversity in relation to nitrogen deposition in the UK: regional trends and potential controls
Stevens, C., Dise, N., Gowing, D., Mountford, J. 2006 In: Global Change Biology. 12, 10, p. 1823-1833. 11 p.
Journal article

Using metabolic fingerprinting of plants for evaluating nitrogen deposition impacts on the landscape level
Gidman, E., Stevens, C., Goodacre, R., Broadhurst, D., Emmett, B., Gwynn-Jones, D. 2006 In: Global Change Biology. 12, 8, p. 1460-1465. 6 p.
Journal article

Nitrogen deposition and reduction of terrestrial biodiversity: evidence from temperate grasslands.
Dise, N.B., Stevens, C.J. 2005 In: Science in China Series C: Life Sciences. 48, p. 720-728. 9 p.
Journal article

Impact of nitrogen deposition on the species richness of grasslands
Stevens, C., Dise, N., Mountford, J., Gowing, D. 19/03/2004 In: Science. 303, 5665, p. 1876-1879. 4 p.
Journal article