Professor Luis Araujo

Professor

Research Interests

I am broadly interested in understanding how and why industrial firms form and develop different types of exchange relationshipsa and engage in particular types of market practices. What follows is a description of my current interests.

The vertical scope and boundaries of the firm.

This work is being carried out in collaboration with Anna Dubois and Lars-Erik Gadde from Chalmers University of Technology in Gothenburg and we have published two papers on this topic (in Industrial Marketing Management and Journal of Management Studies, listed below). Our concern is to examine in more detail how do firms access resources controlled by other actors, namely customers, suppliers and subcontractors. In particular, we are  interested in what accounts for vertical integration and disintegration (outsourcing) decisions and how firms decide what to own, buy or access through relationships. The key difference to most of the work carried out in economics and strategic management on the boundaries of the firm is that we take relationships seriously as a form of economic coordination. In short, we regard access to resources controlled by others as important as the resources controlled by a focal firm. And, in our view, the trajectory of a firm can only be understood in relation to how access and control are combined. Some industrial sectors seem to survive and prosper with a decentralised network of small scale producers, whilst others rely on large, vertically integrated firms. What accounts for these differing patterns of industrial organisation? And what drives changes in these patterns?

Modularisation within and between Firms

This interest has been developed in conjunction with my colleagues Martin Spring and Anna Dubois. In recent years there has been a rapidly growing interest in modular architectures in products and, to a much lesser extent, services. The notion of modularity is not novel in management research. The mixing and matching of modular components was initially seen as a means to increase product variety without sacrificing operational performance. More recently, modularisation has come to constitute the distinguishing feature between mass customisation and pure customisation. Modularity has been elevated from a product design concept to a general systems principle applicable to a wide range of domains – we live in a modular age, as some claim.However, there has been very little empirical research on how modularity at the product level translates into organisational structures as well as the structure and spatial configuration of supply networks. Furthermore, despite our everyday familiarity with modular services such as the degree programmes offered at Lancaster, next to nothing has been written on modularity in services. There is a good research opportunity, using industrial network concepts, to examine these linkages and investigate their relationship to service elements such as after-sales support, maintenance, upgrading and recycling.

 

Marketing and Market-Making Practices

This work has been partly inspired by my (modest) interest in the sociology of science and technology and what I have learned through the long-standing cooperation with my colleague Elizabeth Shove (Sociology) and by the recent emergence of a series of special tracks on The Evolution of Market Forms and Marketing Practices at IMP Conferences. The focus is on marketing as a set of technologies that attempt to order and control activities from a distance, and how these technologies constitute the very phenomena they attempt to order. Taking the role of marketing practices seriously implies taking a fresh look at classic issues such as the character and scope of market agency, the interrelationship between marketing institutions and marketing practices, and the nature of marketing professions. I have co-editeda special issue of Marketing Theory (Vol. 8, No. 1, 2008) with my colleagues Hans Kjellberg and Robert Spencer on the subject. A virtual special issue on the same topic is available in the Marketing Theory site.

A recent book entitled Reconnecting Marketing to Markets and co-edited with John Finch and Hans Kjellberg was published in December 2010. The book attempts to explore further the notion that markets are socio-technical constructions and the performative role that marketing plays in the construction of markets. More information about the book and other related activities can be found in the Market Studies website.

This approach raises a number of interesting questions - e.g. how do marketing practices contribute to the formation and operation of markets? What forms do markets take and how do different forms affect and become affected by marketing practices – e.g. how are differences between market forms (sustained by different marketing practices? How do different types of market actors (e.g. buyers, sellers, marketing institutions, trade associations, regulators) shape, and in turn become shaped by, particular market forms and marketing practices?

Offshoring and outsourcing of administrative and technical services: a modularity perspective
Spring, M., Araujo, L., Mason, K. 12/2013 In: Managing services. Oxford : Oxford University Press p. 154-173. 20 p. ISBN: 9780199696086.
Chapter

Indirect capabilities and complex performance: implications for procurement and operations strategy
Spring, M., Araujo, L. 2014 In: International Journal of Operations and Production Management. 34, 2, p. 150-173. 24 p.
Journal article

Provider involvement in business service definition: a typology
Selviaridis, K., Spring, M., Araujo, L. 11/2013 In: Industrial Marketing Management. 42, 8, p. 1398-1410. 13 p.
Journal article

What have markets ever done for the poor?
Araujo, L. 2013 In: Marketing Theory. 4 p.
Comment/debate

Beyond the service factory: service innovation in manufacturing supply networks
Spring, M., Araujo, L. 2013 In: Industrial Marketing Management. 42, 1, p. 59-70. 12 p.
Journal article

Comment on “Resource interaction in inter-organisational networks: Foundations, comparison, and a research agenda”
Araujo, L. 02/2012 In: Journal of Business Research. 65, 2, 2 p.
Comment/debate

Temporality in business networks: The role of narratives and management technologies
Araujo, L., Easton, G. 2012 In: Industrial Marketing Management. 41, 2, p. 312-318.
Journal article

Purchasing as Market-Shaping: the case of component-based software engineering
Ulkuniemi, P., Araujo, L., Tahtinen, J. 2012
Conference paper

Evidence for Markets, Markets for Evidence: Extending evidence-based medicine to the food sector
Azimont, F., Araujo, L. 2012
Conference paper

Studying innovation processes in real-time: The promises and challenges of ethnography
Hoholm, T., Araujo, L. 2011 In: Industrial Marketing Management. 40, 6, p. 933-939. 7 p.
Journal article

Complex performance, process modularity and the spatial configuration of production
Araujo, L.M., Spring, M. 2011 In: Procuring Complex Performance: Studies in Innovation in Product-Service Management. London and New York : Routledge p. 78-96. 19 p. ISBN: 9780415800051.
Chapter

Re-classifying and Re-Valuing Goods
Azimont, F., Araujo, L. 2011
Conference paper

Who is the customer? On the nature of customer representations in supply chains
Borgström, B., Araujo, L., Hertz, S. 2011
Conference paper

Introduction to e-special on Market Studies
Araujo, L., Finch, J., Kjellberg, H. 2011 In: Marketing Theory. 6 p.
Special issue

The making of a petrol station and the "on-the-move consumer": classification devices and the shaping of markets
Azimont, F., Araujo, L.M. 2010 In: Industrial Marketing Management. 39, 6, p. 1010-1019. 10 p.
Journal article

Re-classifying and re-valuing goods: a case-study
Azimont, F., Araujo, L.M. 2010 In: 1st EIASM Market Studies Workshop (Sweden) - 2010. N/A
Conference contribution

Reconnecting marketing to markets: an introduction
Araujo, L.M., Finch, J., Kjellberg, H. 2010 In: Reconnecting Marketing to Markets. Oxford : Oxford University Press p. 1-12. 12 p. ISBN: 9780199578061.
Chapter

Consumption, materiality and markets
Shove, E., Araujo, L.M. 2010 In: Reconnecting Marketing to Markets. Oxford : Oxford University Press p. 13-28. 16 p. ISBN: 9780199578061.
Chapter

Governing firms, shaping markets
Azimont, F., Araujo, L.M. 2010 In: Reconnecting Marketing to Markets. Oxford : Oxford University Press p. 78-96. 19 p. ISBN: 9780199578061.
Chapter

Connecting to markets
Araujo, L.M., Finch, J., Kjellberg, H. 2010 In: Reconnecting Marketing to Markets. Oxford : Oxford University Press p. 234-245. 12 p. ISBN: 9780199578061.
Chapter

Reconnecting Marketing to Markets
Araujo, L.M., Finch, J., Kjellberg, H. 2010 Oxford : Oxford University Press. 275 p. ISBN: 9780199578061.
Book

Studying Innovation Processes in Real Time
Hoholm, T., Araujo, L. 2010
Conference paper

Service, services and products: rethinking operations strategy
Spring, M., Araujo, L.M. 2009 In: International Journal of Operations and Production Management. 29, 5, p. 444-467. 14 p.
Journal article

The making of a petrol station and the "on-the-move consumer": classification devices and the shaping of markets
Azimont, F., Araujo, L.M. 2009 In: 25th Annual IMP Conference (Marseilles) - 2009. N/A : Industrial Marketing and Purchasing Group 25 p.
Conference contribution

Shaping exchanges, performing markets: the study of marketing practices
Araujo, L.M., Kjellberg, H. 2009 In: The Sage Handbook of Marketing Theory. London : Sage p. 195-218. 24 p. ISBN: 978-1-84787-505-1.
Chapter

Aligning user practices in innovation: the case of Heathrow's Terminal 5 project
Harty, C., Araujo, L.M. 2009 In: Use of Science and Technology in Business. Exploring the Impact of Using Activity for Systems, Organizations and People. Bingley : Emerald p. 271-290. 19 p.
Chapter (peer-reviewed)

Efficiency-seeking or recipe-following? The case of outsourcing
Araujo, L., Gadde, L. 2009
Conference paper

Market practices and forms: introduction to the Special Issue
Araujo, L.M., Kjellberg, H., Spencer, R. 2008 In: Marketing Theory. 8, 1, p. 5-14. 10 p.
Journal article

The winding road ahead: a reply
Dubois, A., Araujo, L.M. 2007 In: Journal of Purchasing and Supply Management. 13, 3, p. 221-222. 2 p.
Journal article

Case research in purchasing and supply management: opportunities and challenges
Dubois, A., Araujo, L.M. 2007 In: Journal of Purchasing and Supply Management. 13, 3, p. 170-181. 12 p.
Journal article

Category reviews as market-shaping events
Azimont, F., Araujo, L.M. 2007 In: Industrial Marketing Management. 36, 7, p. 849-860. 12 p.
Journal article

Markets, market-making and marketing
Araujo, L.M. 2007 In: Marketing Theory. 7, 3, p. 211-226. 16 p.
Journal article

Business recipes, historical narratives and the discovery of networks
Gadde, L., Araujo, L.M. 2007 In: The IMP Journal. 1, 3, p. 2-25. 24 p.
Journal article

The relationship between technical and organisational interfaces in product development
Dubois, A., Araujo, L.M. 2006 In: The IMP Journal. 1, 1, p. 21-38. 18 p.
Journal article

Services, products and the institutional structure of production
Araujo, L.M., Spring, M. 2006 In: Industrial Marketing Management. 35, 7, p. 797-805. 9 p.
Journal article

Learning-by-using as systems integration: the case of aircraft maintenance
Araujo, L.M., Mota, J. 2005 In: 21st Industrial Marketing and Purchasing Group Conference (Rotterdam) - 2005. N/A : Industrial Marketing and Purchasing Group 13 p.
Conference contribution

Floating over troubled waters: knowledge differentiation and integration in offshore platform design
Novello, S., Araujo, L.M. 2005 In: The Passion for Learning and Knowing: Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Organisational Learning and Knowledge. Trento : University of Trento p. 472-492. 21 p. ISBN: 88-8443-100-X.
Chapter

Research methods in industrial marketing studies
Dubois, A., Araujo, L.M. 2004 In: Rethinking Marketing: Developing a New Understanding of Markets. Chichester : John Wiley and Sons Ltd p. 207-228. 22 p. ISBN: 0-470-02147-0.
Chapter

MNCs and interdependencies in internationalisation processes
Araujo, L.M., Rezende, S. 2004 Lancaster University : The Department of Marketing
Working paper

Technological practice, firms, communities and networks
Araujo, L.M. 2004 Lancaster University : The Department of Marketing
Working paper

Lament for a market unmade
McLoughlin, D., Easton, G., Araujo, L.M. 2003 In: 19th Industrial Marketing and Purchasing Group International Conference (University of Lugano, Switzerland ) - 2003. N/A : unknown
Conference contribution

The evaluation of suppliers: a case study of Volvo cars and its module suppliers
Fredriksson, P., Araujo, L.M. 2003 In: Journal of Customer Behaviour. 2, 3, p. 365-384. 20 p.
Journal article

Editorial: purchasing and strategy
Araujo, L.M., Gadde, L.E., Snehota, I., Tunisini, A. 2003 In: Journal of Customer Behaviour. 2, 3, p. 291-304. 14 p.
Journal article

Path dependence, MNCs and the internationalisation process: a relational approach
Araujo, L.M., Rezende, S. 2003 In: International Business Review. 12, 6, p. 719-737. 19 p.
Journal article

Evaluating the impact of B2B e-commerce: a contingent approach
Easton, G., Araujo, L.M. 2003 In: Industrial Marketing Management. 32, 5, p. 431-439. 9 p.
Journal article

The multiple boundaries of the firm
Araujo, L.M., Dubois, A., Gadde, L.E. 2003 In: Journal of Management Studies. 40, 5, p. 1255-1277. 23 p.
Journal article

The effects of spatial proximity on inter-organisational relationships
Johnston, B., Araujo, L.M. 2002 In: 18th Industrial Marketing and Purchasing Group International Conference (Dijon, France ) - 2002. N/A : unknown
Conference contribution

The structures and processes of learning. a case study
Bångens, L., Araujo, L.M. 2002 In: Journal of Business Research. 55, 7, p. 571-581. 11 p.
Journal article

Path dependence, agency and technological evolution
Araujo, L.M., Harrison, D. 2002 In: Technology Analysis and Strategic Management. 14, 1, p. 5-19. 15 p.
Journal article

The division of labour and industrial networks
Kerndrup, S., Araujo, L.M. 2001 In: 17th Industrial Marketing and Purchasing Group Conference (Oslo) - 2001. N/A : unknown
Conference contribution

Industrial networks and B2B e-commerce: a conceptual and contingent exploration
Easton, G., Araujo, L.M. 2001 In: 17th Industrial Marketing and Purchasing Group Conference (Oslo) - 2001. N/A : unknown
Conference contribution

Implementing programmatic initiatives in manufacturer-retailer networks
Mouzas, S., Araujo, L.M. 2000 In: Industrial Marketing Management. 29, 4, p. 293-303. 11 p.
Journal article

Aprendizagem Organizacional e Organização de Aprendizagem. Desenvolvimento na Teoria e Prática
Easterby-Smith, M.P.V., Araujo, L.M., Burgoyne, J.G. 2000 São Paulo : Editora Atlas. ISBN: 85-224-2878-6.
Book

Organizational learning: current debates and opportunities
Easterby-Smith, M.P.V., Araujo, L.M. 1999 In: Organizational Learning and the Learning Organization: Developments in Theory and Practice. London : Sage p. 1-21. 21 p. ISBN: 0761959165.
Chapter

Organizational Learning and the Learning Organization: Developments in Theory and Practice
Easterby-Smith, M.P.V., Araujo, L.M., Burgoyne, J. 1999 London : Sage. 247 p. ISBN: 0761959165.
Book

A relational resource perspective on social capital
Araujo, L.M., Easton, G. 1999 In: Corporate Social Capital and Liability. Dordrecht : Kluwer Academic Publishers p. 68-87. 20 p. ISBN: 0-7923-8501-2.
Chapter

Managing interfaces with suppliers
Araujo, L.M., Dubois, A., Gadde, L.E. 1999 In: Industrial Marketing Management. 28, 5, p. 497-506. 10 p.
Journal article

Exchange, institutions and time
Araujo, L.M. 1999 In: Rethinking Marketing. London : Sage p. 84-105. 22 p. ISBN: 0-803-97491-4.
Chapter

Discontinuities in networks: issues and initiatives as initiators
Easton, G., Araujo, L.M. 1999 In: Advances in International Marketing. London : JAI p. 91-108. 18 p. ISBN: 0762303182.
Chapter

Editorial
Long, G., Araujo, L.M., Childs, S.K., Easton, G. 1998 In: Lambda, Current Awareness Journal in Marketing. 7, 2
Journal article

Manufacturer-retailer relationships in Germany. The institutionalisation of category management
Araujo, L.M., Mouzas, S. 1998 In: Network Dynamics in International Marketing. New York : Pergamon Press p. 211-232. 22 p. ISBN: 0-080-43358-8.
Chapter

Knowing and learning as networking
Araujo, L.M. 1998 In: Management Learning. 29, 3, p. 317-336. 20 p.
Journal article

Agency and constitutional ordering in interorganisational networks: a case study of the port wine sector
Araujo, L.M., Brito, C. 1998 In: International Studies of Management and Organization. 27, 4, p. 22-46. 25 p.
Journal article

Management research and literary criticism
Easton, G., Araujo, L.M. 1997 In: British Journal of Management. 8, 1, p. 99-106. 8 p.
Journal article

Interfirm responses to heterogeneity of demand over time
Easton, G., Araujo, L.M. 1997 In: The Formation of Interorganisational Networks. Oxford : Oxford University Press p. 66-94. 29 p. ISBN: 0-19-828948-0.
Chapter

Competition and cooperation in vertical marketing systems
Araujo, L.M., Mouzas, S. 1997 In: Relationships and Networks in International Markets. New York : Pergamon Press p. 145-165. 21 p. ISBN: 0-080-43063-5.
Chapter