Dr Andrew Pinkerton BEng MBA MPhil PhD CEng FIMechE

Senior Lecturer

Research Interests

Andrew’s main research interest is laser materials processing. He has reseached laser direct metal deposition, welding, drilling, and maufacture of biocompatible inserts using laser for over 10 years, leading to over 100 publications in the field.

Other work has considered condition monitoring via thermography and vibration monitoring methods. He specialises in modelling of laser and thermography processes - mainly using analytical techniques but recently also integrated FE and CFD models.

Lasers in additive manufacturing
Pinkerton, A.J. 04/2016 In: Optics and Laser Technology. 78, Part A, p. 25-32. 8 p.
Journal article

Advances in the modelling of laser direct metal deposition (invited)
Pinkerton, A. 02/2015 In: Journal of Laser Applications. 27, S1, 7 p.
Journal article

Combined vibration and thermal analysis for the condition monitoring of rotating machinery
Nembhard, A., Sinha, J., Pinkerton, A., Elbhbah, K. 05/2014 In: Structural Health Monitoring. 13, 3, p. 281-295. 15 p.
Journal article

Parametric study of development of inconel-steel functionally graded materials by laser direct metal deposition
Shah, K., ul Haq, I., Khan, A., Shah, S.A., Khan, M., Pinkerton, A. 02/2014 In: Materials and Design. 54, p. 531-538. 8 p.
Journal article

Condition monitoring of rotating machines using vibration and bearing temperature measurements
Nembhard, A., Sinha, J., Pinkerton, A., Elbhbah, K. 2014 In: Advances in Condition Monitoring of Machinery in Non-stationary Operations. Berlin : Springer Verlag p. 159-169. 11 p.
Paper

Vibration-based delamination detection in a composite plate
Ullah, I., Sinha, J., Pinkerton, A. 25/04/2013 In: Mechanics of Advanced Materials and Structures. 20, 7, p. 536-551. 16 p.
Journal article

Direct laser deposition with different types of 316L steel particle: a comparative study of final part properties
Mahmood, K., Pinkerton, A. 04/2013 In: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part B: Journal of Engineering Manufacture. 227, 4, p. 520-531. 12 p.
Journal article

An anisotropic enhanced thermal conductivity approach for modelling laser melt pools for Ni-base super alloys
Safdar, S., Pinkerton, A.J., Li, L., Sheikh, M., Withers, P. 1/02/2013 In: Applied Mathematical Modelling. 37, 3, p. 1187-1195. 9 p.
Journal article

A coupled approach to weld pool, phase and residual stress modelling of laser direct metal deposition (LDMD) processes
Vogel, M., Khan, M., Ibarra-Medina, J., Pinkerton, A., N'Dri, N., Megahed, M. 2013 In: 2nd World Congress on Integrated Computational Materials Engineering. Wiley p. 231-236. 6 p.
Paper

Advances and challenges in the modelling of laser melt pool processes: Keynote presentation at the Interfinish SERIA 2013 Asia-Pacific International Conference on Surface Engineering for Research and Industrial Applications
Pinkerton, A. 2013
Other contribution

Laser clad corrosion protection for mild and harsh environments
Mahmood, K., Stevens, N., Pinkerton, A. 09/2012 In: Surface Engineering. 28, 8, p. 576-584. 9 p.
Journal article

Laser surface modification using Inconel 617 machining swarf as coating material
Mahmood, K., Stevens, N., Pinkerton, A.J. 06/2012 In: Journal of Materials Processing Technology. 212, 6, p. 1271-1280. 10 p.
Journal article

A comparison of laser additive manufacturing using gas and plasma-atomized Ti-6A1-4V powders
Ahsan, M.N., Pinkerton, A.J., Ali, L. 2012 In: Innovative Developments in Virtual and Physical Prototyping. Boca Raton : CRC PRESS-TAYLOR & FRANCIS GROUP p. 625-633. 9 p. ISBN: 978-0-415-68418-7.
Conference contribution

A verified model of transient and residual stresses in laser direct metal deposition
Vogel, M., Khan, M., Ibarra-Medina, J., Pinkerton, A.J., N'Dri, N., Megahed, M. 2012 In: Proceedings of the 31st International Congress on Applications of Lasers and Electro-optics (ICALEO). Laser Institute of America p. Paper 304.
Paper

Analysis and simulation of the effects of melt pool flow during laser deposition of a multiphase material
Khan, M., Vogel, M., Ibarra-Medina, J., Pinkerton, A.J., N'Dri, N., Megahed, M. 2012 In: Proceedings of the 31st International Congress on Applications of Lasers and Electro-optics (ICALEO). Laser Institute of America p. Paper P133.
Paper

Characterization of weld bead geometry in fibre laser butt welding of mild steel sheets by means of statistical modelling
Eghlio, R.M., Pinkerton, A.J., Li, L. 2012 In: Lasers in Engineering. 22, 5-6, p. 281-298. 18 p.
Journal article

Guest Editorial: The 36th MATADOR Conference 2010
Pinkerton, A.J. 2012 In: Materials and Manufacturing Processes. 27, 4, 1 p.
Editorial

Numerical investigation of powder heating in coaxial laser metal deposition
Ibarra-Medina, J., Pinkerton, A.J. 11/2011 In: Surface Engineering. 27, 10, p. 754-761. 8 p.
Journal article

A comparative study of laser direct metal deposition characteristics using gas and plasma-atomized Ti-6Al-4V powders
Ahsan, M.N., Pinkerton, A.J., Moat, R.J., Shackleton, J. 25/09/2011 In: Materials Science and Engineering: A. 528, 25-26, p. 7648-7657. 10 p.
Journal article

An analytical-numerical model of laser direct metal deposition track and microstructure formation
Ahsan, M.N., Pinkerton, A.J. 07/2011 In: Modelling and Simulation in Materials Science and Engineering. 19, 5, p. -. 22 p.
Journal article

Microcomputed tomography analysis of intralayer porosity generation in laser direct metal deposition and its causes
Ahsan, M.N., Bradley, R., Pinkerton, A.J. 05/2011 In: Journal of Laser Applications. 23, 2, p. -. 10 p.
Journal article

Porous structures fabrication by continuous and pulsed laser metal deposition for biomedical applications; modelling and experimental investigation
Ahsan, M.N., Paul, C.P., Kukreja, L.M., Pinkerton, A.J. 1/04/2011 In: Journal of Materials Processing Technology. 211, 4, p. 602-609. 8 p.
Journal article

Residual stresses in laser direct metal deposited Waspaloy
Moat, R.J., Pinkerton, A.J., Li, L., Withers, P.J., Preuss, M. 15/03/2011 In: Materials Science and Engineering: A. 528, 6, p. 2288-2298. 11 p.
Journal article

Fibre laser welding of dissimilar alloys of Ti-6Al-4V and Inconel 718 for aerospace applications
Chen, H., Pinkerton, A.J., Li, L. 02/2011 In: International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology. 52, 9-12, p. 977-987. 11 p.
Journal article

Gap-free fibre laser welding of Zn-coated steel on Al alloy for light-weight automotive applications
Chen, H., Pinkerton, A.J., Li, L., Liu, Z., Mistry, A.T. 02/2011 In: Materials and Design. 32, 2, p. 495-504. 10 p.
Journal article

Innovative reconsolidation of carbon steel machining swarf by laser metal deposition
Mahmood, K., Syed, W.U.H., Pinkerton, A.J. 02/2011 In: Optics and Lasers in Engineering. 49, 2, p. 240-247. 8 p.
Journal article

A CFD model of laser cladding: From deposition head to melt pool dynamics
Ibarra-Medina, J., Vogel, M., Pinkerton, A. 2011 In: Proceedings of the 30th International Congress on Applications of Lasers and Electro-optics (ICALEO). Laser Institute of America p. 378-386. 9 p.
Paper

An integrated model of laser clad formation using CFD and FE methods
Vogel, M., Ibarra-Medina, J., N'Dri, N., Pinkerton, A.J. 2011 In: Surface modification technologies XXV . India : Valardocs
Paper

Laser metal deposition of steel components using machining waste as build material
Mahmood, K., Khan, A., Pinkerton, A.J. 2011 In: Proceedings of CLEO, the IEEE Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics. New York : IEEE p. -. 2 p. ISBN: 978-1-55752-910-7.
Conference contribution

Laser surface cladding of Inconel 617 chips on mild steel
Mahmood, K., Pinkerton, A.J., Syed, W.U.H. 2011 In: Proceedings of the 25th International Conference on Surface Modification Technologies. Valardocs
Paper

Material-efficient laser cladding for corrosion resistance
Mahmood, K., Stevens, N., Syed, W.U.H., Pinkerton, A. 2011 In: Proceedings of the 30th International Congress on Applications of Lasers and Electro-optics (ICALEO). Laser Institute of America p. 695-704. 10 p.
Paper

A CFD model of the laser, coaxial powder stream and substrate interaction in laser cladding
Ibarra-Medina, J., Pinkerton, A.J. 2010 In: Physics Procedia. 5, B, p. 337-346. 10 p.
Journal article

A numerical investigation of powder heating in coaxial laser direct metal deposition
Ibarra-Medina, J., Pinkerton, A.J. 2010 In: Proceedings of the 36th International Matador Conference. London : Springer p. 455-458. 4 p.
Paper

An iterative, energy-mass balance model for laser metal deposition
Ahsan, M.N., Wang, W., Pinkerton, A. 2010 In: Proceedings of the 29th International Congress on Applications of Lasers and Electro-optics (ICALEO). Laser Institute of America p. 149-158. 10 p.
Paper

Effects of Melt Pool Variables and Process Parameters in Laser Direct Metal Deposition of Aerospace Alloys
Shah, K., Pinkerton, A.J., Salman, A., Li, L. 2010 In: Materials and Manufacturing Processes. 25, 12, p. 1372-1380. 9 p.
Journal article

Influence of melt pool convection on residual stress induced in laser cladding and powder deposition
Kamara, A.M., Wang, W., Marimuthu, S., Pinkerton, A.J., Li, L. 2010 In: Proceedings of the 4th Pacific International Conference on Applications of Lasers and Optics (PICALO). Laser Institute of America
Paper

Laser direct deposition of carbon steel machining waste
Mahmood, K., Syed, W.U.H., Pinkerton, A. 2010 In: Proceedings of the 29th International Congress on Applications of Lasers and Electro-optics (ICALEO). Laser Institute of America p. 1533-1540. 8 p.
Paper

Laser direct metal deposition: theory and applications in manufacturing and maintenance
Pinkerton, A.J. 2010 In: Advances in laser materials processing . Oxford : Woodhead Publishing Limited ISBN: 9781845694746.
Chapter

Net shape laser butt welding of mild steel sheets
Eghlio, R.M., Pinkerton, A.J., Li, L. 2010 In: Proceedings of the 36th International Matador Conference. London : Springer p. 267-270. 4 p.
Paper

Process characteristics of single mode fibre laser net shape welding
Eghlio, R.M., Pinkerton, A., Sezer, H.K., Li, L. 2010 In: Proceedings of the 4th Pacific International Conference on Applications of Lasers and Optics (PICALO). Laser Institute of America
Paper

Selective laser sintering of calcium polyphosphate - Polyvinyl alcohol for biomedical applications
Shanjani, Y., Pinkerton, A., Toyserkani, E. 2010 In: Proceedings of the 29th International Congress on Applications of Lasers and Electro-optics (ICALEO). Laser Institute of America p. 489-494. 6 p.
Paper

The effect of beam geometry on diode laser forming of sheet metals
Jamil, M., Pinkerton, A., Li, L., Sheikh, M. 2010 In: Proceedings of the 29th International Congress on Applications of Lasers and Electro-optics (ICALEO). Laser Institute of America p. 495-502. 8 p.
Paper

The effect of continuous and pulsed beam modes on cut path deviation in diode laser cutting of glass
Nisar, S., Li, L., Sheikh, M.A., Pinkerton, A.J. 2010 In: International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology. 49, 1-4, p. 167-175. 9 p.
Journal article

The effect of laser beam geometry on cut path deviation in diode laser chip-free cutting of glass
Nisar, S., Sheikh, M.A., Li, L., Pinkerton, A.J., Safdar, S. 2010 In: Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering. 132, 1, 9 p.
Journal article

The influence of powder stream shape and substrate position on mass addition in laser cladding
Ibarra-Medina, J., Pinkerton, A.J. 2010 In: Proceedings of the 24th International Conference on Surface Modification Technologies. Valardocs
Paper

X-ray analysis of pore formation in direct metal deposition and its causes
Ahsan, M.N., Bradley, R., Pinkerton, A. 2010 In: Proceedings of the 29th International Congress on Applications of Lasers and Electro-optics (ICALEO). Laser Institute of America p. 159-165. 7 p.
Paper

Laser and electron beams - evolving tools for surface engineering
Pinkerton, A.J. 04/2009 In: Surface Engineering. 25, 3, 3 p.
Editorial

Crystallographic texture and microstructure of pulsed diode laser-deposited Waspaloy
Moat, R.J., Pinkerton, A.J., Li, L., Withers, P.J., Preuss, M. 02/2009 In: Acta Metallurgica et Materialia. 57, 4, p. 1220-1229. 10 p.
Journal article

A comparison of cut path deviation with continuous and pulsed beam modes in diode laser chip-free cutting of glass
Nisar, S., Li, L., Sheikh, M.A., Pinkerton, A. 2009 In: Proceedings of the 28th International Congress on Applications of Lasers and Electro-optics (ICALEO). Laser Institute of America p. 1070-1079. 10 p.
Paper

A method and model for deposition of TI-6Al-4V with controlled porosity
Ahsan, M.N., Pinkerton, A. 2009 In: Proceedings of the 28th International Congress on Applications of Lasers and Electro-optics (ICALEO). Laser Institute of America p. 462-471. 10 p.
Paper

Coaxial laser cladding gas flows and their effects
Ibarra-Medina, J., Pinkerton, A.J., Paul, C.P. 2009 In: Proceedings of the 23rd International Conference on Surface Modification Technologies. Valardocs
Paper

Fibre laser net-shape welding of steels
Eghlio, R.M., Pinkerton, A., Li, L. 2009 In: Proceedings of the 28th International Congress on Applications of Lasers and Electro-optics (ICALEO). Laser Institute of America p. 1402-1408. 7 p.
Paper

Fibre laser welding of Zn-coated steel in Al alloy for next generation lightweight vehicles
Chen, H., Pinkerton, A.J., Li, L., Mistry, A.T. 2009 In: Proceedings of the 28th International Congress on Applications of Lasers and Electro-optics (ICALEO). Laser Institute of America p. Paper P104.
Paper

Oxide formation in acute laser percussion drilled holes in single crystal nickel superalloy
Leigh, S., Sezer, K., Li, L., Pinkerton, A.J., Grafton-Reed, C., Cuttell, M. 2009 In: Proceedings of the 28th International Congress on Applications of Lasers and Electro-optics (ICALEO). Laser Institute of America p. 719-728. 10 p.
Paper

Porous surface structures by continuous and pulsed laser metal deposition for biomedical applications
Pinkerton, A.J., Ahsan, M.N., Paul, C.P., Kukreja, L.M. 2009 In: Proceedings of the 23rd International Conference on Surface Modification Technologies. Valardocs
Paper

The significance of melt pool variables in laser direct deposition of functionally graded aerospace alloys
Shah, K., Salman, A., Pinkerton, A.J., Li, L. 2009 In: Proceedings of the 28th International Congress on Applications of Lasers and Electro-optics (ICALEO). Laser Institute of America p. 569-576. 8 p.
Paper

Femtosecond laser micromachining of fibre Bragg gratings for simultaneous measurement of temperature and concentration of liquids
Alemohammad, H., Toyserkani, E., Pinkerton, A.J. 21/09/2008 In: Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics. 41, 18, p. -. 9 p.
Journal article

Component repair using laser direct metal deposition
Pinkerton, A.J., Wang, W., Li, L. 07/2008 In: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part B: Journal of Engineering Manufacture. 222, 7, p. 827-836. 10 p.
Journal article

Laser surface colouring of titanium for contemporary jewellery
O'Hana, S., Pinkerton, A.J., Shoba, K., Gale, A.W., Li, L. 03/2008 In: Surface Engineering. 24, 2, p. 147-153. 7 p.
Journal article

A comparative study of single mode fibre laser and Nd:YAG laser welding of Ti-6Al-4V
Chen, H., Blackburn, J., Pinkerton, A., Li, L., Hilton, P. 2008 In: Proceedings of the 3rd Pacific International Conference on Applications of Lasers and Optics (PICALO). Laser Institute of America p. 163-168. 6 p.
Paper

A gas-free powder delivery system for 100% deposition efficiency in Direct Laser Deposition
Wang, W., Pinkerton, A., Li, L. 2008 In: Proceedings of the 27th International Congress on Applications of Lasers and Electro-optics (ICALEO). Laser Institute of America p. 415-423. 9 p.
Paper

Direct diode laser deposition of functionally graded Ti-6AL-4V and inconel 718 components
Shah, K., Pinkerton, A.J., Moat, R., Li, L., Preuss, M. 2008 In: Proceedings of the 3rd Pacific International Conference on Applications of Lasers and Optics (PICALO). Laser Institute of America p. 273-278. 6 p.
Paper

Direct laser deposited titanium with controlled porosity for bone tissue engineering
Pinkerton, A., Paul, C.P., Iravani-Tabrizipoor, M., Kukreja, L.M., Khajepour, A. 2008 In: Proceedings of the 27th International Congress on Applications of Lasers and Electro-optics (ICALEO). Laser Institute of America p. 421-430. 10 p.
Paper

Single mode fibre laser welding of dissimilar aerospace alloys
Chen, H., Pinkerton, A.J., Li, L. 2008 In: Proceedings of the 3rd Pacific International Conference on Applications of Lasers and Optics (PICALO). Laser Institute of America p. 505-510. 6 p.
Paper

Three dimensional analytical and finite element methods for simulating a moving melt pool with mass addition
Pinkerton, A., Kamara, A.M., Shah, K., Safdar, S., Li, L. 2008 In: Proceedings of the 3rd Pacific International Conference on Applications of Lasers and Optics (PICALO). Laser Institute of America p. 369-374. 6 p.
Paper

Theoretical analysis of the coincident wire-powder laser deposition process
Pinkerton, A.J., Syed, W.U.H., Li, L. 12/2007 In: Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering. 129, 6, p. 1019-1027. 9 p.
Journal article

Single-step laser deposition of functionally graded coating by dual 'wire-powder' or 'powder-powder' feeding: a comparative study
Syed, W.U.H., Pinkerton, A.J., Liu, Z., Li, L. 31/07/2007 In: Applied Surface Science. 253, 19, p. 7926-7931. 6 p.
Journal article

Coincident wire and powder deposition by laser to form compositionally graded material
Syed, W.U.H., Pinkerton, A.J., Liu, Z., Li, L. 21/05/2007 In: Surface and Coatings Technology. 201, 16-17, p. 7083-7091. 9 p.
Journal article

A method and model for pulsed laser cleaning of rapid manufactured parts
Pinkerton, A.J., Li, K. 2007 In: Proceedings of the 21st International Conference on Surface Modification Technologies. ASM International
Paper

A verified model of laser direct metal deposition using an analytical enthalpy balance method
Pinkerton, A., Moat, R., Shah, K., Li, L., Preuss, M., Withers, P.J. 2007 In: Proceedings of the 26th International Congress on Applications of Lasers and Electro-optics (ICALEO). Laser Institute of America
Paper

An analytical model of beam attenuation and powder heating during coaxial laser direct metal deposition
Pinkerton, A.J. 2007 In: Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics. 40, 23, p. 7323-7334. 12 p.
Journal article

An anisotropic enhanced thermal conductivity approach for modelling laser melt pools
Safdar, S., Pinkerton, A., Moat, R., Li, L., Sheikh, M.A., Preuss, M., Withers, P.J. 2007 In: Proceedings of the 26th International Congress on Applications of Lasers and Electro-optics (ICALEO). Laser Institute of America
Paper

Component repair using laser direct metal deposition
Wang, W., Pinkerton, A.J., Wee, L.M., Li, L. 2007 In: Proceedings of the 35th International MATADOR Conference. London : Springer Verlag p. 345-350. 6 p. ISBN: 978-1-84628-987-3.
Conference contribution

From art to engineering
O'Hana, S., Pinkerton, A.J., Shoba, K. 2007 In: Proceedings of the 21st International Conference on Surface Modification Technologies. ASM International
Paper

Intragranular precipitation variations in laser deposited Waspaloy due to compositional inhomogeneities
Moat, R.J., Karadge, M., Pinkerton, A., Deschamps, A., Bley, F., Li, L., Withers, P.J., Preuss, M. 2007 In: Proceedings of the 136th TMS Annual Meeting. The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society (TMS) p. 77-86. 10 p.
Paper

Stress distributions in multilayer laser deposited Waspaloy parts measured using neutron diffraction
Moat, R.J., Pinkerton, A., Hughes, D.J., Li, L., Withers, P.J., Preuss, M. 2007 In: Proceedings of the 25th International Congress on Applications of Lasers and Electro-optics (ICALEO). Laser Institute of America
Paper

Effect of beam angle on HAZ, recast and oxide layer characteristics in laser drilling of TBC nickel superalloys
Sezer, H.K., Li, L., Schmidt, M., Pinkerton, A.J., Anderson, B., Williams, P. 12/2006 In: International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture. 46, 15, p. 1972-1982. 11 p.
Journal article

Thermal and microstructural aspects of the laser direct metal deposition of waspaloy
Pinkerton, A.J., Karadge, M., Syed, W.U.H., Li, L. 08/2006 In: Journal of Laser Applications. 18, 3, p. 216-226. 11 p.
Journal article

Combining wire and coaxial powder feeding in laser direct metal deposition for rapid prototyping
Syed, W.U.H., Pinkerton, A.J., Li, L. 30/04/2006 In: Applied Surface Science. 252, 13, p. 4803-4808. 6 p.
Journal article

Simultaneous wire- and powder-feed direct metal deposition: An investigation of the process characteristics and comparison with single-feed methods
Syed, W.U.H., Pinkerton, A.J., Li, L. 02/2006 In: Journal of Laser Applications. 18, 1, p. 65-72. 8 p.
Journal article

An analytical model of the combined powder-wire deposition process
Pinkerton, A.J., Syed, W.U.H., Li, L. 2006 In: Proceedings of the 25th International Congress on Applications of Lasers and Electro-optics (ICALEO). Laser Institute of America
Paper

An experimental and theoretical investigation of combined gas- and water-atomized powder deposition with a diode laser
Pinkerton, A.J., Syed, W.U.H., Li, L. 2006 In: Journal of Laser Applications. 18, 1, p. 73-80. 8 p.
Journal article

Diode laser metal deposition: The effect of pulsed beam parameters on superalloy microstructure and deposit morphology
Pinkerton, A., Moat, R.J., Li, L., Preuss, M., Withers, P. 2006 In: Proceedings of the 25th International Congress on Applications of Lasers and Electro-optics (ICALEO). Laser Institute of America
Paper

Rapid additive manufacturing of functionally graded structures using simultaneous wire and powder laser deposition
Li, L., Syed, W.U.H., Pinkerton, A.J. 2006 In: Virtual and Physical Prototyping. 1, 4, p. 217-225. 9 p.
Journal article

The effect of powder recycling in direct metal laser deposition on powder and manufactured part characteristics
Carroll, P.A., Pinkerton, A.J., Allen, J., Syed, W.U.H., Sezer, H.K., Brown, P., Ng, G., Scudamore, R., Li, L. 2006 In: Proceedings of AVT-139 Specialists Meeting on Cost Effective Manufacture via Net Shape Processing. NATO Research and Technology Organisation
Paper

Mechanical and electrochemical properties of multiple-layer diode laser cladding of 316L stainless steel
Majumdar, J.D., Pinkerton, A.J., Liu, Z., Manna, I., Li, L. 15/07/2005 In: Applied Surface Science. 247, 1-4, p. 373-377. 5 p.
Journal article

Microstructure characterisation and process optimization of laser assisted rapid fabrication of 316L stainless steel
Majumdar, J.D., Pinkerton, A.J., Liu, Z., Manna, I., Li, L. 15/07/2005 In: Applied Surface Science. 247, 1-4, p. 320-327. 8 p.
Journal article

Multiple-layer laser deposition of steel components using gas- and water-atomised powders: the differences and the mechanisms leading to them
Pinkerton, A.J., Li, L. 15/07/2005 In: Applied Surface Science. 247, 1-4, p. 175-181. 7 p.
Journal article

A comparative study of wire feeding and powder feeding in direct diode laser deposition for rapid prototyping
Syed, W.U.H., Pinkerton, A.J., Li, L. 2005 In: Applied Surface Science. 247, 1-4, p. 268-276. 9 p.
Journal article

Alternative nozzle and metal delivery methods for laser-assisted metal deposition: (invited paper & presentation)
Pinkerton, A.J. 2005
Conference paper

An experimental and numerical study of the influence of diode laser beam shape on thin wall direct metal deposition
Pinkerton, A.J., Li, L. 2005 In: Journal of Laser Applications. 17, 1, p. 47-56. 10 p.
Journal article

An investigation into delamination mechanisms in inclined laser drilling of thermal barrier coated aerospace superalloys
Sezer, H.K., Pinkerton, A.J., Li, L., Byrd, P. 2005 In: Journal of Laser Applications. 17, 4, p. 225-234. 10 p.
Journal article

Direct additive laser manufacturing using gas- and water-atomised H13 tool steel powders
Pinkerton, A.J., Li, L. 2005 In: International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology. 25, 5-6, p. 471-479. 9 p.
Journal article

Explaining microstructural and physical variations in rapid additive manufactured waspaloy parts through the laser-deposition thermal cycle
Pinkerton, A., Syed, W.U.H., Karadge, M., Li, L. 2005 In: Proceedings of the 24th International Congress on Applications of Lasers and Electro-optics (ICALEO). Laser Institute of America p. 822-831. 10 p.
Paper

Single-step graded surface coating using combined wire and powder feeding laser cladding
Syed, W.U.H., Pinkerton, A.J., Liu, Z., Li, L. 2005 In: Proceedings of the 24th International Congress on Applications of Lasers and Electro-optics (ICALEO). Laser Institute of America p. 787-795. 9 p.
Paper

Statistical analysis of the effect of processing conditions on powder catchment efficiency in the Direct Laser Deposition (DLD) process
Syed, W.U.H., Pinkerton, A.J., Li, L., Al-Eid, E., Pan, J. 2005 In: Virtual modeling and rapid manufacturing. London : Taylor and Francis p. 361-367. 7 p. ISBN: 9780415390620.
Conference contribution

The effect of process parameters on residual stresses within an inconel 718 part produced by the Direct Laser Deposition process
Pinkerton, A., Shackleton, J., Moat, R., Li, L., Withers, P., Preuss, M., Allen, J., Hilton, P., Folwell, R. 2005 In: Proceedings of the 24th International Congress on Applications of Lasers and Electro-optics (ICALEO). Laser Institute of America p. 601-610. 10 p.
Paper

Modelling the geometry of a moving laser melt pool and deposition track via energy and mass balances
Pinkerton, A.J., Li, L. 21/07/2004 In: Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics. 37, 14, p. 1885-1895. 11 p.
Journal article

The development of temperature fields and powder flow during laser direct metal deposition wall growth
Pinkerton, A.J., Li, L. 05/2004 In: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part C: Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science. 218, 5, p. 531-541. 11 p.
Journal article

The significance of deposition point standoff variations in multiple-layer coaxial laser cladding (coaxial cladding standoff effects)
Pinkerton, A.J., Li, L. 05/2004 In: International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture. 44, 6, p. 573-584. 12 p.
Journal article

Multiple-layer cladding of stainless steel using a high-powered diode laser: an experimental investigation of the process characteristics and material properties
Pinkerton, A.J., Li, L. 1/04/2004 In: Thin Solid Films. 453-454, 2, p. 471-476. 6 p.
Journal article

The behaviour of water- and gas-atomised tool steel powders in coaxial laser freeform fabrication
Pinkerton, A.J., Li, L. 1/04/2004 In: Thin Solid Films. 453-454, 2, p. 600-605. 6 p.
Journal article

Modelling powder concentration distribution from a coaxial deposition nozzle for laser-based rapid tooling
Pinkerton, A.J., Li, L. 02/2004 In: Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering. 126, 1, p. 33-41. 9 p.
Journal article

An analytical model of energy distribution in laser direct metal deposition
Pinkerton, A.J., Li, L. 2004 In: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part B: Journal of Engineering Manufacture. 218, 4, p. 363-374. 12 p.
Journal article

Combined wire and powder feeding laser direct metal deposition for rapid prototyping
Syed, W.U.H., Pinkerton, A.J., Li, L. 2004 In: Proceedings of the 23rd International Congress on Applications of Lasers and Electro-optics (ICALEO). Laser Institute of America
Paper

Diode laser deposition of microstructurally graded components using gas- and water-atomised powder blends
Pinkerton, A.J., Syed, W.U.H., Li, L. 2004 In: Proceedings of the 23rd International Congress on Applications of Lasers and Electro-optics (ICALEO). Laser Institute of America
Paper

Process characteristics and effects of gas- and water-atomized stainless steel powders in laser-based rapid tooling
Pinkerton, A.J., Li, L. 08/2003 In: Journal of Laser Applications. 15, 3, p. 172-178. 7 p.
Journal article

The effect of laser pulse width on multiple-layer 316L steel clad microstructure and surface finish
Pinkerton, A.J., Li, L. 15/03/2003 In: Applied Surface Science. 208-209, p. 411-416. 6 p.
Journal article

An investigation of the effect of pulse frequency in laser multiple-layer cladding of stainless steel
Pinkerton, A.J., Li, L. 2003 In: Applied Surface Science. 208-209, p. 405-410. 6 p.
Journal article

Direct metal deposition by diode laser: modelling the effect of increased beam coupling
Pinkerton, A.J., Li, L. 2003 In: Proceedings of the 22nd International Congress on Applications of Lasers and Electro-optics (ICALEO). Laser Institute of America
Paper

Effects of powder geometry and composition in coaxial laser deposition of 316L steel for rapid prototyping
Pinkerton, A.J., Li, L. 2003 In: CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology. 52, 1, p. 181-184. 4 p.
Journal article

Modelling the temperature effects of melt pool position and wall height in additive manufacturing by direct laser deposition
Pinkerton, A.J., Li, L. 2003 In: Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Advanced Research in Virtual and Rapid Prototyping. Leiria : Escola Superior Tecnologia Gestao Leiria p. 224-231. 8 p.
Conference contribution

Rapid prototyping using direct laser deposition - the effect of powder atomization type and flowrate
Pinkerton, A.J., Li, L. 2003 In: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part B: Journal of Engineering Manufacture. 217, 6, p. 741-752. 12 p.
Journal article

The effect of diode laser beam shape and traverse direction on the direct metal deposition process
Pinkerton, A.J., Li, L. 2003 In: Proceedings of the 22nd International Congress on Applications of Lasers and Electro-optics (ICALEO). Laser Institute of America
Paper

A comparative study of multiple layer laser deposition using water and gas atomised 316L stainless steel powders
Pinkerton, A.J., Li, L. 2002 In: Proceedings of the 21st International Congress on Applications of Lasers and Electro-optics (ICALEO). Laser Institute of America
Paper

A verified model of the behaviour of the axial powder stream concentration from a coaxial laser cladding nozzle
Pinkerton, A.J., Li, L. 2002 In: Proceedings of the 21st International Congress on Applications of Lasers and Electro-optics (ICALEO). Laser Institute of America
Paper

Direct laser deposition layer profiles and the factors affecting them
Pinkerton, A.J., Li, L. 2002
Conference paper

Laser rapid manufacturing process advancement through powder morphology
Pinkerton, A.J. 2002
Poster