Professor Harry Pinkerton

Professor Harry Pinkerton

Emeritus

LEC Building
Lancaster University
Bailrigg
Lancaster
United Kingdom
LA1 4YQ

+44 (0)15242 41397

Research Interests

* Measurements of the physical properties of magmas and implications for magmatic behaviour * Lava flow emplacement mechanisms * The application of thermal imaging and other remote sensing methods in volcanology * Methods of analysing the instability of volcanoes and lava domes

Harry Pinkerton's Publications

In Press

From ASCII files to orthophotos: The processing of high resolution aerial survey data using open source GIS software.

Stevenson, J. A., Mitchell, N. C. & Pinkerton, H. expected in 2015 Proceedings, Open Source GIS conference.

Research output: Contribution in Book/Report/ProceedingsChapter

2013

Modelling flank instabilities on stratovolcanoes: parameter sensitivity and stability analyses of Teide, Tenerife

del Potro, R., Huerlimann, M. & Pinkerton, H. 15/04/2013 In : Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 256, p. 50-60 11 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article

Direct observations of degassing induced crystallization in basalts

Applegarth, L., Tuffen, H., James, M., Pinkerton, H. & Cashman, K. V. 02/2013 In : Geology. 41, 2, p. 243-246 4 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article

Degassing-induced crystallization in basalts

Applegarth, L., Tuffen, H., James, M. & Pinkerton, H. 1/01/2013 In : Earth-Science Reviews. 116, p. 1-16 16 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article

Topographic and thermal mapping of volcanic terrain using the AVTIS ground based 94GHz dual-mode radar/radiometric imager

Macfarlane, D. G., Odbert, H. M., Robertson, D., James, M., Pinkerton, H. & Wadge, G. 01/2013 In : IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing. 51, 1, p. 455-472 18 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article

2012

Lava channel roofing, overflows, breaches and switching: insights from the 2008-9 eruption of Mt. Etna

James, M. R., Applegarth, L. & Pinkerton, H. 01/2012 In : Bulletin of Volcanology. 74, 1, p. 107-117 11 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article

Lava penetrating water: the different behaviours of pāhoehoe and ‘a‘ā at the Nesjahraun, Þingvellir, Iceland

Stevenson, J., Mitchell, N. C., Mochrie, F., Cassidy, M. & Pinkerton, H. 01/2012 In : Bulletin of Volcanology. 74, 1, p. 33-46 14 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article

Widespread inflation and drainage of a pāhoehoe flow field: the Nesjahraun, Þingvellir, Iceland

Stevenson, J., Mitchell, N. C., Cassidy, M. & Pinkerton, H. 01/2012 In : Bulletin of Volcanology. 74, 1, p. 15-31 17 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article

2011

Quantifying degassing-driven crystal growth in basaltic lavas

Applegarth, L., Tuffen, H., James, M. R., Cashman, K. V. & Pinkerton, H. 5/12/2011 0 p.

Research output: Contribution to conferenceAbstract

Detecting degassing-induced crystallisation in basaltic lavas

Applegarth, L., Tuffen, H., James, M. & Pinkerton, H. 2011 0 p.

Research output: Contribution to conferenceAbstract

Monitoring volcanoes: a review

Pinkerton, H. 2011 In : Kosmos - Problemy nauk biologicznych. 60, 3-4, p. 245-260 16 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article

2010

Imaging short period variations in lava flux

James, M., Pinkerton, H. & Ripepe, M. 08/2010 In : Bulletin of Volcanology. 72, 6, p. 671-676 6 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article

Morphological complexities and hazards during the emplacement of channel-fed `a`ā lava flow fields: a study of the 2001 lower flow field on Etna

Applegarth, L. J., Pinkerton, H., James, M. & Calvari, S. 08/2010 In : Bulletin of Volcanology. 72, 6, p. 641-656 16 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article

Lava flow superposition: the reactivation of flow units in compound 'a'ā flows

Applegarth, L., Pinkerton, H., James, M. R. & Calvari, S. 30/07/2010 In : Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 194, 4, p. 100-106 7 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article

The influence of surface clinker on the crustal structures and dynamics of 'a'ā lava flows.

Applegarth, L. J., James, M. R., Van Wyk de Vries, B. & Pinkerton, H. 07/2010 In : Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth. 115, B07210, B07210

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article

The use of magmatic water to reconstruct palaeo-ice thicknesses during subglacial rhyolitic eruptions

Owen, J., Tuffen, H., McGarvie, D. W., Pinkerton, H. & Wilson, L. 1/05/2010 0 p.

Research output: Contribution to conferenceAbstract

2009

A statistical analysis of eruptive activity on Mount Etna, Sicily

Smethurst, L., James, M. R., Pinkerton, H. & Tawn, J. A. 10/2009 In : Geophysical Journal International. 179, 1, p. 655-666 12 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article

An analysis of the morphological, geological and structural features of Teide stratovolcano, Tenerife.

del Potro, R., Pinkerton, H. & Hürlimann, M. 20/03/2009 In : Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 181, 1-2, p. 89-105 17 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article

Detecting the development of active lava flow fields with a very-long-range terrestrial laser scanner and thermal imagery.

James, M. R., Pinkerton, H. & Applegarth, L. J. 2009 In : Geophysical Research Letters. 36, p. L22305

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article

Did Magma Degassing Trigger Exceptionally Violent Phreatomagmatic Fragmentation During The 181 AD Taupo Eruption?

Tuffen, H., Houghton, B. F., Dingwell, D. B. & Pinkerton, H. 2009 0 p.

Research output: Contribution to conferenceAbstract

Nonlinear Transfer Function Modelling of beach morphology at Duck, North Carolina

Gunawardena, Y., Ilic, S., Pinkerton, H. & Romanowicz, R. 2009 In : Coastal Engineering. 54, 1, p. 46-58 13 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article

2008

Monitoring active subglacial volcanoes : a case study using airborne remotely sensed imagery of Grímsvötn, Iceland.

Stewart, S. F., Pinkerton, H., Blackburn, A. & Gudmundsson, M. T. 11/2008 In : International Journal of Remote Sensing. 29, 22, p. 6501-6514 14 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article

Pyroclastic density currents resulting from the interaction of basaltic magma with hydrothermally altered rock: an example from the 2006 summit eruptions of Mount Etna, Italy

Behncke, B., Calvari, S., Giammanco, S., Neri, M. & Pinkerton, H. 10/2008 In : Bulletin of Volcanology. 70, 10, p. 1249-1268 20 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article

Time series radar observations of a growing lava dome.

Wadge, G., Macfarlane, D. G., Odbert, H. M., James, M. R., Hole, J. K., Ryan, G., Bass, V., De Angelis, S., Pinkerton, H., Robertson, D. A. & Loughlin, S. C. 28/08/2008 In : Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth. 113, B08210

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article

Surface cooling, advection and the development of different surface textures on active lavas on Kilauea, Hawai'i.

Ball, M., Pinkerton, H. & Harris, A. J. L. 1/06/2008 In : Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 173, 1-2, p. 148-156 9 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article

An explosive-intrusive subglacial rhyolite eruption at Dalakvisl, Torfajokull, Iceland

Tuffen, H., McGarvie, D. W., Pinkerton, H., Gilbert, J. & Brooker, R. A. 05/2008 In : Bulletin of Volcanology. 70, 7, p. 841-860 20 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article

Analysis of the spatio-temporal behaviour of beach morphology at Duck using fractal methods

Gunawardena, Y., Ilic, S., Southgate, H. & Pinkerton, H. 2008 In : Marine Geology. 252, 1-2, p. 38-49 12 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article

2007

Image-based measurement of flux variation in distal regions of active lava flows.

James, M. R., Pinkerton, H. & Robson, S. 13/03/2007 In : Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems. 8, 3, 16 p.Q03006

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article

Mapping thermal anomalies using Airborne Thematic Mapper imagery: Grímsvötn caldera, Vatnajökull, Iceland.

Stewart, S. F., Pinkerton, H., Blackburn, G. A. & Guðmundsson, M. T. 2007 In : Geological Society, London, Special Publications. 283, p. 31-43 13 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article

2006

Factors affecting the accuracy of thermal imaging cameras in volcanology

Ball, M. & Pinkerton, H. 1/11/2006 In : Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth. 111, B11, 14 p.B11203

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article

Oblique photogrammetry with visible and thermal images of active lava flows.

James, M. R., Robson, S., Pinkerton, H. & Ball, M. 07/2006 In : Bulletin of Volcanology. 69, 1, p. 105-108 4 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article

Imaging a growing lava dome with a portable radar.

Strutt, M., Ryan, G., Wadge, G., Dunkley, P. N., Applegarth, L. J., Pinkerton, H., Loughlin, S. C., Robertson, D. A., Macfarlane, D. G., James, M. R. & Odbert, H. M. 2006 In : Eos Transactions American Geophysical Union. 87, 23, p. 226-228 3 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article

Use of a portable topographic mapping millimetre wave radar at an active lava flow.

Macfarlane, D. G., Wadge, G., Robertson, D. A., James, M. R. & Pinkerton, H. 2006 In : Geophysical Research Letters. 33, 3, p. L03301

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article

2005

AVTIS: a novel millimetre-wave ground based instrument for volcano remote sensing

Wadge, G., Macfarlane, D. G., Robertson, D. A., Hale, A. J., Pinkerton, H., Burrell, R. V., Norton, G. E. & James, M. R. 1/09/2005 In : Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 146, 4, p. 307-318 12 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article

Data-based approaches to analysing and modelling beach morphological changes at Duck, North Carolina.

Gunawardena, Y., Ilic, S., Pinkerton, H. & Romanowicz, R. 2005 Proceedings of the coastal dynamics conference 2005. Barcelona: American Society of Civil Engineers

Research output: Contribution in Book/Report/ProceedingsChapter

Field testing of the AVTIS radarometer at Soufriere Hills and Arenal volcanoes.

Wadge, G., Macfarlane, D. G., Robertson, D. A., Hale, A. J., Pinkerton, H., Burrell, R. V., Norton, G. E. & James, M. R. 2005 In : Geophysical Research Abstracts. 7, p. 08715

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article

2004

A review and investigation of the Non-Newtonian properties of lavas based on laboratory experiments with analogue materials.

Pinkerton, H. & Bagdassarov, N. 30/04/2004 In : Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 132, 2-3, p. 115-136 22 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article

Birth, growth and morphologic evolution of the ‘larghetto’ cinder cone during the 2001 Etna eruption.

Calvari, S. & Pinkerton, H. 30/04/2004 In : Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 132, 2-3, p. 225-239 15 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article

Development of tumuli in the medial portion of the 1983 aa flow-field, Mount Etna, Sicily.

Duncan, A. M., Guest, J. E., Stofan, E., Anderson, S., Pinkerton, H. & Calvari, S. 30/04/2004 In : Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 132, 2-3, p. 173-187 15 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article

Viscoelastic behaviour of basaltic lavas.

James, M. R., Bagdassarov, N., MÜLLER, K. & Pinkerton, H. 30/04/2004 In : Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 132, 2-3, p. 99-113 15 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article

Estimating the rheology of basaltic lava flows.

Ellis, B., Wilson, L. & Pinkerton, H. 2004 In : Lunar Planetary Science. xxxv(1

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article

2003

Repeated fracture and healing of silicic magma generate flow banding and earthquakes?

Tuffen, H., Dingwell, D. B. & Pinkerton, H. 12/2003 In : Geology. 31, 12, p. 1089-1092 4 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article

Effusion rate estimations during the 1999 summit eruption on Mount Etna, and growth of two distinct lava flow fields.

Pinkerton, H., Calvari, S. & Neri, M. 1/01/2003 In : Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 119, 1-4, p. 107-123 17 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article

2002

Melting of the glacier base during a small-volume subglacial rhyolite eruption: evidence from Blahnukur, Iceland.

Tuffen, H., Pinkerton, H., Gilbert, J. S. & McGarvie, D. W. 15/05/2002 In : Sedimentary Geology. 149, 1-3, p. 183-198 16 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article

The transport and eruption of magma from volcanoes : a review.

Pinkerton, H., Wilson, L. & Macdonald, R. 05/2002 In : Contemporary Physics. 43, 3, p. 197-210 14 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article

Surface temperature measurements of active lava flows on Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i.

Pinkerton, H., James, M. & Jones, A. 15/03/2002 In : Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 113, 1-2, p. 159-176 18 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article

Instabilities in the summit region of Mount Etna during the 1999 eruption.

Pinkerton, H. & Calvari, S. 01/2002 In : Bulletin of Volcanology. 63, 8, p. 526-535 10 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article

Physical volcanology of a subglacial-to-emergent rhyolitic tuya at Rauðufossafjöll, Torfajökull, Iceland.

Tuffen, H., McGarvie, D. W., Gilbert, J. S. & Pinkerton, H. 2002 In : Geological Society, London, Special Publications. 202, p. 213-236 24 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article

2001

Radar imaging of the natural environment.

Lane, S. J., Mackin, R. O., Binley, A. M., Pinkerton, H. & Peyton, A. J. 2001 Proceedings of the 2nd world congress on industrial process tomography. p. 224-227 4 p.

Research output: Contribution in Book/Report/ProceedingsChapter

2000

The anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility of lava flows : an experimental approach.

Canon-Tapia, E. & Pinkerton, H. 05/2000 In : Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 98, 1-4, p. 219-233 15 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article

1999

Lava tube morphology on Etna and evidence for lava flow emplacement mechanisms.

Calvari, S. & Pinkerton, H. 06/1999 In : Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 90, 3-4, p. 263-280 18 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article

Lava tube morphology on Etna : insights for lava flow emplacement mechanisms.

Calvari, S., Pinkerton, H., Guest, J. E. & Duncan, A. 1999 In : Geophysical Research Abstracts. 1, 4, p. 862-862 1 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article

Simulation of lava tube growth using stochastic cellular automata models.

Pinkerton, H., Tych, W., Kent, R. & Calvari, S. 1999 In : Geophysical Research Abstracts. 1, 4, p. 861-861 1 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article

Thermal and rheological properties of Hawaiian lavas : a comparison of field and theoretical models.

Pinkerton, H. & Kent, R. 1999 In : Geophysical Research Abstracts. 1, 4, p. 863-863 1 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article

1998

Formation of lava tubes and extensive flow field during the 1991 - 93 eruption of Mount Etna.

Calvari, S. & Pinkerton, H. 1998 In : Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth. 103, B11, p. 27291-27301 11 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article

Introduction to special section : Long lava flows.

Cashman, K. V., Pinkerton, H. & Stephenson, J. R. 1998 In : Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth. 103, B11, p. 27281-27289 9 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article

1997

Bubble coalescence in basaltic lava : its impact on the evolution of bubble populations.

Herd, R. A. & Pinkerton, H. 01/1997 In : Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 75, 1-2, p. 137-157 21 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article

Rheological properties of natrocarbonatites from Oldoinyo Lengai, Tanzania

Norton, G. E. & Pinkerton, H. 1997 In : European Journal of Mineralogy. 9, 2, p. 351-364 14 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article

1996

Evolution of natrocarbonatite from a wollastonite nephelinite parent: evidence from the June 1993 eruption of Oldoinyo Lengai, Tanzania.

Dawson, J. B., Pyle, D. M. & Pinkerton, H. 1996 In : Journal of Geology. 104, p. 41-54 14 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article

Field measurements of the rheological and thermal properties of lavas from the East Rift Zone, Hawaii.

Pinkerton, H. & Herd, R. A. 1996 In : EOS. V77, 22, p. 124-124 1 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article

Rheological properties of basaltic lavas at sub-liquidus temperatures: laboratory and field measurements on lavas from Mount Etna.

Pinkerton, H. & Norton, G. E. 1996 In : Mineralogical Abstracts. 47, 3, p. 413-413 1 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article

Rheological properties of natrocarbonatites from Oldoinyo Lengai, Tanzania.

Pinkerton, H. & Norton, G. E. 1996 In : Terra Abstracts Supplement 1: Terra Nova. 8, p. 50-51 2 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article

1995

Rheological properties of basaltic lavas at sub-liquidus temperatures: laboratory and field-measurements on lavas from Mount Etna.

Pinkerton, H. & Norton, G. E. 11/1995 In : Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 68, 4, p. 307-323 17 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article

Field measurements of the rheological properties of basaltic lavas.

Pinkerton, H., Herd, R. A., Kent, R. M. & Wilson, L. 1995 In : Lunar and Planetary Science. 26, p. 1127-1128 2 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article

1994

June 1993 eruption of Oldoinyo Lengai, Tanzania: Exceptionally viscous and large carbonatite lava flows and evidence for coexisting silicate and carbonate magmas.

Dawson, J. B., Pinkerton, H., Pyle, D. M. & Nyamweru, C. 09/1994 In : Geology. 22, 9, p. 799-802 4 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article

Factors controlling the lengths of channel-fed lava flows.

Pinkerton, H. & Wilson, L. 05/1994 In : Bulletin of Volcanology. 56, 2, p. 108-120 13 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article

On the genesis of lava cracks in Hawaii by Adrien E. Scheidegger (1993): discussion and reply

Pinkerton, H. 05/1994 In : Terra Nova. 6, 3, p. 289-290 2 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article

Arachnoid-like feature on Oldoinyo Lengai, an active carbonatite volcano in Northern Tanzania.

Pinkerton, H., Dawson, J. B. & Pyle, D. M. 1994 In : Lunar and Planetary Science. 25, p. 1087-1088 2 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article

Lava flow morphology and chemistry.

Pinkerton, H., Dawson, J. B. & Pyle, D. M. 1994 In : Lunar and Planetary Science. 25, p. 1089-1090 2 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article

Modelling lava flow cooling using a finite difference numerical approximation.

Kent, R. & Pinkerton, H. 1994 In : Lunar and Planetary Science. 25, p. 691-692 2 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article

Modelling the flow and heat transfer of magma flow in dikes using computational fluid dynamics.

Kent, R. & Pinkerton, H. 1994 In : Lunar and Planetary Science. 25, p. 693-694 2 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article

1993

A classification scheme for the morphology of lava flow fields.

Wilson, L., Pinkerton, H., Head, J. W. & Magee-Roberts, K. 1993 In : Lunar and Planetary Science. 24, Part 3, p. 1527-1528 2 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article

A comparison of calculated and measured rheological properties of crystalising lavas in the field and in the laboratory.

Pinkerton, H. & Norton, G. E. 1993 In : Lunar and Planetary Science. 24, p. 1149-1150 2 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article

Bubble coalescence in magmas.

Herd, R. A. & Pinkerton, H. 1993 In : Lunar and Planetary Science. 24, p. 641-642 2 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article

Lava flow-field morphological classification and interpretation: examples from Venus.

Head, J. W., Magee-Roberts, K., Wilson, L. & Pinkerton, H. 1993 In : Lunar and Planetary Science. 24, p. 627-628 2 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article

Thermal and rheological controls on magma migration in dikes: examples from the East Rift Zone of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii.

Parfitt, E. A., Wilson, L. & Pinkerton, H. 1993 In : Lunar and Planetary Science. 24, p. 1115-1116 2 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article

Volcanic activity on Oldoinyo Lengai, October 1993.

Dawson, J. B., Pinkerton, H. & Pyle, D. M. 1993 In : SEAN Bulletin (Scientific Event Alert Network). 18, 10, p. 6-6 1 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article

1992

Methods of determining the rheological properties of magmas at sub-liquidus temperatures.

Pinkerton, H. & Stevenson, R. J. 11/1992 In : Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 53, 1-4, p. 47-66 20 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article

Rheological properties of basaltic lavas.

Pinkerton, H. & Stevenson, R. J. 1992 In : Lunar and Planetary Science. 23, p. 1079-1080 2 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article

Rheological properties of silicic lavas.

Pinkerton, H. & Stevenson, R. J. 1992 In : Lunar and Planetary Science. 23, p. 1081-1082 2 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article

The dynamics of channel-fed lava flows.

Pinkerton, H. & Wilson, L. 1992 In : Lunar and Planetary Science. 23, p. 1083-1084 2 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article

The physical properties of carbonatite lavas: implications for planetary volcanism.

Norton, G. E. & Pinkerton, H. 1992 In : Lunar and Planetary Science. 23, p. 1001-1002 2 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article

Harry Pinkerton's Projects

2009

Basaltic lava flows cause significant damage to property and infrastructure on many volcanoes. To improve our understanding of the evolution of lava flows and flow fields, there is a need for an integrated multi-disciplinary study of the

physicochemical properties of lava as it moves from the vent to the flow front, and of the complex interactions that take place during flow. Key requirements are: (i) robust methods of predicting how lava rheology changes during flow; and (ii) an improved understanding of how both long- and short-term changes in effusion rates affect the complex range of processes operating during flow emplacement. This project will provide a range of measurements using new field

equipment, automated imaging procedures, ground-, helicopter- and satellite-based imagery and innovative laboratory measurements. The combined dataset will be used to develop and constrain the next-generation of lava flow models which will drive future hazard assessment and mitigation strategies on basaltic volcanoes. We propose to focus our research on one or more eruptions of Mount Etna. This collaborative and multi-disciplinary project will be undertaken jointly by the PI and Co-PIs at Lancaster, staff at INGV, Catania, and other colleagues from the USA and the UK.

Current flow models assume that rheological changes are driven mainly by surface cooling. However, rheological changes over the entire flow thickness can result from crystallisation due to degassing-related undercooling. To assess the importance of undercooling, we will determine patterns of volatile loss and rates of crystal and bubble nucleation and growth during the emplacement of active lava flows, and make accurate measurements of the rheological properties of lava in different parts of an active lava flow using a new field viscometer. Quenched samples of all lavas measured will be collected and used to determine the crystallinity, vesicularity and composition of residual glass of all samples in collaboration with colleagues at INGV, Catania, and the University of Oregon. Vesicle size distributions, porosity and an assessment of bubble coalescence and connectivity (and hence the potential for gas loss during flow) will be made at Lancaster using a state-of-the-art X-ray tomographic scanner. Measurements of volatile loss during emplacement will be undertaken in a new Magma Volatile Laboratory at Lancaster using a coupled Thermogravimetric Analysis - Differential Scanning Calorimeter - Mass Spectrometer, and these will allow the potential effects of undercooling to be quantified and compared with changes in crystal size distribution. These combined laboratory and field measurements will allow us to reconstruct the entire volatile degassing budget of a lava flow for the first time, and to assess the importance of degassing in controlling the emplacement of lava flows.

The above measurements will be used in combination with a comprehensive time-series of thermal images and digital terrain models of an evolving lava flow field to understand and quantify the processes responsible for flow field evolution. Digital terrain models will be created using long range laser scanner data, augmented by oblique photogrammetric data from ground-based imagery from a new network of high-resolution cameras. These will be supplemented by helicopter imagery collected by INGV, Catania, and Hyperion satellite data in collaboration with a colleague at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The data acquired using the combined rheological/degassing and imaging measurements will, for the first time, enable the emplacement processes/flow behaviour to be directly linked to the cooling, degassing and crystallisation of the lava in both simple and more complex flow fields. While the work will be undertaken on lavas from Mount Etna, the methodologies developed in this project have major applications for many other volcanoes and are in line with NERC's strategic and scientific priorities 2007-2012.