5. Social / Economic History

Rural Society

  • Bloch, M., Feudal Society, trs. L. A. Manyon (London, 1961). MBT.
  • Bonnassie, P., From Slavery to Feudalism in South-Western Europe, trs. J. Birrell (Cambridge, 1991). Collected essays, including some important pieces on castles. MAV.H.*
  • Bouchard, C. B., 'Rural Economy and Society', in M. Bull, (ed.), France in the Central Middle Ages 900-1200, Short Oxford History of France (Oxford, 2002), pp. 77-101. MSE.*
  • Bouchard, C. B., Those of My Blood: Constructing Noble Families in Medieval Francia (Philadelphia, 2001). Collected essays. MSB.H.
  • Crouch, D., The Birth of Nobility: Constructing Aristocracy in England and France, 900-1300 (London, 2005). MVB.H.
  • Coleman, E. R., 'People and Property: The Structure of a Medieval Seigneury', Journal of European Economic History, 6 (1977), 675-702. Journals L6
  • Davies, W., and P. Fouracre (eds.), Property and Power in the Early Middle Ages (Cambridge, 1995). DQBA
  • Doehaerd, R., The Early Middle Ages in the West: Economy and Society, trs. W. G. Deakin (Amsterdam, 1978). MBN
  • Devroey, J.-P., 'Men and Women in Early Medieval Serfdom: The Ninth-Century North Frankish Evidence', Past and Present, 166 (2000), 3-30.
  • Devroey, J.-P., 'The Economy', in R. McKitterick (ed.), The Early Middle Ages: Europe, 400-1000 (Oxford, 2001), pp. 97-129. MB.*
  • Duby, G., Rural Economy and Country Life in the Medieval West, trs. C. Postan (London, 1968). MBN
  • Duby, G., The Chivalrous Society, trs. C. Postan (London, 1977). Collected Essays. MSB.H
  • Duby, G., The Early Growth of the European Economy, Warriors and Peasants from the Seventh to the Twelfth Century, trs. H. B. Clarke (London, 1974). MBN
  • Duggan, A. J. (ed.), Nobles and Nobility in Medieval Europe: Concepts, Origins, Transformations (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 2000). MBM.
  • Glenn, J., Politics and History in the Tenth Century: The Work and World of Richer of Reims, Cambridge Studies in Medieval Life and Thought, 4th ser. 60 (Cambridge, 2004). MSEC.J
  • Fichtenau, H., Living in the Tenth Century: Mentalites and Social Orders, trs. P. J. Geary (Chicago, 1993).
  • Freedman, P. H., and M. Bourin (eds.), Forms of Servitude in Northern and Central Europe: Decline, Resistance and Expansion, Medieval Texts and Cultures of Northern Europe 9 (Turnhout, 2005). MBT
  • Goetz, H.-W., Life in the Middle Ages: From the Seventh to the Thirteenth Century, trs. A. Wimmer (Notre Dame, IN, 1993).
  • Hamerow, H., Early Medieval Settlements: The Archaeology of Rural Communities in North-West Europe, 400-900, Medieval History and Archaeology 1 (Oxford, 2002). MBD4.
  • Herlihy, D., 'Church Property on the European Continent, 701-1200', Speculum, 36 (1961), 81-105. Journals L6; JSTOR.
  • Hildebrandt, H., 'Systems of Agriculture in Central Europe up to the Tenth and Eleventh Centuries', in D. Hooke (ed.), The Anglo-Saxon Settlements (Oxford, 1988), pp. 275-90. MVC.H.
  • Latouche, Robert, The Birth of Western Economy: Economic Aspects of the Dark Ages (2nd edn, London, 1967). MBN.
  • Lewis, A. R., The Development of Southern French and Catalan Society, 718-1050 (Austin, TX, 1965). MTM.
  • Loveluck, C., 'Rural Settlement Hierarchy in the Age of Charlemagne', in J. Story (ed.), Charlemagne: Empire and Society (Manchester, 2005), pp. 230-58. MSDC.
  • Martindale, J., Status, Authority and Regional Power, Aquitaine and France, 9th to 12th Centuries (Aldershot, 1997). Collected Essays. MTR.J.
  • Mollat, M., The Poor in the Middle Ages, An Essay in Social History, trs. A. Goldhammer (New Haven, CN, 1986) - esp. pt. 1, 'Fifth to Eleventh Century'. MBM.
  • Nitz, H.-J., 'The Church as Colonist: The Benedictine Abbey of Lorsch and Planned Waldhufen Colonization in the Odenwald', Journal of Historical Geography, 9 (1983), 105-26. Journals DG6.
  • Nitz, H.-J., 'Settlement Structures and Settlement Systems in the Frankish Central State in Carolingian and Ottonian Times', in D. Hooke (ed.), Anglo-Saxon Settlements (Oxford, 1988), pp. 249-73. MVC.H.
  • Reuter, T. (ed.), The Medieval Nobility, Studies on the Ruling Classes of France and Germany from the Sixth to the Twelfth Century (Amsterdam, 1978). An important collection. MSB.H.
  • Rio, A., 'High and Low: Ties of Dependence in the Frankish Kingdoms', Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 18 (2008), 43–68. Innovative and important.
  • Rivers, J. T., 'Pre-Carolingian Seigneurial Obligations in the Lex Alamannorum [ Law of the Alamanns], xxi-xxii, and their Relationship to the St. Gall Charters (754-770 AD), Mediaeval Studies, 40 (1978), 374-86.+ Journals Y6
  • Rösener, W. Peasants in the Middle Ages, trs. A. Stützer (Cambridge, 1992). MBM.
  • Schmid, K., 'The Structure of the Nobility in the Earlier Middle Ages', in T. Reuter (ed.), The Medieval Nobility, Studies on the Ruling Classes of France and Germany from the Sixth to the Twelfth Century, Europe in the Middle Ages 14 (Amsterdam, 1979), pp. 37-59. MSB.H.
  • Southern, R. W., The Making of the Middle Ages (London, 1953) - somewhat dated now and an account of much besides social history, but included here because of its chapter on the 'Bonds of Society'. This remains one of the best discussions of medieval notions of freedom and servitude. MBM.
  • Wickham, C. J., Framing the Early Middle Ages: Europe and the Mediterranean, 400-800 (Oxford, 2005). MBD.
  • Wickham, C. J., 'The Other Transition: From the Ancient World to Feudalism', Past and Present, 103 (1984), 3-36. Journals L6. JSTOR.
  • White, S. D., Re-thinking Kinship and Feudalism in Early Medieval Europe, Variorum Collected Studies 823 (Aldershot, 2006). MBT. Collected Essays.

The 'Feudal Revolution' Debate

  • Barthelémy, D., 'La mutation féodale: a-t-elle eu lieu?', Annales, 47 (1992), 767-77. Journals L6.
  • Barthélemy, D., 'Modern Mythologies of Medieval Chivalry', in P. Linehan and J. L. Nelson (eds.), The Medieval World (London and New York, 2001), pp. 214-28. MB7.L.* [Two copies on short loan, one on popular loan.]
  • Barton, R. E., Lordship in the County of Maine, c.890-1160 (Woodbridge, 2004). MTB.Q.
  • Bisson, T. N., 'Medieval Lordship.' Speculum 70 (1995), 743-59. Journals L6; JSTOR.
  • Bisson, T. N., 'The "Feudal Revolution",' Past and Present, 142 (1994), 7-42; with the replies by D. Barthélemy and S. D. White, Past and Present, 152 (1996), 196-223; and those by T. Reuter and C. Wickham, and Bisson's rejoinder in Past and Present, 155 (1997), 176-225). Journals L6. JSTOR. T. Reuter's contribution is also available in his, Medieval Polities and Modern Mentalities, ed. J. L. Nelson (Cambridge, 2006), pp. 72-99. MB.
  • Bois, G., The Transformation of the Year One Thousand, The Village of Lournand from Antiquity to Feudalism, trs. J. Birrell (Manchester, 1992). MTH.H.
  • Bowman, J. A., 'Councils, Memory and Mills: The Early Development of the Peace of God in Catalonia', Early Medieval Europe, 8 (1999), 99-129. Online at Academic Search Premier.
  • Cheyette, F. L., 'George Duby's Mâconnais: A Memoir', Journal of Medieval History, 28 (2002), 291-317. Available online through Science Direct.
  • Cheyette, F. L., Ermengard of Narbonne and the World of the Troubadours (Ithaca, NY, 2001). MTN.H.
  • Duby, G., 'The Evolution of Judicial Institutions: Burgundy in the Tenth and the Eleventh Centuries', in his The Chivalrous Society, trs. C. Postan (London, 1977), pp. 15-58. MSB.H.
  • Duby, G., 'The Nobility in Eleventh- and Twelfth-Century Mâconnais', trs. in F. L. Cheyette (ed.), Lordship and Community in Medieval Europe: Selected Readings (New York, 1975), pp. 137-55. MBM7.
  • Duby, G., 'The Nobility in Medieval France', in his The Chivalrous Society, trs. C. Postan (London, 1977), pp. 94-111. MSB.H.
  • Fouracre, P. J., 'Marmoutier and its Serfs in the Eleventh Century', Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 15 (2005), 29-49. Journals L6. Available online at Cambridge Journals.
  • Freedman, P. H., The Origins of Peasant Servitude in Medieval Catalonia (Cambridge, 1991). MQNEA.H.
  • Genicot, L., 'The Nobility in Medieval Francia: Continuity, Break, or Evolution?', trs. in F. L. Cheyette (ed.), Lordship and Community in Medieval Europe: Selected Readings (New York, 1975), pp. 128-36. MBM7.
  • Le Jan, R., 'Continuity and Change in the Tenth-Century Nobility', in A. J. Duggan (ed.), Nobles and Nobility in Medieval Europe: Concepts, Origins, Transformations (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 2000), pp. 53-68. MBM.
  • Le Jan, R., 'Personal Names and the Transformation of Kinship in Early Medieval Society (Sixth to Tenth Centuries)', in G. T. Beech, M. Bourin, and P. Chareille (eds), Personal Names Studies of Medieval Europe: Social Identity and Familial Structures, Studies in Medieval Culture 43 (Kalamazoo, MI, 2002), pp. 31-49. WEPd.
  • Meens, R., 'Sanctuary, Penance, and Dispute Settlement under Charlemagne: The Conflict between Alcuin and Theodulf or Orléans over a Sinful Cleric', Speculum, 82 (2007), 277-300. About an incident which is important for the question of what public and social life were like in whether the Carolingian period.
  • Nelson, J. L., 'Nobility in the Ninth Century', in A. J. Duggan (ed.), Nobles and Nobility in Medieval Europe: Concepts, Origins, Transformations (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 2000), pp. 43-51. MBM.
  • Poly, J., and E. Bournazel, The Feudal Transformation, 900-1200, trs. C. Higgitt (New York, 1991). MSE.
  • White, S. D., 'A Crisis of Fidelity in c.1000', in I. Alfonso, H. Kennedy and J. Escalona (eds.), Building Legitimacy: Political Discourses and Forms of Legitimacy in Medieval Societies, The Medieval Mediterranean: Peoples, Economies and Cultures, 400-1500, 53 (Leiden, 2004), pp. 27-49. MBS7.
  • White, S. D., 'Giving Fiefs and Honor: Largesse, Avarice and the Problem of "Feudalism" in Alexander's Testament', in D. Maddox and S. Sturm-Maddox (eds.), The Medieval French Alexander (Binghamton, NY, 2002), pp. 127-41. Available as an electronic resource: see the Library Catalogue.
  • White, S. D., Re-thinking Kinship and Feudalism in Early Medieval Europe, Variorum Collected Studies 823 (Aldershot, 2006). MBT. Collected Essays.

Histories of Towns and Trade

  • Blackburn, M., 'Money and Coinage', in P. Fouracre (ed.), The New Cambridge Medieval History, vol. 1, c.500-c.700 (Cambridge, 2005), pp. 660-74. MB.*
  • Brogiolo, G. P., and B. Ward-Perkins (eds.), The Idea and Ideal of the Town between Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages, Transformation of the Roman World 4 (Leiden and Boston, 2003) MBQ.
  • Christie, N., and S. T. Loseby (eds.), Towns in Transition: Urban Evolution in Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages (Aldershot, 1996). LTC.
  • Coupland, S., 'Charlemagne's Coinage: Ideology and Economy', in J. Story (ed.), Charlemagne: Empire and Society (Manchester, 2005), pp. 211-29. MSDC.
  • Gauthier, N., 'From the Ancient City to the Medieval Town: Continuity and Change in the Early Middle Ages', in K. Mitchell and I. N. Wood (eds.), The World of Gregory of Tours, Cultures, Beliefs and Traditions: Medieval and Early Modern Peoples 8 (Leiden, 2002), pp. 47-66. MSC7.
  • Hodges, R. C., and B. Hobley (eds.), The Rebirth of the Town in the West, AD 700-1050 (London, 1988). Oversize MBQ4.
  • Hodges, R. C., and D. Whitehouse, Mohammed, Charlemagne and the Origins of Europe: Archaeology and the Pirenne Thesis (London, 1983). Important. OQH.
  • Hodges, R. C., and W. Bowden (eds.), The Sixth Century: Production, Distribution and Demand, The Transformation of the Roman World 3 (Leiden and Boston, 2003). MBB.E. Contains many useful articles, including a good analysis of the theories of Henri Pirenne by Richard Hodges.
  • Hodges, R. C., Dark Age Economics: A New Audit (London, 2009). On order.
  • Hodges, R. C., Dark Age Economics: The Origins of Towns and Trade A.D. 600-1000 (London, 1982). MBH.
  • Lebecq, S., 'The Northern Seas (Fifth to Eighth Centuries)', in P. Fouracre (ed.), The New Cambridge Medieval History, vol. 1, c.500-c.700 (Cambridge, 2005), pp. 639-59. MB.*
  • Loseby, S. T., 'Gregory's Cities: Urban Functions in Sixth-Century Gaul', in I. N. Wood (ed.), Franks and Alamans in the Merovingian Period, Studies in the History of Archaeoethnology 3 (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 1998), pp. 239-70. MSC7.
  • Loseby, S. T., 'Marseille: A Late Antique Success Story', Journal of Roman Studies, 82 (1992), 165-85. XD6. JSTOR.
  • Loseby, S. T., 'Marseille and the Pirenne Thesis I: Gregory of Tours, the Merovingian Kings and "un grand port"', in R. C. Hodges and W. Bowden (eds.), The Sixth Century: Production, Distribution and Demand, The Transformation of the Roman World 3 (Leiden and Boston, 2003), pp. 203-29. MBB.E.
  • Loseby, S., 'The Mediterranean Economy', in P. Fouracre (ed.), The New Cambridge Medieval History, vol. 1, c.500-c.700 (Cambridge, 2005), pp. 605-38. MB.*
  • McCormick, M., 'New Light on the "Dark Ages": How the Slave Trade Fuelled the Carolingian Economy', Past and Present, 177 (2002), 17-54. L6. Online at Oxford University Press Journals.
  • McCormick, M., Origins of the European Economy: Communications and Commerce, AD 300-900 (Cambridge, 2001). MBD.E.
  • McCormick, M., 'Rats, Communications, and Plague: Toward an Ecological History', Journal of Interdisciplinary History, 34 (2003), 1-25. Journals L6; also available online at Academic Search Premier.
  • Pearson, K. L., 'Nutrition and Early Medieval Diet', Speculum, 72 (1997), 1-32. Journals L6; JSTOR.
  • Verhaeghe, F., with C. Loveluck and J. Story, 'Urban Developments in the Age of Charlemagne', in J. Story (ed.), Charlemagne: Empire and Society (Manchester, 2005), pp. 259-87. MSDC.
  • Verhulst, A. E., 'The Origins and Early Development of Medieval Towns in Northern Europe', Economic History Review, 2nd ser. 47 (1994), 362-73. L6; JSTOR.
  • Verhulst, A. E., 'Towns and Trade, 400-1500', in R. A. Butlin and R. A. Dodgson (eds.), An Historical Geography of Europe (Oxford, 1998), pp. 100-14. ^MAD.
  • Verhulst, A. E., The Rise of Cities in North-West Europe (Cambridge, 1999). MPA.H.

Women and Gender Politics

  • Bitel, L. M., Women in Early Medieval Europe, 400-1100 (Cambridge, 2002). MBM.
  • Bull, M., and C. Léglu (eds.), The World of Eleanor of Aquitaine: Literature and Society in Southern France between the Eleventh and Thirteenth Centuries (Woodbridge, 2005). MTR.I.
  • Brubaker, L., and J. M. H. Smith (eds.), Gender in the Early Medieval World: East and West, 300-900 (Cambridge, 2004). MBD.H.
  • Brundage, J. A., Law, Sex and Christian Society in Medieval Europe (Chicago, 1987). KCUd3.
  • Clark, G., Women in Late Antiquity: Pagan and Christian Lifestyles (Oxford, 1993). LTH.
  • Claussen, M. A., 'Fathers of Power and Mothers of Authority: Dhuoda and the Liber manualis', French Historical Studies, 19 (1996), 785-809. Journals L6. Online in JSTOR and in Academic Search Premier.
  • Cooper, K., The Virgin and the Bride: Idealized Womanhood in Late Antiquity (Cambridge, MA, 1996). LIC.
  • Ennen, E., The Medieval Woman, trs. E. Jephcott (Oxford, 1989). MBM.
  • Hadley, D. M. (ed.), Masculinity in Medieval Europe, Women and Men in History (London, 1999). MBM7. Note especially the essays by Hadley and Moore, Conrad Leyser, and esp. Janet Nelson, 'Monks, Secular Men and Masculinity, c.900' (pp. 121-42).
  • Kasten, B., 'Stepmothers in Frankish Legal Life', in P. Stafford, J. L. Nelson, and J. Martindale (eds.), Law, Laity, and Solidarities: Essays in Honour of Susan Reynolds (Manchester, 2001), pp. 47-67. MBS7.
  • Kitchen, J., Saints' Lives and the Rhetoric of Gender: Male and Female in Merovingian Hagiography (Oxford, 1998). MSC.K.
  • Nelson, J. L., 'Dhuoda', in P. Wormald and J. L. Nelson (eds), Learned Laity in the Carolingian Era (Cambridge, 2007), pp. 106-20. MSD.I.
  • Nelson, J. L., 'Making a Difference in Eighth-Century Politics: The Daughters of Desiderius', in A. C. Murray (ed.), After Rome's Fall: Narrators and Sources of Early Medieval History: Essays Presented to Walter Goffart (Toronto, 1998), pp. 171-90. MBR7.
  • Nelson, J. L., 'Women at the Court of Charlemagne: A Case of a Monstrous Regiment?', in J. C. Parsons (ed.), Medieval Queenship (London, 1994), pp. 43-61. MBS7. Also reprinted in J. L. Nelson, The Frankish World, 750-900 (London, 1996), pp. 223-42. MSD.
  • Shahar, S., The Fourth Estate, A History of Women in the Middle Ages, trs. C. Galai (London, 1983). MBM.
  • Smith, J. M. H., 'Did Women have a Transformation of the Roman World?', Gender and History, 12 (2000), 552-71. Journals KDQW6.
  • Smith, J. M. H., 'Gender and Ideology in the Early Middle Ages', in R. Swanson (ed.), Gender and Christian Religion, Studies in Church History 34 (Woodbridge, 1998), pp. 51-71. ^PO7.
  • Smith, J. M. H., 'The Problem of Female Sanctity in Carolingian Europe, c. 780-920', Past and Present, 146 (1995), 3-37. Journals L6. JSTOR.
  • Stafford, P., 'Powerful Women in the Early Middle Ages: Queens and Abbesses', in P. Linehan and J. L. Nelson, eds., The Medieval World (London and New York, 2001), pp. 398-415. MB7.L.
  • Van Dijk, M., and R. I. A. Nip (eds.), Saints, Scholars and Politicians: Gender as an Analytical Tool in Medieval Studies, Medieval Church Studies 15 (Turnhout, 2005). MBM7.

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