Matthew Paris, Chronica maiora
A superb illustrator as well as a fine writer, Matthew Paris (d. 1259) produced
two closely related chronicles, one a massive work known as the Chronica
maiora, the other a breviate version of the former known as the Historia
Anglorum. Focused though
it is on English history and the interests and reputation of St Albans
Abbey, Chronica maiora is another
example of the trend towards exhaustiveness. It was built on the work of
an earlier St Albans historian, Roger of Wendover (d. 1236), whose Flores
from the time covered by Bede down to May 1234 (or perhaps June 1235).
The Flores was
only in its final sections, from the end of the reign of King John (1199–1216)
down to 1234/5, fully Roger’s own work. For the rest, as its name implies,
Roger had relied on extracts (flores, ‘flowers’) taken from
the works of other historians: Bede, Henry of Huntingdon, Roger of Howden,
Ralph de Diceto and various annal-writers. As well as continuing
it down to the end of the 1250s, Paris added much more material to earlier
sections of this compilation. In its final form, it is a monumental work
extending to seven tomes in the Rolls Series edition.
Manuscripts: Cambridge, Corpus Christi College, MSS 16 +
26 and London, British Library, Royal MS 14.C.VII. These books comprise a three volume
edition of Matthew’s historical worsk, prepared under his own direction and partly written in his own hand: Corpus 26 (known as MS
A) has the text of Chronica maiora from
Creation down to the end of the year 1188; Corpus 16 (known as B)
has the text from 1189 to 1253; and the third volume, Royal 14.C.VII (known as R), has the remainder
of the work (1254–9) (fols. 157r–231r) together with various prefatory items (fols. 1v–8r) and the entire text of Matthew’s Historia
Anglorum (fols. 8v–156v). The three books were used as the key witnesses
for H. R. Luard’s Rolls Series edition.
In Corpus 16 various leaves have been
lost: three after folio 3v (1190–1192);
one after 106v (1237), one after 117v (1238), one after 232v (1250).
The missing parts (except that after 117v) have been supplied by Archbishop
Matthew Parker’s secretaries. There are, likewise, similar repairs in
Corpus 26, where the inserted leaves are now paged as folios 8r–10v,
16r–16v, 19r–19v, and 127r–128v.
Among the many illustrated sections,
the itinerary for a journey from London to the Holy
Land on folios
i–iv of Corpus 16 comprises a particularly striking effort
to present information in a diagrammatic form, although the
leaves are much damaged. The many marginal images, such as that
for the wreck of the White Ship (Corpus
26, fol. 22v) or that showing Saladin and Guy of Lusignan fighting
for possession of the crux sancta (Corpus
26, fol. 140r), are another significant element of the presentation.
The practice of using symbols or simplified images in the margin as visual
cues for the reader seems to have been invented (or introduced into England?)
by the dean of St Paul’s,
Radulfus de Diceto (d. 1199/1200), whose chronicles, the Abbreviationes
chronicorum and the Ymagines historiarum, were widely copied in the first half of the thirteenth century.
Provenance: Written at St Albans Abbey and presented
to the convent by Matthew Paris. The calendar on folio
vi (rv) of Corpus 26 also contains many feasts which seldom celebrated beyond the abbey and
its dependencies, such as that of the Invention of St Oswine (10 March),
that of the Invention of St Amphibalus and his Companions (25 June) and that
of the Natalis of
St Oswine (20 August).
16, parts I and part II and Corpus
26 are reproduced at the Parker Library on the Web; London, British Library, Royal MS 14.C.VII, is reproduced on the British Library Website.
Text: Matthew Paris, Chronica majora, ed. H. R. Luard, Rolls Series 57, 7 vols. (London, 1872–83). MU5.
Translation: Vaughan, R., (ed.), The Illustrated Chronicles of Matthew Paris: Monastic Life in the Thirteenth-Century (Gloucester, 1984). MVGR.K.
- Breen, K., ‘Returning Home from Jerusalem: Matthew Paris’s First Map of Britain in its Manuscript Context’, Representation, 89 (2005), 59–93. Available from JSTOR.
- Carpenter, D. A., ‘Matthew Paris and Henry III’s Speech at the
Exchequer in October 1256’,
in idem, The
Reign of Henry III (London, 1996), pp. 137–50.
- Connolly, D. K., The Maps of Matthew Paris: Medieval Journeys through Space, Time and Liturgy (Woodbridge, 2009).
D., ‘Wendover, Roger of (d. 1236)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (Oxford, 2004).
- Galbraith, V. H., Roger of Wendover and Matthew Paris, David Murray
Lecture 2 (Glasgow, 1944). MVGR.I.
- Harvey, P. D. A., ‘Matthew Paris’s Maps of Britain’, Thirteenth-Century
England: Proceedings of the Newcastle-upon-Tyne Conference, ed.
P. R. Coss and S. D. Lloyd, 4 (1992), 109–21.
- Holt, J. C., ‘The St Albans chroniclers and Magna Carta’, Transactions
of the Royal Historical Society, 5th ser. 14 (1964), 67–88. JSTOR.
- Kay, R., ‘Wendover’s Last Annal’, English Historical
Review, 84 (1969), 779-85. JSTOR; Journals L6.
- Lewis, S. S., The Art of Matthew Paris in the Chronica Majora, California
Studies in the History of Art 21 (Aldershot, 1987).
- Lloyd, S., and R.
Reader, ‘Paris, Matthew (c.1200–1259)’,
Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (Oxford, 2004).
- Mason, J. F. A., ‘Diceto, Ralph de (d. 1199/1200)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (Oxford, 2004).
- McKendirck, S., J. Lowden and K. Doyle, Royal Manuscripts: The Genius of Illumination (London, 2011), nos 94 and 114 (
F. M., ‘Notes on the Compilation of the Chronica Majora of Matthew
Paris’, Modern Philology, 38 (1941), 305–17. JSTOR;
- Reader, R., ‘Matthew Paris and the Norman Conquest’, in J. Blair and B. Golding (seds), The Cloister and the World: Essays in Medieval History in Honour of Barbara Harvey (Oxford, 1996), pp. 118–47.
- Scott-Fleming, S., The Analysis of Pen Flourishing in Thirteenth-Century Manuscripts (Leiden, 1989), pp. 30-31.
- Vaughan, R., Matthew Paris, Cambridge Studies in Medieval Life and Thought, New ser. 6 (Cambridge, 1958). MVGR.I.
- Weiler, B., ‘How Unusual was Matthew Paris? The Writing of Universal History in Angevin England’, in M. Campopiano and H. Bainton (eds), Universal Chronicles in the High Middle Ages. Writing History in the Middle Ages 4 (York, 2017), pp. 199–222. MBR.
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