UCAS Code
G1G3
Entry Year
2017
A Level Requirements
AAA
see all requirements
see all requirements
Duration
Full time 3 Year(s)
Flexibility is built into all degree programmes at Lancaster. Specifically, this means that our nine single-honours degrees share a common core for the first two years, thus building foundations for further study in each of the disciplines of algebra, analysis, probability and statistics. In the second year, you choose to complete either a three year BSc Hons, or a four year MSci, specialising in either pure mathematics or statistics, or taking a combination of the two.
Problem solving skills lie at the heart of mathematics. From your first week, you will take part in regular classes to develop problem solving and teamwork skills, ensuring that you are a highly competent graduate valued by employers.
Our degrees include training in report writing, mathematical computing and presentation skills, all of which come together in a group project at the beginning of the third year. In addition, final year MSci students write a substantial dissertation in either pure mathematics or statistics under the supervision of a member of staff who is an active researcher. There is also the option of writing this dissertation as part of a collaborative project with industry.
The degrees in Statistics and in Mathematics with Statistics will grant you accreditation to Graduate Statistician status of the Royal Statistical Society and exemption from the probability and statistics exam of the Institute and Faculty of Actuaries, subject to satisfactory academic performance.
Grade Requirements
A Level AAA including A level Mathematics or Further Mathematics OR AAB including A level Mathematics and Further Mathematics
International Baccalaureate 36 points overall with 16 points from the best 3 Higher Level subjects including 6 in Higher Level Mathematics
BTEC Considered alongside A level Mathematics (A) and Further Mathematics (A)
Other Qualifications We welcome applications from students with other internationally recognised qualifications. For more information please visit the international qualifications webpage or contact the Undergraduate Admissions Office directly.
Essential Subjects
Advanced/Higher level Mathematics or Further Mathematics are required for entry.
IELTS 6.0 (with at least 5.5 in each component)
Further Information
General Studies Offers normally include General Studies if it is taken as a fourth A level.
Combination of Qualifications Applications from students with a combination of qualifications are welcomed, for further advice please contact the Undergraduate Admissions Office directly.
STEP Paper or the Test of Mathematics for University Admission Please note it is not a compulsory entry requirement to take these tests, but for applicants who are taking any of the papers alongside Mathematics or Further Mathematics we may be able to make you an alternative, more favourable, offer. Full details can be found on the Mathematics and Statistics Department webpage.
Taking a gap year Applications for deferred entry welcomed.
Contact Undergraduate Admissions Office + 44 1524 592028 or via ugadmissions@lancaster.ac.uk
Many of Lancaster's degree programmes are flexible, offering students the opportunity to cover a wide selection of subject areas to complement their main specialism. You will be able to study a range of modules, some examples of which are listed below.
Core
This module provides the student with an understanding of functions, limits, and series, and knowledge of the basic techniques of differentiation and integration. We introduce examples of functions and their graphs, and techniques for building new functions from old. We then consider the notion of a limit and introduce the main tools of calculus and Taylor Series. Students will also learn how to add, multiply and divide polynomials, and be introduced to rational functions and their partial fractions.
The exponential function is defined by means of a power series which is subsequently extended to the complex exponential function of an imaginary variable, so that students understand the connection between analysis, trigonometry and geometry. The trigonometric and hyperbolic functions are introduced in parallel with analogous power series so that students understand the role of functional identities. Such functional identities are later used to simplify integrals and to parametrise geometrical curves.
Students are introduced to the basic ideas and notations involved in describing sets and their functions. The module helps students to formalise the idea of the size of a set and what it means to be finite, countably infinite or uncountably finite. For finite sets, we can say that one is bigger than another if it contains more elements. What about infinite sets? Are some infinite sets bigger than others? We develop the tools to answer these questions and other counting problems, such as those involving recurrence relations, e.g. the Fibonacci numbers.
Rather than counting objects, we might be interested in connections between them, leading to the study of graphs and networks – collections of nodes joined by edges. There are many applications of this theory in designing or understanding properties of systems, such as the infrastructure powering the internet, social networks, the London Underground and the global ecosystem.
This module extends the theory of calculus from functions of a single real variable to functions of two real variables. Students will learn more about the notions of differentiation and integration and how they extend from functions defined on a line to functions defined on the plane. We see how partial derivatives help us to understand surfaces, while repeated integrals enable us to calculate volumes. Students will also investigate complex polynomials and use De Moivre’s theorem to calculate complex roots.
In mathematical models, it is common to use functions of several variables. For example, the speed of an airliner can depend upon the air pressure, temperature and wind direction. To study functions of several variables, we introduce rates of change with respect to several quantities. We learn how to find maxima and minima. Applications include the method of least squares.
A vast number of naturally occurring phenomena are modelled by differential equations, for which solutions are required to explain the behaviour of these phenomena. This module provides the student with techniques for solving a number of standard types of differential equation.
Students will apply these methods to naturally occurring phenomena, such as bacterial-population growth, tumour expansion and oscillating systems subject to forcing and friction, in order to explain their behaviour and seek solutions. The method of solution by Laplace transforms is also introduced.
To enable students to achieve a solid understanding of the broad role that statistical thinking plays in addressing scientific problems, the module begins with a brief overview of statistics in science and society and then moves on to the selection of appropriate probability models to describe systematic and random variations of discrete and continuous real data sets. Students will learn to implement statistical techniques and to draw clear and informative conclusions.
The module will be supported by the statistical software package ‘R’, which forms the basis of weekly lab sessions. Students will develop a strategic understanding of statistics and the use of associated software, and this underpins the skills needed for all subsequent statistical modules of the degree.
This module introduces the student to logic and mathematical proofs, with emphasis placed on proving general theorems than on performing calculations. This is because a result which can be applied to many different cases is clearly more powerful than a calculation that deals only with a single specific case.
We take a look at the language and structure of mathematical proofs in general, emphasising how logic can be used to express mathematical arguments in a concise and rigorous manner. These ideas are then applied to the study of number theory, establishing several fundamental results such as Bezout’s Theorem on highest common factors and the Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic on prime factorisations.
The concept of congruence of integers is introduced to students and they study the idea that a highest common factor can be generalised from the integers to polynomials.
Introducing the theory of matrices together with some basic applications, students will learn essential techniques such as arithmetic rules, row operations and computation of determinants by expansion about a row or a column.
The second part of the module covers a notable range of applications of matrices, such as solving systems of simultaneous linear equations, linear transformations, characteristic equation and eigenvectors and eigenvalues.
Probability theory is the study of chance phenomena, the concepts of which are fundamental to the study of statistics. This module will introduce students to some simple combinatorics, set theory and the axioms of probability.
Students will become aware of the different probability models used to characterise the outcomes of experiments that involve a chance or random component. The module covers ideas associated with the axioms of probability, conditional probability, independence, discrete random variables and their distributions, expectation and probability models.
Core
This module gives you the opportunity to enhance your project skills, including both subject-related and transferable skills. You’ll work on mathematical document preparation and presentation, scientific writing, and working with a statistical software package.
You’ll revisit LaTeX and R, and work on your oral communication skills, scientific writing, a written group project, and a group presentation.
Complex Analysis has its origins in differential calculus and the study of polynomial equations.
In this module you’ll consider the differential calculus of functions of a single complex variable and study power series and mappings by complex functions. You’ll use integral calculus of complex functions to find elegant and important results, including the fundamental theorem of algebra, and you’ll also use classical theorems to evaluate real integrals.
The module ends with basic discussion of harmonic functions, which play a significant role in physics.
In this module you'll take existing examples of binary operations, such as addition or multiplication of numbers and composition of functions, and will then select a small number of properties which these and other examples have in common, and use them to define a group.
You'll consider the elementary properties of groups, and the way in which you can prove several surprisingly elegant results fairly simply. You'll also look at maps between groups which 'preserve structure', giving a way of formalizing (and extending) the natural concept of what it means for two groups to be 'the same'.
This module builds on the binary operations studies in previous modules, such as addition or multiplication of numbers and composition of functions. Here you’ll select a small number of properties which these and other examples have in common, and use them to define a group.
You’ll also consider the elementary properties of groups. It turns out that several surprisingly elegant results can be proved fairly simply! By looking at maps between groups which 'preserve structure' you’ll discover a way of formalizing (and extending) the natural concept of what it means for two groups to be 'the same'.
Ring theory provides a framework for studying sets with two binary operations: addition and multiplication. This gives us a way to abstractly model various number systems, proving results that can be applied in many different situations, such as number theory and geometry. Familiar examples of rings include the integers, the integers modulation, the rational numbers, matrices and polynomials, but you’ll meet several less familiar examples too.
This module starts by considering the limits of sequences and convergence of series. You'll then investigate the notion of a limit, and extend your knowledge to functions and the analysis of differentiation, including proper proofs of techniques learned at A-level and in the first year.
You'll spend time exploring the Intermediate Value Theorem, and will have the opportunity to prove it from the definitions, and discover its surprisingly wide range of applications. Finally, you'll turn to the Mean Value Theorem. Earlier results ensure that its proof is now easy, and you'll be able to show that it, too, has many applications of widely differing kinds.
This module will give you the opportunity to study vector spaces, together with their structure-preserving maps and their relationship to matrices.
You’ll consider the effect of changing bases on the matrix representing one of these maps, and will examine how to choose bases so that this matrix is as simple as possible. Part of your study will also involve looking at the concepts of length and angle with regard to vector spaces.
Probability provides the theoretical basis for statistics and is of interest in its own right.
You’ll revisit basic concepts from the first year probability module, and extend these to encompass continuous random variables, investigating several important continuous probability distributions.
You’ll then focus on transformations of random variables and groups of two or more random variables, leading to two theoretical results about the behaviour of averages of large numbers of random variables which have important practical consequences in statistics.
In this module you’ll take a thorough look at the limits of sequences and convergence of series. You’ll learn to extend the notion of a limit to functions, leading to the analysis of differentiation, including proper proofs of techniques learned at A-level.
You’ll spend time studying the Intermediate Value Theorem and the Mean Value Theorem, and will discover that they have many applications of widely differing kinds. The next topic is new: sequences and series of functions (rather than just numbers), which again has many applications and is central to more advanced analysis.
Next we put the notion of integration under the microscope. Once it’s properly defined (via limits), you’ll learn how to get from this definition to the familiar technique of evaluating integrals by reverse differentiation. You’ll also explore some applications of integration that are quite different from the ones in A-level, such as estimations of discrete sums of series.
Further possible topics include Stirling's Formula, infinite products and Fourier series.
Statistics is the science of understanding patterns of population behaviour from data.
In this module we approach this problem by specifying a statistical model for the data. Statistical models usually include a number of unknown parameters, which need to be estimated.
You’ll focus on likelihood-based parameter estimation to demonstrate how statistical models can be used to draw conclusions from observations and experimental data, and also considering linear regression techniques within the statistical modelling framework.
Core
Statistical inference is the theory of the extraction of information about the unknown parameters of an underlying probability distribution from observed data. Consequently, statistical inference underpins all practical statistical applications.
This module reinforces the likelihood approach taken in second year Statistics for single parameter statistical models, and extends this to problems where the probability for the data depends on more than one unknown parameter.
You’ll also consider the issue of model choice: in situations where there are multiple models under consideration for the same data, how do we make a justified choice of which model is the 'best'?
The approach taken in this course is just one approach to statistical inference: a contrasting approach is covered in the Bayesian Inference module.
This module gives you the opportunity to enhance your project skills, including both subject-related and transferable skills. You’ll work on mathematical document preparation and presentation, scientific writing, and working with a statistical software package.
You’ll revisit LaTeX and R, and work on your oral communication skills, scientific writing, a written group project, and a group presentation.
Optional
Bayesian statistics provides a mechanism for making decisions in the presence of uncertainty. Using Bayes’ theorem, knowledge or rational beliefs are updated as fresh observations are collected. The purpose of the data collection exercise is expressed through a utility function, which is specific to the client or user. It defines what is to be gained or lost through taking particular actions in the current environment. Actions are continually made or not made depending on the expectation of this utility function at any point in time.
Bayesians admit probability as the sole measure of uncertainty. Thus Bayesian reasoning is based on a firm axiomatic system. In addition, since most people have an intuitive notion about probability, Bayesian analysis is readily communicated.
Combinatorics is the core subject of discrete mathematics which refers to the study of mathematical structures that are discrete in nature rather than continuous (for example graphs, lattices, designs and codes). While combinatorics is a huge subject - with many important connections to other areas of modern mathematics - it is a very accessible one.
In this module you’ll be introduced to the fundamental topics of combinatorial enumeration (sophisticated counting methods), graph theory (graphs, networks and algorithms), and combinatorial design theory (Latin squares and block designs). You’ll also explore important practical applications of the results and methods.
This module considers questions relating to linear ordinary differential equations. While explicit solutions can only be found for special types of equations, some of the ideas of real analysis allow us to answer questions about the existence and uniqueness of solutions to more general equations as well as allowing us to study certain properties of these solutions.
This module gives you a solid foundation in the basics of algebraic geometry. You’ll explore how curves can be described by algebraic equations, and learn how to understand and use abstract groups in dealing with geometrical objects (curves).
You’ll also gain an understanding of the notions and the main results pertaining to elliptic curves, and the way that algebra and geometry are linked via polynomial equations. Finally you’ll learn to perform algebraic computations with elliptic curves.
This module is an introduction to smooth curves and surfaces in three-dimensional space. You’ll encounter various geometrical properties of these objects, such as length, area, torsion and curvature, and will have the opportunity to explore the meaning of these quantities. You’ll use a variety of examples to calculate their values, and will use them to apply techniques from calculus and linear algebra.
In this module you’ll develop the knowledge of groups that you’ve gained in second year. You’ll study ‘direct products’ which are used to construct new groups, while any finite group is shown to ‘factor’ into ‘simple’ pieces. You’ll also consider situations in which a group ‘acts’ on a set by permuting its elements; this powerful idea is used to identify the symmetries of the Platonic solids, and to help study the structure of groups themselves.
In this module you’ll examine the notion of a norm, which introduces a generalized notion of ‘distance’ to the purely algebraic setting of vector spaces. You’ll learn several quite natural ways to do this, both for vectors of any dimension and for functions. You’ll then focus on the more special notion of an inner product which generalizes angles at the same time as distances.
Once we’ve established these concepts, you’ll have the opportunity to study geometrical ideas like orthogonality, which can be seen to apply to much more general spaces than Euclidean spaces of three (or even n) dimensions, notably to infinite dimensional spaces of functions. For example, Hilbert space theory shows how Fourier series are really another case of expressing an element in terms of a basis, and how you can use orthogonality to find best approximations to a given function by functions of a prescribed type. Finally, you’ll look at some of the main results of linear algebra, which generalize very nicely to linear operators between Hilbert spaces.
Introducing the Lebesgue integral for functions on the real line, this module features a classical approach to the construction of Lebesgue measure on the line and to the definition of the integral. The bounded convergence theorem is used to prove the monotone and dominated convergence theorems, and the results are illustrated in classical convergence problems including Fourier integrals.
Among the range of topics addressed on this module, students will become familiar with Lebesgue's definition of the integral, and the integral of a step function. There will be an introduction to subsets of the real line, including open sets and countable sets. Students will measure of an open set, and will discover measurable sets and null sets. Additionally, the module will focus on integral functions, along with Lebesgue's integral of a bounded measurable function, his bounded convergence theorem and the integral of an unbounded function. Dominated convergence theorem; monotone convergence theorem.
Other topics on the module will include applications of the convergence theorems and Wallis's product for P. Gaussian integral, along with some classical limit inversion results and the Fourier cosine integral. Students will develop an understanding of Dirichlet's comb function, Archimedes' axiom and Cantor's uncountability theorem, and will learn to prove the structure theorem for open sets. In addition, students will be able to prove covering lemmas for open sets, as well as understanding the statement of Heine—Bore theorem, as well as understanding the concept and proving basic properties of outer measure. As well as understanding inner measure. Finally, students will be expected to prove Lebesgue's theorem on countable additivity of measure.
This module is designed to give you an opportunity to consider key issues in the teaching and learning of mathematics. Whilst it is an academic study of mathematics education and not a training course for teachers, it does provide an excellent foundation for a PGCE especially in preparing students to write academically.
Having studies Mathematics for many years, you are well-placed to reflect upon that experience and attempt to make sense of it in the light of theoretical frameworks developed by researchers in the field. Within this course we hope to help you with this process so that as a Mathematics graduate you will be able to contribute knowledgeably to future debate about the ways in which your subject is treated within the education system.
This module is run as a partnership between the Department of Mathematics and Statistics, the University of Cumbria and the Students’ Union’s volunteering unit.
Designed with employability in mind, this module is based on the Students’ Union’s Schools Partnership Scheme, which supports Lancaster students on 10-week placements in local primary and secondary schools.
You’ll have the opportunity to take part in classroom observation and assistance, the development of classroom resources, the provision of one-on-one or small group support and possibly even teaching sections of lessons to the class as a whole.
This module aims to introduce students to the study designs and statistical methods commonly used in health investigations, such as measuring disease, study design, causality and confounding.
You’ll look at both observational and experimental designs and consider various health outcomes, studying a number of published articles to gain an understanding of the problems you’re investigating as well as the mathematical and statistical concepts underpinning inference.
This module gives an introduction to the key concepts and methods of metric space theory, a core topic for pure mathematics and its applications. Studying this module will give you a deeper understanding of continuity as well as a basic grounding in abstract topology.
You’ll also gain a firm foundation for further study of many topics including geometry, Lie groups and Hilbert space, and learn to apply your knowledge to areas including probability theory, differential equations, mathematical quantum theory and the theory of fractals.
Number theory is the study of the fascinating properties of the natural number system.
Many numbers are special in some sense, eg. primes or squares. Which numbers can be expressed as the sum of two squares? What is special about the number 561? Are there short cuts to factorizing large numbers or determining whether they are prime (this is important in cryptography)? The number of divisors of an integer fluctuates wildly, but is there a good estimation of the ‘average’ number of divisors in some sense?
Questions like these are easy to ask, and to describe to the non-specialist, but vary hugely in the amount of work needed to answer them. An extreme example is Fermat’s last theorem, which is very simple to state, but was proved by Taylor and Wiles 300 years after it was first stated. To answer questions about the natural numbers, we sometimes use rational, real and complex numbers, as well as any ideas from algebra and analysis that help, including groups, integration, infinite series and even infinite products.
This module introduces some of the central ideas and problems of the subject, and some of the methods used to solve them, while constantly illustrating the results with exercises and examples involving actual numbers.
This module is ideal for students who want to develop an analytical and axiomatic approach to the theory of probabilities.
First you’ll examine the notion of a probability space through simple examples featuring both discrete and continuous sample spaces. You’ll then use random variables and the expectation to develop a probability calculus, which you can apply to achieve laws of large numbers for sums of independent random variables.
You’ll also use the characteristic function to study the distributions of sums of independent variables, which have applications to random walks and to statistical physics.
This module covers the basics of ordinary representation theory. You’ll learn the concepts of R-module and of group representations, the main results pertaining to group representations, and will handle basic applications in the study of finite groups. You’ll also learn to perform computations with representations and morphisms in a selection of finite groups.
This module furthers your knowledge of commutative rings from your second year study.
You’ll be introduced to two new classes of integral domains called Euclidean domains, where you have a counterpart of the division algorithm, and unique factorization domains, in which an analogue of the Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic holds.
You’ll also explore how well-known concepts from the integers such as the highest common factor, the Euclidean algorithm, and factorization of polynomials, carry over to this new setting.
This module explores the concept of generalized linear models (GLMs), which have a range of applications in the biomedical, natural and social sciences, and can be used to relate a response variable to one or more explanatory variables. The response variable may be classified as quantitative (continuous or discrete, i.e. countable) or categorical (two categories, i.e. binary, or more than categories, i.e. ordinal or nominal). You’ll also become familiar with the programme R, which you’ll have the opportunity to use in weekly workshops.
This module covers important examples of stochastic processes, and how these processes can be analysed.
As an introduction to stochastic processes you’ll look at the random walk process. Historically this is an important process, and was initially motivated as a model for how the wealth of a gambler varies over time (initial analyses focused on whether there are betting strategies for a gambler that would ensure they won).
You’ll then focus on the most important class of stochastic processes, Markov processes (of which the random walk is a simple example). You’ll discover how to analyse Markov processes, and how they are used to model queues and populations.
Modern statistics is characterised by computer-intensive methods for data analysis and development of new theory for their justification. In this module you’ll become familiar with topics from classical statistics as well as some from emerging areas.
You’ll explore time series data through a wide variety of sequences of observations arising in environmental, economic, engineering and scientific contexts. You’ll also study time series and volatility modelling, where we’ll discuss the techniques for the analysis of such data with emphasis on financial application.
Another area you’ll focus on is some of the techniques developed for the analysis of multivariates, such as principal components analysis and cluster analysis. Lastly you’ll spend time looking at Change-Point Methods, which include traditional as well as some recently developed techniques for the detection of change in trend and variance.
Lancaster University offers a range of programmes, some of which follow a structured study programme, and others which offer the chance for you to devise a more flexible programme. We divide academic study into two sections - Part 1 (Year 1) and Part 2 (Year 2, 3 and sometimes 4). For most programmes Part 1 requires you to study 120 credits spread over at least three modules which, depending upon your programme, will be drawn from one, two or three different academic subjects. A higher degree of specialisation then develops in subsequent years. For more information about our teaching methods at Lancaster visit our Teaching and Learning section.
Information contained on the website with respect to modules is correct at the time of publication, but changes may be necessary, for example as a result of student feedback, Professional Statutory and Regulatory Bodies' (PSRB) requirements, staff changes, and new research.
The versatility of a mathematics and statistics degree opens up a broad range of career options. Your skills in logical thinking, analytical working and problem solving are highly transferable and much sought after by employers. Recent graduates are pursuing career paths as actuaries, analysts, clinical and medical statisticians, software developers, accountants, and teachers. Others remain at Lancaster to study at Masters or PhD level.
Lancaster University is dedicated to ensuring you not only gain a highly reputable degree, you also graduate with the relevant life and work based skills. We are unique in that every student is eligible to participate in The Lancaster Award which offers you the opportunity to complete key activities such as work experience, employability/career development, campus community and social development. Visit our Employability section for full details.
We set our fees on an annual basis and the 2017/18 entry fees have not yet been set.
As a guide, our fees in 2016 were:
UK/EU | Overseas |
---|---|
£9,000 | £17,470 |
Lancaster University's priority is to support every student to make the most of their life and education and we have committed £3.7m in scholarships and bursaries. 400 students each year will be entitled to bursaries or scholarships to help them with the cost of fees and/or living expenses. Our financial support depends on your circumstances and how well you do in your A levels (or equivalent academic qualifications) before starting study with us.
Scholarships recognising academic talent:
Bursaries for life, living and learning
Any financial support that you receive from Lancaster University will be in addition to government support that might be available to you (eg fee loans) and will not affect your entitlement to these.
For full details of the University's financial support packages including eligibility criteria, please visit our fees and funding page
Students also need to consider further costs which may include books, stationery, printing, photocopying, binding and general subsistence on trips and visits. Following graduation it may be necessary to take out subscriptions to professional bodies and to buy business attire for job interviews.
Flexibility is built into all degree programmes at Lancaster. Specifically, this means that our nine single-honours degrees share a common core for the first two years, thus building foundations for further study in each of the disciplines of algebra, analysis, probability and statistics. In the second year, you choose to complete either a three year BSc Hons, or a four year MSci, specialising in either pure mathematics or statistics, or taking a combination of the two.
Problem solving skills lie at the heart of mathematics. From your first week, you will take part in regular classes to develop problem solving and teamwork skills, ensuring that you are a highly competent graduate valued by employers.
Our degrees include training in report writing, mathematical computing and presentation skills, all of which come together in a group project at the beginning of the third year. In addition, final year MSci students write a substantial dissertation in either pure mathematics or statistics under the supervision of a member of staff who is an active researcher. There is also the option of writing this dissertation as part of a collaborative project with industry.
The degrees in Statistics and in Mathematics with Statistics will grant you accreditation to Graduate Statistician status of the Royal Statistical Society and exemption from the probability and statistics exam of the Institute and Faculty of Actuaries, subject to satisfactory academic performance.
Grade Requirements
A Level AAA including A level Mathematics or Further Mathematics OR AAB including A level Mathematics and Further Mathematics
International Baccalaureate 36 points overall with 16 points from the best 3 Higher Level subjects including 6 in Higher Level Mathematics
BTEC Considered alongside A level Mathematics (A) and Further Mathematics (A)
Other Qualifications We welcome applications from students with other internationally recognised qualifications. For more information please visit the international qualifications webpage or contact the Undergraduate Admissions Office directly.
Essential Subjects
Advanced/Higher level Mathematics or Further Mathematics are required for entry.
IELTS 6.0 (with at least 5.5 in each component)
Further Information
General Studies Offers normally include General Studies if it is taken as a fourth A level.
Combination of Qualifications Applications from students with a combination of qualifications are welcomed, for further advice please contact the Undergraduate Admissions Office directly.
STEP Paper or the Test of Mathematics for University Admission Please note it is not a compulsory entry requirement to take these tests, but for applicants who are taking any of the papers alongside Mathematics or Further Mathematics we may be able to make you an alternative, more favourable, offer. Full details can be found on the Mathematics and Statistics Department webpage.
Taking a gap year Applications for deferred entry welcomed.
Contact Undergraduate Admissions Office + 44 1524 592028 or via ugadmissions@lancaster.ac.uk
Many of Lancaster's degree programmes are flexible, offering students the opportunity to cover a wide selection of subject areas to complement their main specialism. You will be able to study a range of modules, some examples of which are listed below.
Core
This module provides the student with an understanding of functions, limits, and series, and knowledge of the basic techniques of differentiation and integration. We introduce examples of functions and their graphs, and techniques for building new functions from old. We then consider the notion of a limit and introduce the main tools of calculus and Taylor Series. Students will also learn how to add, multiply and divide polynomials, and be introduced to rational functions and their partial fractions.
The exponential function is defined by means of a power series which is subsequently extended to the complex exponential function of an imaginary variable, so that students understand the connection between analysis, trigonometry and geometry. The trigonometric and hyperbolic functions are introduced in parallel with analogous power series so that students understand the role of functional identities. Such functional identities are later used to simplify integrals and to parametrise geometrical curves.
Students are introduced to the basic ideas and notations involved in describing sets and their functions. The module helps students to formalise the idea of the size of a set and what it means to be finite, countably infinite or uncountably finite. For finite sets, we can say that one is bigger than another if it contains more elements. What about infinite sets? Are some infinite sets bigger than others? We develop the tools to answer these questions and other counting problems, such as those involving recurrence relations, e.g. the Fibonacci numbers.
Rather than counting objects, we might be interested in connections between them, leading to the study of graphs and networks – collections of nodes joined by edges. There are many applications of this theory in designing or understanding properties of systems, such as the infrastructure powering the internet, social networks, the London Underground and the global ecosystem.
This module extends the theory of calculus from functions of a single real variable to functions of two real variables. Students will learn more about the notions of differentiation and integration and how they extend from functions defined on a line to functions defined on the plane. We see how partial derivatives help us to understand surfaces, while repeated integrals enable us to calculate volumes. Students will also investigate complex polynomials and use De Moivre’s theorem to calculate complex roots.
In mathematical models, it is common to use functions of several variables. For example, the speed of an airliner can depend upon the air pressure, temperature and wind direction. To study functions of several variables, we introduce rates of change with respect to several quantities. We learn how to find maxima and minima. Applications include the method of least squares.
A vast number of naturally occurring phenomena are modelled by differential equations, for which solutions are required to explain the behaviour of these phenomena. This module provides the student with techniques for solving a number of standard types of differential equation.
Students will apply these methods to naturally occurring phenomena, such as bacterial-population growth, tumour expansion and oscillating systems subject to forcing and friction, in order to explain their behaviour and seek solutions. The method of solution by Laplace transforms is also introduced.
To enable students to achieve a solid understanding of the broad role that statistical thinking plays in addressing scientific problems, the module begins with a brief overview of statistics in science and society and then moves on to the selection of appropriate probability models to describe systematic and random variations of discrete and continuous real data sets. Students will learn to implement statistical techniques and to draw clear and informative conclusions.
The module will be supported by the statistical software package ‘R’, which forms the basis of weekly lab sessions. Students will develop a strategic understanding of statistics and the use of associated software, and this underpins the skills needed for all subsequent statistical modules of the degree.
This module introduces the student to logic and mathematical proofs, with emphasis placed on proving general theorems than on performing calculations. This is because a result which can be applied to many different cases is clearly more powerful than a calculation that deals only with a single specific case.
We take a look at the language and structure of mathematical proofs in general, emphasising how logic can be used to express mathematical arguments in a concise and rigorous manner. These ideas are then applied to the study of number theory, establishing several fundamental results such as Bezout’s Theorem on highest common factors and the Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic on prime factorisations.
The concept of congruence of integers is introduced to students and they study the idea that a highest common factor can be generalised from the integers to polynomials.
Introducing the theory of matrices together with some basic applications, students will learn essential techniques such as arithmetic rules, row operations and computation of determinants by expansion about a row or a column.
The second part of the module covers a notable range of applications of matrices, such as solving systems of simultaneous linear equations, linear transformations, characteristic equation and eigenvectors and eigenvalues.
Probability theory is the study of chance phenomena, the concepts of which are fundamental to the study of statistics. This module will introduce students to some simple combinatorics, set theory and the axioms of probability.
Students will become aware of the different probability models used to characterise the outcomes of experiments that involve a chance or random component. The module covers ideas associated with the axioms of probability, conditional probability, independence, discrete random variables and their distributions, expectation and probability models.
Core
This module gives you the opportunity to enhance your project skills, including both subject-related and transferable skills. You’ll work on mathematical document preparation and presentation, scientific writing, and working with a statistical software package.
You’ll revisit LaTeX and R, and work on your oral communication skills, scientific writing, a written group project, and a group presentation.
Complex Analysis has its origins in differential calculus and the study of polynomial equations.
In this module you’ll consider the differential calculus of functions of a single complex variable and study power series and mappings by complex functions. You’ll use integral calculus of complex functions to find elegant and important results, including the fundamental theorem of algebra, and you’ll also use classical theorems to evaluate real integrals.
The module ends with basic discussion of harmonic functions, which play a significant role in physics.
In this module you'll take existing examples of binary operations, such as addition or multiplication of numbers and composition of functions, and will then select a small number of properties which these and other examples have in common, and use them to define a group.
You'll consider the elementary properties of groups, and the way in which you can prove several surprisingly elegant results fairly simply. You'll also look at maps between groups which 'preserve structure', giving a way of formalizing (and extending) the natural concept of what it means for two groups to be 'the same'.
This module builds on the binary operations studies in previous modules, such as addition or multiplication of numbers and composition of functions. Here you’ll select a small number of properties which these and other examples have in common, and use them to define a group.
You’ll also consider the elementary properties of groups. It turns out that several surprisingly elegant results can be proved fairly simply! By looking at maps between groups which 'preserve structure' you’ll discover a way of formalizing (and extending) the natural concept of what it means for two groups to be 'the same'.
Ring theory provides a framework for studying sets with two binary operations: addition and multiplication. This gives us a way to abstractly model various number systems, proving results that can be applied in many different situations, such as number theory and geometry. Familiar examples of rings include the integers, the integers modulation, the rational numbers, matrices and polynomials, but you’ll meet several less familiar examples too.
This module starts by considering the limits of sequences and convergence of series. You'll then investigate the notion of a limit, and extend your knowledge to functions and the analysis of differentiation, including proper proofs of techniques learned at A-level and in the first year.
You'll spend time exploring the Intermediate Value Theorem, and will have the opportunity to prove it from the definitions, and discover its surprisingly wide range of applications. Finally, you'll turn to the Mean Value Theorem. Earlier results ensure that its proof is now easy, and you'll be able to show that it, too, has many applications of widely differing kinds.
This module will give you the opportunity to study vector spaces, together with their structure-preserving maps and their relationship to matrices.
You’ll consider the effect of changing bases on the matrix representing one of these maps, and will examine how to choose bases so that this matrix is as simple as possible. Part of your study will also involve looking at the concepts of length and angle with regard to vector spaces.
Probability provides the theoretical basis for statistics and is of interest in its own right.
You’ll revisit basic concepts from the first year probability module, and extend these to encompass continuous random variables, investigating several important continuous probability distributions.
You’ll then focus on transformations of random variables and groups of two or more random variables, leading to two theoretical results about the behaviour of averages of large numbers of random variables which have important practical consequences in statistics.
In this module you’ll take a thorough look at the limits of sequences and convergence of series. You’ll learn to extend the notion of a limit to functions, leading to the analysis of differentiation, including proper proofs of techniques learned at A-level.
You’ll spend time studying the Intermediate Value Theorem and the Mean Value Theorem, and will discover that they have many applications of widely differing kinds. The next topic is new: sequences and series of functions (rather than just numbers), which again has many applications and is central to more advanced analysis.
Next we put the notion of integration under the microscope. Once it’s properly defined (via limits), you’ll learn how to get from this definition to the familiar technique of evaluating integrals by reverse differentiation. You’ll also explore some applications of integration that are quite different from the ones in A-level, such as estimations of discrete sums of series.
Further possible topics include Stirling's Formula, infinite products and Fourier series.
Statistics is the science of understanding patterns of population behaviour from data.
In this module we approach this problem by specifying a statistical model for the data. Statistical models usually include a number of unknown parameters, which need to be estimated.
You’ll focus on likelihood-based parameter estimation to demonstrate how statistical models can be used to draw conclusions from observations and experimental data, and also considering linear regression techniques within the statistical modelling framework.
Core
Statistical inference is the theory of the extraction of information about the unknown parameters of an underlying probability distribution from observed data. Consequently, statistical inference underpins all practical statistical applications.
This module reinforces the likelihood approach taken in second year Statistics for single parameter statistical models, and extends this to problems where the probability for the data depends on more than one unknown parameter.
You’ll also consider the issue of model choice: in situations where there are multiple models under consideration for the same data, how do we make a justified choice of which model is the 'best'?
The approach taken in this course is just one approach to statistical inference: a contrasting approach is covered in the Bayesian Inference module.
This module gives you the opportunity to enhance your project skills, including both subject-related and transferable skills. You’ll work on mathematical document preparation and presentation, scientific writing, and working with a statistical software package.
You’ll revisit LaTeX and R, and work on your oral communication skills, scientific writing, a written group project, and a group presentation.
Optional
Bayesian statistics provides a mechanism for making decisions in the presence of uncertainty. Using Bayes’ theorem, knowledge or rational beliefs are updated as fresh observations are collected. The purpose of the data collection exercise is expressed through a utility function, which is specific to the client or user. It defines what is to be gained or lost through taking particular actions in the current environment. Actions are continually made or not made depending on the expectation of this utility function at any point in time.
Bayesians admit probability as the sole measure of uncertainty. Thus Bayesian reasoning is based on a firm axiomatic system. In addition, since most people have an intuitive notion about probability, Bayesian analysis is readily communicated.
Combinatorics is the core subject of discrete mathematics which refers to the study of mathematical structures that are discrete in nature rather than continuous (for example graphs, lattices, designs and codes). While combinatorics is a huge subject - with many important connections to other areas of modern mathematics - it is a very accessible one.
In this module you’ll be introduced to the fundamental topics of combinatorial enumeration (sophisticated counting methods), graph theory (graphs, networks and algorithms), and combinatorial design theory (Latin squares and block designs). You’ll also explore important practical applications of the results and methods.
This module considers questions relating to linear ordinary differential equations. While explicit solutions can only be found for special types of equations, some of the ideas of real analysis allow us to answer questions about the existence and uniqueness of solutions to more general equations as well as allowing us to study certain properties of these solutions.
This module gives you a solid foundation in the basics of algebraic geometry. You’ll explore how curves can be described by algebraic equations, and learn how to understand and use abstract groups in dealing with geometrical objects (curves).
You’ll also gain an understanding of the notions and the main results pertaining to elliptic curves, and the way that algebra and geometry are linked via polynomial equations. Finally you’ll learn to perform algebraic computations with elliptic curves.
This module is an introduction to smooth curves and surfaces in three-dimensional space. You’ll encounter various geometrical properties of these objects, such as length, area, torsion and curvature, and will have the opportunity to explore the meaning of these quantities. You’ll use a variety of examples to calculate their values, and will use them to apply techniques from calculus and linear algebra.
In this module you’ll develop the knowledge of groups that you’ve gained in second year. You’ll study ‘direct products’ which are used to construct new groups, while any finite group is shown to ‘factor’ into ‘simple’ pieces. You’ll also consider situations in which a group ‘acts’ on a set by permuting its elements; this powerful idea is used to identify the symmetries of the Platonic solids, and to help study the structure of groups themselves.
In this module you’ll examine the notion of a norm, which introduces a generalized notion of ‘distance’ to the purely algebraic setting of vector spaces. You’ll learn several quite natural ways to do this, both for vectors of any dimension and for functions. You’ll then focus on the more special notion of an inner product which generalizes angles at the same time as distances.
Once we’ve established these concepts, you’ll have the opportunity to study geometrical ideas like orthogonality, which can be seen to apply to much more general spaces than Euclidean spaces of three (or even n) dimensions, notably to infinite dimensional spaces of functions. For example, Hilbert space theory shows how Fourier series are really another case of expressing an element in terms of a basis, and how you can use orthogonality to find best approximations to a given function by functions of a prescribed type. Finally, you’ll look at some of the main results of linear algebra, which generalize very nicely to linear operators between Hilbert spaces.
Introducing the Lebesgue integral for functions on the real line, this module features a classical approach to the construction of Lebesgue measure on the line and to the definition of the integral. The bounded convergence theorem is used to prove the monotone and dominated convergence theorems, and the results are illustrated in classical convergence problems including Fourier integrals.
Among the range of topics addressed on this module, students will become familiar with Lebesgue's definition of the integral, and the integral of a step function. There will be an introduction to subsets of the real line, including open sets and countable sets. Students will measure of an open set, and will discover measurable sets and null sets. Additionally, the module will focus on integral functions, along with Lebesgue's integral of a bounded measurable function, his bounded convergence theorem and the integral of an unbounded function. Dominated convergence theorem; monotone convergence theorem.
Other topics on the module will include applications of the convergence theorems and Wallis's product for P. Gaussian integral, along with some classical limit inversion results and the Fourier cosine integral. Students will develop an understanding of Dirichlet's comb function, Archimedes' axiom and Cantor's uncountability theorem, and will learn to prove the structure theorem for open sets. In addition, students will be able to prove covering lemmas for open sets, as well as understanding the statement of Heine—Bore theorem, as well as understanding the concept and proving basic properties of outer measure. As well as understanding inner measure. Finally, students will be expected to prove Lebesgue's theorem on countable additivity of measure.
This module is designed to give you an opportunity to consider key issues in the teaching and learning of mathematics. Whilst it is an academic study of mathematics education and not a training course for teachers, it does provide an excellent foundation for a PGCE especially in preparing students to write academically.
Having studies Mathematics for many years, you are well-placed to reflect upon that experience and attempt to make sense of it in the light of theoretical frameworks developed by researchers in the field. Within this course we hope to help you with this process so that as a Mathematics graduate you will be able to contribute knowledgeably to future debate about the ways in which your subject is treated within the education system.
This module is run as a partnership between the Department of Mathematics and Statistics, the University of Cumbria and the Students’ Union’s volunteering unit.
Designed with employability in mind, this module is based on the Students’ Union’s Schools Partnership Scheme, which supports Lancaster students on 10-week placements in local primary and secondary schools.
You’ll have the opportunity to take part in classroom observation and assistance, the development of classroom resources, the provision of one-on-one or small group support and possibly even teaching sections of lessons to the class as a whole.
This module aims to introduce students to the study designs and statistical methods commonly used in health investigations, such as measuring disease, study design, causality and confounding.
You’ll look at both observational and experimental designs and consider various health outcomes, studying a number of published articles to gain an understanding of the problems you’re investigating as well as the mathematical and statistical concepts underpinning inference.
This module gives an introduction to the key concepts and methods of metric space theory, a core topic for pure mathematics and its applications. Studying this module will give you a deeper understanding of continuity as well as a basic grounding in abstract topology.
You’ll also gain a firm foundation for further study of many topics including geometry, Lie groups and Hilbert space, and learn to apply your knowledge to areas including probability theory, differential equations, mathematical quantum theory and the theory of fractals.
Number theory is the study of the fascinating properties of the natural number system.
Many numbers are special in some sense, eg. primes or squares. Which numbers can be expressed as the sum of two squares? What is special about the number 561? Are there short cuts to factorizing large numbers or determining whether they are prime (this is important in cryptography)? The number of divisors of an integer fluctuates wildly, but is there a good estimation of the ‘average’ number of divisors in some sense?
Questions like these are easy to ask, and to describe to the non-specialist, but vary hugely in the amount of work needed to answer them. An extreme example is Fermat’s last theorem, which is very simple to state, but was proved by Taylor and Wiles 300 years after it was first stated. To answer questions about the natural numbers, we sometimes use rational, real and complex numbers, as well as any ideas from algebra and analysis that help, including groups, integration, infinite series and even infinite products.
This module introduces some of the central ideas and problems of the subject, and some of the methods used to solve them, while constantly illustrating the results with exercises and examples involving actual numbers.
This module is ideal for students who want to develop an analytical and axiomatic approach to the theory of probabilities.
First you’ll examine the notion of a probability space through simple examples featuring both discrete and continuous sample spaces. You’ll then use random variables and the expectation to develop a probability calculus, which you can apply to achieve laws of large numbers for sums of independent random variables.
You’ll also use the characteristic function to study the distributions of sums of independent variables, which have applications to random walks and to statistical physics.
This module covers the basics of ordinary representation theory. You’ll learn the concepts of R-module and of group representations, the main results pertaining to group representations, and will handle basic applications in the study of finite groups. You’ll also learn to perform computations with representations and morphisms in a selection of finite groups.
This module furthers your knowledge of commutative rings from your second year study.
You’ll be introduced to two new classes of integral domains called Euclidean domains, where you have a counterpart of the division algorithm, and unique factorization domains, in which an analogue of the Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic holds.
You’ll also explore how well-known concepts from the integers such as the highest common factor, the Euclidean algorithm, and factorization of polynomials, carry over to this new setting.
This module explores the concept of generalized linear models (GLMs), which have a range of applications in the biomedical, natural and social sciences, and can be used to relate a response variable to one or more explanatory variables. The response variable may be classified as quantitative (continuous or discrete, i.e. countable) or categorical (two categories, i.e. binary, or more than categories, i.e. ordinal or nominal). You’ll also become familiar with the programme R, which you’ll have the opportunity to use in weekly workshops.
This module covers important examples of stochastic processes, and how these processes can be analysed.
As an introduction to stochastic processes you’ll look at the random walk process. Historically this is an important process, and was initially motivated as a model for how the wealth of a gambler varies over time (initial analyses focused on whether there are betting strategies for a gambler that would ensure they won).
You’ll then focus on the most important class of stochastic processes, Markov processes (of which the random walk is a simple example). You’ll discover how to analyse Markov processes, and how they are used to model queues and populations.
Modern statistics is characterised by computer-intensive methods for data analysis and development of new theory for their justification. In this module you’ll become familiar with topics from classical statistics as well as some from emerging areas.
You’ll explore time series data through a wide variety of sequences of observations arising in environmental, economic, engineering and scientific contexts. You’ll also study time series and volatility modelling, where we’ll discuss the techniques for the analysis of such data with emphasis on financial application.
Another area you’ll focus on is some of the techniques developed for the analysis of multivariates, such as principal components analysis and cluster analysis. Lastly you’ll spend time looking at Change-Point Methods, which include traditional as well as some recently developed techniques for the detection of change in trend and variance.
Lancaster University offers a range of programmes, some of which follow a structured study programme, and others which offer the chance for you to devise a more flexible programme. We divide academic study into two sections - Part 1 (Year 1) and Part 2 (Year 2, 3 and sometimes 4). For most programmes Part 1 requires you to study 120 credits spread over at least three modules which, depending upon your programme, will be drawn from one, two or three different academic subjects. A higher degree of specialisation then develops in subsequent years. For more information about our teaching methods at Lancaster visit our Teaching and Learning section.
Information contained on the website with respect to modules is correct at the time of publication, but changes may be necessary, for example as a result of student feedback, Professional Statutory and Regulatory Bodies' (PSRB) requirements, staff changes, and new research.
The versatility of a mathematics and statistics degree opens up a broad range of career options. Your skills in logical thinking, analytical working and problem solving are highly transferable and much sought after by employers. Recent graduates are pursuing career paths as actuaries, analysts, clinical and medical statisticians, software developers, accountants, and teachers. Others remain at Lancaster to study at Masters or PhD level.
Lancaster University is dedicated to ensuring you not only gain a highly reputable degree, you also graduate with the relevant life and work based skills. We are unique in that every student is eligible to participate in The Lancaster Award which offers you the opportunity to complete key activities such as work experience, employability/career development, campus community and social development. Visit our Employability section for full details.
We set our fees on an annual basis and the 2017/18 entry fees have not yet been set.
As a guide, our fees in 2016 were:
UK/EU | Overseas |
---|---|
£9,000 | £17,470 |
Lancaster University's priority is to support every student to make the most of their life and education and we have committed £3.7m in scholarships and bursaries. 400 students each year will be entitled to bursaries or scholarships to help them with the cost of fees and/or living expenses. Our financial support depends on your circumstances and how well you do in your A levels (or equivalent academic qualifications) before starting study with us.
Scholarships recognising academic talent:
Bursaries for life, living and learning
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For full details of the University's financial support packages including eligibility criteria, please visit our fees and funding page
Students also need to consider further costs which may include books, stationery, printing, photocopying, binding and general subsistence on trips and visits. Following graduation it may be necessary to take out subscriptions to professional bodies and to buy business attire for job interviews.