CLA Higher Education Licence

The University has a licence from the Copyright Licensing Agency (CLA) to enable staff to create photocopied and digital course packs or make digital readings available on Moodle. 

There are some important conditions that must be observed by staff when scanning or re-using digital originals to create digital course materials.

Who can copy?

All members of academic staff in the UK may photocopy print resources.  Only trained staff may scan or reuse copies from digital originals.  If you need scanned material for students to access on Moodle, you should use the Library's digitisation service.  Sonia Stevenson (Accounting and Finance), Sarah Elliott (DELC) and Emma Gardner (Sociology) can assist with occasional scanning for staff in their departments.  The licence does not cover copying for use by students on campuses in Ghana or China.  If you need material for students there, please contact the Copyright Officer.

What can be copied?

Copies may be made from books, journals and magazines published in the UK or the one of the other countries which have exchange agreements with the UK to permit UK licencees to copy legally from foreign books, journals and magazines.

Some categories of materials are not included:

  • printed music (including the words)
  • maps, charts
  • newspapers
  • workbooks, work cards and assignment sheets
  • any work on which the copyright owner has expressly and prominently stipulated that it may not be copied under the CLA Licence.

Use the CLA’s Check Permissions tool to check whether a resource may be copied – the repertoire is different for photocopying, scanning and digital reuse, so be sure to click on the Show permissions button.

For US materials, an existing digital version must be used if reasonably available, so scanning of print is not permitted when a suitable electronic version can be purchased.

The University must own a legitimate copy of the licenced material to be copied, for example books and journals in the library or copyright fee paid copies of chapters or articles obtained from the British Library.  You can check the Library's holdings using the OneSearch discovery tool to verify ownership.

How much can be copied?

For each course of study (module):

The greater of 10% of a work or:

  • Book – one chapter
  • Journal issue – one article
  • Conference proceedings – one paper
  • Anthology of short stories or poems – one item not exceeding ten pages

However, textbook substitution is not permitted – copying a chapter from each of a range of textbooks all covering essentially the same material and thus building a textbook of scanned chapters.

Whole page visual images and disembedded part page visual images may also be prepared under the licence.

What records are needed?

An appropriate Copyright Notice must be attached to the front of scanned items reminding users about the copyright conditions.  Where is is undesirable to display the full text of the Copyright Notice, eg when including an image in a presentation,  it is acceptable to use an abbreviated form of words such as 'Copied under CLA licence - please refer to the full Copyright Notice'  and append the full notice elsewhere, such as at the end of the presentation.   Digital copy record forms detailing all scans or digital reuse under the CLA licence must also be completed.  The Library digitisation service or the trained departmental scanners manage all the record keeping.

The information in the forms is returned to the CLA and informs the fair distribution of licence fees to rightsholders as well as allowing the CLA to monitor scanning and usage trends.

What can be done with the copies?

  • One photocopy may be made and distributed to each participant and teacher on a course module.
  • Digital copies must be made available via a secure, password protected system in relation to a particular course of study. Only students and teachers on that course may download or print out digital copies.
  • Digital copies must not be made available on the publicly accessible internet.

Any other conditions?

Digital copies may not be stored, or systematically indexed, with the intention of creating an electronic library or similar educational learning resource. However, scanned items may be kept on a central server and backed up. Once the requirement for course delivery has passed the digital materials should be deleted from the Course Collection, unless the course is likely to be repeated in the next session (term or academic year). Before the course is taught again, the Course Collection must be checked to ensure that no scanned items are available which are not required, and that the items made available do not exceed the licence limits in respect of that course of study.