Claire Hardaker (NB. I just did a triathlon here. It's not my best look.)


Faculty of Arts & Social Sciences (FASS)
Linguistics & English Language (LAEL)
County South
Lancaster University
☎ +44 1524 593212
en clair

Blog (DrClaireH)
Blog (en clair)
Blog (FORGE)
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PhD thesis
Podcast (en clair)
Twitter (DrClaireH)
Twitter (en clair)
Twitter (FORGE)
Wikipedia profile
Work profile (official)
Work profile (personal)


  • Want to know about my availability, teaching, office hours, etc.? See my personal work profile.



    Need a hard-copy for some reason? Here's a ready-made PDF. Note, however, that it's usually about a month or two out of date. By contrast, the CV on this page updates fairly regularly.


    I'm a senior lecturer in forensic corpus linguistics in the Department of Linguistics and English Language at Lancaster University. I research online aggression, deception, and manipulation. I do a fair bit of media work, including documentaries, news interviews, and writing articles for the press. I direct the Forensic Linguistics Research Group (FORGE), and blog about academic things I find interesting, such as breaking news data, my adventures in academia, and the media's not-always-successful interactions with scholarly work. And I'm currently writing three books (consecutively!), and managing a few projects.

    I'm also knee-deep in producing a podcast called en clair. Each episode is dedicated to a case that involves forensic linguistics, literary detection, language mysteries, cyptography, undeciphered languages, and so on. If that sounds interesting, you can find ways to listen here.

    My free time is variously divided between astronomy, ballet, and horses. I'm also an attempted triathlete so I spend plenty of time running, riding, and swimming. Oh, and sometimes I tweet.


    • Jun 2017-present: SENIOR LECTURER in Forensic Corpus Linguistics, Lancaster University, UK.
    • May 2013-Jun 2017: LECTURER in Forensic Corpus Linguistics, Lancaster University, UK.
    • Sep 2007-May 2013: LECTURER in Linguistics & English Language, UCLan, UK.


    At the moment, as part of my strategy for managing a sensible work-life balance (!!!), throughout 2016 to the present I am declining almost all talk invitations. To press, this has included over thirty requests, including for TEDx talks, plenaries, masterclasses, and more. The very few exceptions are noted below. I anticipate returning to fuller routine in approximately 2022.

    Note that this is also not a complete list of all talks I've done. For media interviews, see KNOWLEDGE EXCHANGE and MEDIA, and for non-academic talks, see CONSULTANCY, IMPACT, and NON-UNIVERSITY TALKS.

    • 04 Mar 2019: INVITED SPEAKER, Lancaster University, UK: CASS Business Boost: The curious world of (forensic) consultancy research - or knowing when to say, "Er.. no thanks".
    • 26 Feb 2019: PLENARY, London, UK: English Language Magazine Conference. lols, trolls, and losing control: online language and interaction.
    • 04 Dec 2018: INVITED SPEAKER, Lancaster University, UK: Digging up dirt in the data: An absolute beginner’s introduction to corpus linguistics.
    • 24 Oct 2018: INVITED SPEAKER, Blackpool & Fylde College, UK: The Demos is in the details: Are women really more misogynistic than men online?
    • Jun 2018-Jan 2019: MATERNITY LEAVE.
    • 06 May 2017: INVITED SPEAKER (x2), Lancaster University, UK: Community Day 2017. Catching a killer with forensic linguistics and Lie to me: the truth about lying.
    • 19 Sep 2016: INVITED SPEAKER, Nottingham Trent University, UK: BAAL/Routledge Research Development Workshop 2016 - Language and identity in law and evidence. Surviving (and analysing) the mean tweets of the internet: An introduction to FireAnt.
    • 14 Jul 2016: PLENARY, Manchester Metropolitan University: Linguistic Impoliteness & Rudeness IV (LIAR IV). Mediated aggression: who is the troll?
    • 20 May 2016: PLENARY, Centre for Forensic Linguistics, Aston University, UK: First Annual Centre for Forensic Linguistics Symposium: Cybercrime: Language and Identity Online. Applications of FireAnt in Forensic (Corpus) Linguistics: Identifying Angels on Ashley Madison.
    • 02 Mar 2016: INVITED SPEAKER, University of De Montfort, UK: The antisocial network: investigating online offence using forensic linguistics.
    • 16-17 Apr 2015: PLENARY, British Association of Applied Linguistics, University of Cardiff, UK: Language and the New Media: Ethics and antisocial online behaviour.
    • 25 Mar 2015: INVITED SPEAKER, Royal Holloway, UK: The ethics of online aggression: Where does "virtual" end and "reality" begin?
    • 11 Mar 2015: PLENARY, University of Central Lancashire, UK: From fairy-tale monster to mainstream media: The offline impact of research into trolling.
    • 09-11 Jul 2014: PAPER, University of Huddersfield, UK: 8th International Conference on Politeness. "I refuse to respond to this obvious troll": An overview of responses to perceived trolling and accusations of trolling.
    • Feb 2014-Apr 2014: MATERNITY LEAVE.
    • 12 Dec 2013: INVITED SPEAKER, University of Leeds, UK: Wolves on the web: Aggression, deception, and manipulation in computer-mediated communication.
    • 23 Oct 2013: INVITED SPEAKER, Birmingham City University, UK: The pragmatics of trolling.
    • 22-26 Jul 2013: PAPER, Lancaster University, UK: Corpus Linguistics 2013 (CL2013). "Obvious trolls will just get you banned": Trolling versus corpus linguistics.
    • 13-14 Jul 2013: INVITED SPEAKER, Lancaster University, UK: Pragmatics Summer School. Computer-mediated communication in the age of rage.
    • 22-26 May 2013: PAPER, University of Santiago de Compostela, Spain: International Computer Archive of Modern and Medieval English (ICAME 34). 'Didn't pay much attention in school, did you?' Tag questions as markers of (im)politeness in computer-mediated communication. Collaborative paper with Sebastian Hoffmann.
    • 21-22 Jun 2012: PAPER, Leeds Metropolitan University, UK: The Sixth Inter-Varietal Applied Corpus Studies (IVACS) International Conference. Conducivity, control, and coercion in courtroom questioning.
    • 22 Nov 2011: GUEST LECTURE, Lancaster University, UK: Issues of intentions and interpretations in online interaction.
    • 26 Oct 2011: INVITED SPEAKER, University of York St. John, UK: Please help! The co-construction of pseudo-naïve trolling online.
    • 06-08 Oct 2011: PAPER, University of Łódź, Poland: Cognition, Conduct & Communication 2011. 'You're my second-favourite troll of 2009': The evaluation of trolling in asynchronous computer-mediated communication.
    • 10 Nov 2010: GUEST LECTURE, Lancaster University, UK: The Impact of IT on Corporate Communication.
    • 30 Jun-02 Jul 2010: PAPER, University of Basel, Switzerland: The Fifth International Symposium on Politeness. Trolling in asynchronous computer-mediated communication: From user discussions to theoretical concepts.
    • 30 Jun-02 Jul 2009: PAPER, Lancaster University, UK: Linguistic Impoliteness and Rudeness II (LIARII). 'I'm here to kill time and to piss people like you off you loser': Trolls and flames in synchronous computer-mediated communication.


    • Sep 2010-May 2013: ACADEMIC MISCONDUCT LIAISON, UCLan.
    • Sep 2011-May 2013: COURSE LEADER, UCLan, for BA (Hons) English Language & Journalism and BA (Hons) English Language & Theatre Studies.
    • Sep 2011-May 2013: PROGRAMME VALIDATOR, UCLan: I co-developed the MA in Linguistics, took the lead role in the 2011 Periodic Course Review, and assisted with the 2013 PCR.


    • 2019: THE DEPARTMENT FOR DIGITAL, MEDIA, CULTURE & SPORT published a Rapid Evidence Assessment (REA) on The Prevalence and Impact of Online Trolling. (PDF, 59 pages, 1.76mb.) This research and analysis report, published on 26 June 2019, was carried out by the Centre for Strategy and Evaluation Services, and is a systematic review of existing evidence about the prevalence and impact of online trolling. This report draws extensively on two of my publications on the topic (see PUBLICATIONS and OUTPUTS below).
    • 2015: QUEEN'S ANNIVERSARY PRIZE FOR FURTHER AND HIGHER EDUCATION. In 2013, I was awarded £200,000 by the ESRC to undertake the DOOM project. This project was partly responsible for Twitter updating their abuse policy, and it was also subsequently partly responsible for the ESRC-funded Centre for Corpus Approaches to Social Science (CASS) being awarded the Queen's Anniversary Prize for Further and Higher Education. .


    Lancaster University

    • Oct 2018-Sep 2021: RESEARCH COMMITTEE (university level): Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences.
    • Oct 2015-Sep 2018: RESEARCH COMMITTEE (university level): Early Career Researcher.

    British Association for Applied Linguistics (BAAL)


    I have been invited to be an expert and/or give plenaries at the Foreign & Commonwealth Office, the House of Lords, the House of Commons, and the European Union, as well as a masterclass in antisocial online behaviour to OFCOM.

    Note that civil and criminal cases where I have been invited to act as a consultant, advisor, or expert witness are not listed here for reasons of confidentiality.

    • 06 Nov 2019: GUEST SPEAKER. Godolphin School, UK: Online harms: the risks and realities of children on the internet. For parents.
    • 17 Oct 2019: INVITED EXPERT. Police training event, Ribby Hall, UK: Investigating Fake Online Digital Personas in cyber crime offences workshop. Individual linguistic style and (attempts at) imitation across the different levels of language.
    • 20 Sep 2019: FORMAL REPORT submitted in response to The House of Lords Select Committee on Democracy and Digital Technologies.
    • 19 Jul 2019: KEYNOTE. Student & Teacher English Language workshop. Lancaster University, UK: Catching a killer with forensic linguistics.
    • 24 Jun 2019: GUEST SPEAKER. Ellel St John's CofE Primary School, UK: Science Week: What is a linguist and why should you be one?
    • Jun 2017-Jan 2018: MATERNITY LEAVE.
    • 29 Mar 2017: INVITED EXPERT. Police training event, Hazlewood Castle, UK: Investigating Fake Online Digital Personas in cyber crime offences Workshop. Individual linguistic style and (attempts at) imitation across the different levels of language.
    • 22-24 Feb 2017: INVITED EXPERT. Foreign & Commonwealth Office: Wilton Park, UK. Diplomacy in the information age.
    • 01 Jan 2017: KEYNOTE. Boarding Schools Association, UK: Surviving in the virtual world: aggression, deception, and manipulation online. For school faculty.
    • 03 Feb 2016: KEYNOTES (x2). St George's School, Harpenden, UK: Online aggression, deception, and manipulation. For school faculty, and then parents.
    • 22 Nov 2015: KEYNOTE. State Boarding Schools Association, UK: Online aggression, deception, and manipulation. For school faculty.
    • Feb 2015: CONSULTANCY. Invited to be an expert consultant for Kaspersky.
    • 15 Jan 2015: INVITED EXPERT. House of Commons, UK: Presentation of research into online offensive behaviour for the ESRC's 50th anniversary celebrations.
    • Jan 2015: CONSULTANCY. Invited to be an expert consultant for a year-long CBeebies/Disney television series aimed at teaching 4-6 year olds how to deal with cyberbullying and stay safe online.
    • 28 Nov 2014: ROUNDTABLE. Twitter, London UK: Presentation of ESRC-funded DOOM project findings into misogynistic online behaviour to Twitter HQ, Chief Crown Prosecutor, National Police Lead for Harassment, and others. See AWARDS and RECOGNITION and RESEARCH GRANTS for further details around this award.
    • 14 Nov 2014: KEYNOTE. Collyer-Bristow Barristers/Paladin National Stalking Advocacy Service, London UK: Presentation of ESRC-funded DOOM project findings into misogynistic online behaviour to anti-stalking charity, barristers, etc. See AWARDS and RECOGNITION and RESEARCH GRANTS for further details around this award.
    • Nov 2014: INVITATION to be a non-executive board member of Paladin (the National Stalking Advocacy Service).
    • Sep 2014: CONSULTANCY. Invited to be an expert consultant for Saatchi.
    • 17 Oct 2013: KEYNOTE. House of Lords, London, UK: Meaning and meanness: disconnecting the online threat from the offline reality.
    • 26 Sep 2013: KEYNOTE. Office of Communications, OFCOM, and the Home Office, UK: Presentation to members of OFCOM and the Home Office, explaining online offensive behaviour.
    • Sep 2013: FORMAL REPORT submitted in response to the DCMS' Online Safety Inquiry.
    • Sep 2013: CONSULTANCY for Disney on their £3m online safety campaign, 'It Starts With You'. Included data analysis, media engagement, and expertise.
    • 19 Aug 2013: INVITED EXPERT Office of Steve Rotherham MP, Liverpool, UK: Presentation explaining online offensive behaviour.
    • 19 Jun 2013: INVITED EXPERT. Houses of Parliament, UK. Trolling Roundtable: Does the Punishment of Trolls Infringe on an Individual's Freedom of Speech? Invited participant in a roundtable discussing the weighting between free speech and trolling behaviour.
    • Dec 2012: FORMAL REPORT submitted in response to a request for feedback on the proposed guidelines on prosecuting communications sent by social media.
    • 10-11 May 2012: KEYNOTE. TABULA RASA: Trusted Biometrics under Spoofing Attacks. Centre for Science, Society, and Citizenship (CSSC), Rome, Italy: Linguistic profiling as an aspect of Active Authentication: Some challenges. TABULA RASA is funded by the European Commission, under the Seventh Framework Programme.
    • Feb 2012: CONSULTANCY. BBC Panorama's programme, 'Hunting the Internet Bullies'. Included data capture, analysis, and commenting on final script.


    • 28 Nov 2014: ROUNDTABLE. Twitter, London UK: Presentation of ESRC-funded DOOM project findings into misogynistic online behaviour to Twitter HQ, Chief Crown Prosecutor, National Police Lead for Harassment, and others. See AWARDS and RECOGNITION and RESEARCH GRANTS for further details around this award.
    • 20 Sep 2013: CO-ORGANISER. Politeness and impoliteness in digital communication: Corpus-related explorations, Lancaster University, UK: Hosted by the ESRC Centre for Corpus Approaches to Social Science. A one-day workshop introducing corpus methods into the analysis of online interaction to the wider social sciences.
    • 19 Sep 2013: WORKSHOP HOST. Politeness and impoliteness online, Lancaster University, UK: Hosted by the ESRC Centre for Corpus Approaches to Social Science. One day workshop designed to engage academics in the use of corpus linguistics in the social sciences beyond linguistics.
    • 02 Jul 2013: TRAINER. New Directions in Language Research, Lancaster University, UK: Researching online interaction. A two hour workshop/seminar to introduce new PhD students to novel methodological approaches to investigating language and linguistics.


    Editorial boards

    I am on the following editorial boards:

    Peer reviewing

    I regularly referee for academic publications, conferences, and funding bodies. The following is an incomplete list:

    Research councils and Trusts


    • Bloomsbury
    • Cambridge University Press
    • Oxford University Press
    • Macmillan Palgrave
    • Routledge


    • Corpora
    • Fibreculture
    • Journal of Information Science
    • International Journal of Corpus Linguistics
    • Language@Internet
    • Journal of Language Aggression and Conflict
    • Legal and Criminological Psychology
    • Policy and Internet
    • Journal of Politeness Research
    • Journal of Pragmatics
    • Pragmatics
    • International Journal of Speech, Language and the Law

    Conference abstracts and proceedings

    • Australian Linguistics Society
    • BAAL Conference
    • Corpus Linguistics Conference
    • LIAR Conference

    External examining and programme validation

    • 2013-2016: External examiner for Sheffield Hallam University's English Language undergraduate programmes.
    • 2013: Validating examiner for English Language programmes for Manchester Metropolitan University.


    Summer schools and online courses

    • 2013-2015: I was part of Lancaster University's extremely successful MOOC (massive open online course), Corpus Linguistics: Method, Analysis, Interpretation both as one of the lecturer's and as an "In conversation with.." interviewee. Since its inception in 2013, the MOOC has been completed by around 10,000 students.
    • 2013-present: Through the Centre for Corpus Approaches to Social Science, Lancaster University hosts a large, annual, free summer school. I give one or two lectures each year:
      • Introduction to collocation
      • Forensic corpus linguistics


    en clair

    This is a podcast about forensic linguistics, literary detection, language mysteries, spy codes, undeciphered languages, forged documents, criminal slang, courtroom perjury, fake news, lie-detection, rare book heists and basically all the best bits of language. en clair was first launched in November 2018. Since then, it has amassed over 2,000 subscribers, been downloaded nearly 30,000 times in over 110 countries round the world (that's ~55% of the globe!), and it's even been tweeted about by QI! See more here or follow the links below.


    At the moment, as part of my strategy for managing a sensible work-life balance (!!!), throughout 2016 to the present I am declining almost all media requests, with very few exceptions (mostly noted below). If you are a journalist looking for an interview, you are certainly welcome to try. However, I anticipate returning to fuller routine in approximately 2022.

    • 2019: In January 2019, one of my tweets was quoted in the Indian Express about movie stereotypes surrounding linguists. Also in January 2019 I wrote a guide for Italian Vanity Fair on how to be a calmer, kinder person online. In May 2019, I wrote an article for BBC History Magazine about whether the Voynich manuscript had actually been cracked and issues with peer review that may have led the media astray, and this was further discussed by the Spanish media outlets, RedHistoria, Sputnik, and Cronica. In August 2019 I was interviewed by the BBC's The Naked Scientists for their podcast. In October 2019, I was interviewed by BBC Sounds about forensic linguistics, and our upcoming teacher workshop, STELLAR. And in November, my research blog post on factchecking was cited in a Medium article about disinformation.
    • 2018: In January 2018 I was quoted in a Medium article about trolling. In June 2018 a tweet and a post from my blog were cited in Sputnik News on the narrative surrounding violent knife crime in London. In August 2018 I was interviewed by The Guardian for a piece on online abuse and trolling. And in September 2018 my blog was quoted in the National Post about the possible author of the New York Times anonymous op-ed that included the word "lodestar".
    • Claire Hardaker on Newsnight.
    • Jun 2017-Jan 2018: MATERNITY LEAVE. I declined all media requests during this time.
    • Jan 2015 to Jun 2017: From the start of 2015, due to an increasing number of commitments and an overwhelming number of media requests, I drastically reduced my acceptance rate, but a selection of interviews that I undertook during that period include those for the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation and TechCrunch which documented my research as being partly responsible for them updating their abuse policies (also confirmed by Twitter directly; see AWARDS and RECOGNITION and RESEARCH GRANTS for more on the DOOM project behind this work). I also undertook interviews for Sky on Twitter's tenth anniversary, and wrote for the Conversation. Finally, I was also quoted in the June 2017 edition of the Communications Law Bulletin in the article, "Defamation, Online Communication and Serious Harm: An Alternate Approach".
    • Oct 2014-Dec 2014: The death of Brenda Leyland (widely accused of being a troll) triggered more media requests on trolling and online aggression throughout October. I was interviewed and/or quoted on BBC Breakfast, BBC News, BBC1 News, and by BBC5Live, Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC), FUBAR Radio, LBC Radio, numerous local BBC and commercial radio stations, the Guardian, the Telegraph, the Huffington Post, the Guardian Tech podcast, the Times Higher Education, and Contributoria. I also wrote for the Conversation.
    • May 2014-Aug 2014: I featured in the BBC2 flagship documentary, Blurred Lines: The New Battle of the Sexes, featuring Kirsty Wark, the Channel 4 documentary, The Virgin Killer, and the A&E documentary, The Campus Killer: Santa Barbara (aired in the US). I was also interviewed and/or quoted by Sky News, BBC Radio 4 Woman's Hour and Word of Mouth programmes, BBC Radio Wales, FUBAR Radio, the New York Times, Australia Financial Review, Men's Health (US) magazine, Stylist magazine, the Telegraph (twice), Ekstra Bladet, La Nación, Nyelv és Tudoman, the Lancaster Guardian, and the Hamilton Review. I was also interviewed and quoted extensively over the background of the individual involved in the ISIS beheading video, and appeared in well over ten thousand publications and news reports around the globe, including LBC Radio, the Mirror, the Guardian, and numerous local BBC and commercial radio stations.
    • Feb 2014-Apr 2014: MATERNITY LEAVE. During this time, I was contacted by – and declined requests from – FUBAR Radio, BBC Radio Sheffield, BBC Radio Lancaster (twice), BBC Radio 4 (twice), LBC Radio (three times), Sky News (twice), BBC News, a Channel 4 documentary team, and a range of independent and international journalists.
    • Jan 2014: During this month, the story of Stan Collymore's racial harassment broke and I was interviewed by BBC Sport, Radio 5 Live (twice), and BBC's Newsnight. Due to being eight months pregnant at the time I was obliged to turn down requests to travel to London for interviews with Sky and to Manchester for an interview with BBC Breakfast. I was also commissioned to write articles for the English & Media Centre's magazine, eMag, and for The Conversation (twice).
    • Sep 2013: I worked alongside Disney on their £3m pan-European anti-cyberbullying campaign, It Starts With You. The campaign, which is fronted by Una Healy of The Saturdays, officially launched on September 11th. As part of this safety movement, I helped Club Penguin to construct a digital natives dictionary aimed at helping parents to understand their childrens' online interaction so that they can be better informed about whether their kids are being cyberbullied (or cyberbullying others). I featured in a range of media interviews discussing the ever-changing nature of language, children's online safety, and how parents can be empowered in protecting their children online. I was interviewed by national stations such as Sky News Radio, six local BBC stations, and twelve commercial stations. I featured in articles across the national print and online press, including The Telegraph (twice), the Daily Mail, the Metro, and in international press in countries such as Poland, India, China, and Taiwan. I was also commissioned to write an article for The Independent.
    • 31 Aug 2013: Evidential report for the Department of Culture, Media & Sport (DCMS) for their enquiry into online safety.
    • Claire Hardaker on BBC News.
    • Jul 2013-Aug 2013: During this period, I featured in the media with particular reference to the Twitter threats made to journalist Caroline Criado-Perez and a number of other high profile women, including MP Stella Creasy, academic Mary Beard, and celebrity Coleen Nolan. I appeared on several programmes, including ITV's This Morning, BBC Newsnight, and BBC North West Tonight. I was also interviewed – in some cases several times – for a range of news channels including BBC News, BBC World News, BBC2 News, Sky News, Al Jazeera (English), Channel 4 News, ITN News, and ETB (Spain). I was interviewed by national stations including BBC Radio 4 (Today, You & Yours, and Woman's Hour), BBC Wales, BBC Scotland, Radio 5 Live, and RTE Radio One (The Marian Finucane Show). I was also interviewed by commercial stations such as LBC (London's Biggest Conversation), and eighteen local BBC stations, including London (The Vanessa Feltz Show). I was featured in articles across the national press, including Police Professional, the ESRC, AP Media, the Lancaster Guardian, the Financial Times, New Statesman, and Real People. I also appeared in international articles by the Huffington Post, Newsday, the Arab Post, the Korea Herald, the Times of India, and Rolling Stones (Spain). I was commissioned to write articles for The Conversation, The Observer, the Political Studies Association, the ESRC's Britain in 2014 and Society Now.
    • Jul 2013: Throughout this month, my research into trolling was picked up by broadsheets both in print and online, including the Times, Telegraph (twice), and Independent (twice), as well as other papers such as the Daily Mail. I was also commissioned by the Guardian to write a comment piece which was subsequently featured on the Guardian's homepage, chosen as Comment of the Week, and discussed in a further interview in the Guardian Tech Weekly Podcast. Within a short time, reports on my research spread around the globe to Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, India, Ireland, Malaysia, the Netherlands, and Vietnam, reaching an overall audience easily in excess of 10 million people.
    • 26 Feb 2013: My research was discussed by Steve Rotheram MP in Westminster at an Adjournment Debate: "Director of Public Prosecutions' interim guidelines on prosecuting cases involving communications sent via social media" (4:30pm-5:00pm).
    • 04 Jan 2013: I provided a consultancy report for the Crown Prosecution Service on prosecuting cases involving communications sent via Social Media.
    • 2010-2012: Throughout this period, I was hired as a consultant for, and interviewed by a number of television programmes, including BBC Panorama's Hunting the Internet Bullies, BBC3's flagship documentary The Antisocial Network featuring Richard Bacon, and BBC1's Look West and Look North. My work has also been covered by TIME magazine, BBC News and in publications in Spain and Brazil. I have been interviewed by numerous national and international radio stations such as Radio New Zealand, BBC London, BBC Sussex, BBC Lancashire, and Rock FM.


    • COMPLETED: 1 (no corrections), 1 (minor corrections)
    • CURRENT: 4


    For an up-to-date list of publications, it's usually most efficient to check Google Scholar. To the right you can see a snapshot of my citations according to Google Scholar right now, and below you'll find a list that I last updated... a while ago.

    Forthcoming, in progress, hiding from, etc.

    • MONOGRAPH: Trolling: Manipulation, Deception, and Aggression Online. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    • MONOGRAPH: Corpus Linguistics for Forensic Linguistics. London: Routledge.
    • MONOGRAPH: The Antisocial Network. London: Palgrave.




    • CHAPTER: Flaming and trolling. Handbook of Pragmatics: Pragmatics of Social Media. Eds: Christian Hoffmann & Wolfram Bublitz. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
    • CHAPTER: with Jonathan Culpeper. Impoliteness. In: Palgrave Handbook of Linguistic (Im)Politeness. Eds: Jonathan Culpeper, Michael Haugh & Dániel Kádár. London: Palgrave.
    • CHAPTER: with Sage Lambert Graham. Impoliteness in digital communication. In: Palgrave Handbook of Linguistic (Im)Politeness. Eds: Jonathan Culpeper, Michael Haugh & Dániel Kádár. London: Palgrave.







    • 2007-2012: PhD IN LINGUISTICS, Lancaster University, UK: Trolling in computer-mediated communication: Aggression and deception online. Supervised by Professor Jonathan Culpeper.
    • 2006-2007: MA IN LANGUAGE STUDIES, Lancaster University, UK: Impoliteness in online communication: From netiquette to surfwars (a corpus linguistics approach).
    • 2003-2006: BA (HONS) IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE, University of Huddersfield, UK: A corpus linguistics investigation of ideology: The changing discourse of religion in the press before, during and after 7/7. (First Class with Honours; awarded prize for 'Best dissertation in English Language for the graduating class of 2006').

    Professional development

    • 16-19 Apr 2012: LINGUISTIC & PSYCHOLOGICAL TECHNIQUES FOR SEXUAL CRIME INVESTIGATION, Aston University, Birmingham, UK: Four day advanced course on linguistic and psychological techniques for investigating sexual crime. Specific components: behavioural linkage of sexual crime; using language to link crimes; analysing interviews of sexual crime victims; using suspects' video interviews as evidence in court; combating rape stereotypes; analysis of online chat in grooming cases.
    • 21-23 Mar 2012: INTERVIEWING SEX OFFENDERS – A BEHAVIOUR ANALYSIS FRAMEWORK, Mentor Forensics, Manchester, UK: Three day intensive, advanced course investigating methods of interviewing sex offenders. Specific components: what encourages engagement in interview; how theory informs practice in interview planning; protocols for interview planning; offence analysis and sexual offending against children; designing a layered interview approach; identified subject profiling; advanced techniques and practical skills in interviewing child sexual offenders; using PPPs in designing interview strategies; the projected personalities matrix (PPM); demonstrations of interview planning; delivery of interview strategy.
    • 27-28 Feb 2012: INTERNET & TECHNOLOGY FACILITATED SEXUAL EXPLOITATION OF CHILDREN, Mentor Forensics, Manchester, UK: Two day advanced course investigating sexual exploitation of children online. Specific components: up-to-date findings about technology-facilitated exploitation of children; understanding the role of indecent images and stories; collecting and distributing indecent images, who are the producers of indecent images; online grooming – webcam technology as an exploitative tool; convergence – the role of mobile phone technology; how offenders exploit children engaged in risky behaviour; how women offenders use the internet; networking behaviours and organised groups.

    Workplace training

    • 31 Jan 2019: INFORMATION SECURITY TRAINING. Data and information security (updated). Lancaster University, UK.
    • 31 Jan 2014: INFORMATION SECURITY TRAINING. Data and information security. Lancaster University, UK.
    • 13 Nov 2013: EMERGENCY FIRST AID AT WORK. Optional three-day training course. Lancaster University, UK.
    • 16 Oct 2013: WELCOME TO LANCASTER. Standard half-day induction. Lancaster University, UK.


    To date, I have been PI or CI on projects that have generated external research income in excess of £1.5m. (My directly allocated portion currently exceeds £320,000). All projects listed here have been awarded external, competitive funding.


    In 2013, I founded Lancaster University's Forensic Linguistics Research Group (FORGE). In its relatively short five year history, FORGE has hosted, and continues to host, nationally and internationally renowned speakers ranging from PhD students to distinguished professors. Talks have covered topics including hate speech, online deception, military threat analysis, presenting courtroom evidence, and more besides. For maximum engagement and impact, talks are blogged about and, where appropriate, live-streamed. To press, the FORGE blog has been viewed over 6,500 times and the FORGE talk videos have been replayed over a thousand times, reaching audiences around the world.

    As part of the FORGE strategy, PhD students are encouraged to present their research-in-progress, and each year, two PhD students are further invited to take part in directing FORGE, including setting out a talk agenda and choosing speakers. These experiences aided one student to achieve his NWSSDTP scholarship and secure multiple conference talks. Given its position within CASS, FORGE has also been an outlet for the ESRC-funded, £200k Discourse of Online Misogyny project, and it has been an outlet for a range of UCREL and CASS CIs and affiliates, including Paul Baker, Paul Iganski, Laurence Anthony, and Paul Rayson. Read more at the FORGE blog or follow the @FORGE_LU Twitter account.



    • UG: LING102 English language (core module)
      (guest lecturer).
    • UG: LING103 Linguistics (core module)
      (convenor, lecturer).
    • UG: LING204 Discourse analysis: Looking at language in use
      (guest lecturer).
    • UG: LING232 Understanding media
      (guest lecturer).
    • UG: PSYC367 Criminal and forensic psychology
      (guest lecturer).
    • MA: LING421 Corpus linguistics
      (guest lecturer).
    • MA: LING429 Forensic linguistics (convening, lecturing)
      (convenor, lecturer).
    • MA: LING432 Language, literacies and digital communication
      (guest lecturer).
    • MA: LING434 Pragmatics
      (convenor, lecturer).


    • UG: Computer-based text analysis
      (wrote, lectured, convened).
    • UG: Corpus linguistics
      (wrote, lectured, convened).
    • UG: English in the digital age
      (wrote, lectured, convened).
    • UG: Forensic linguistics
      (wrote, lectured, convened).
    • UG: Intercultural communication
      (wrote, lectured, convened).
    • UG: Language and gender
      (wrote, lectured, convened).
    • UG: Language and power
      (wrote, lectured, convened).
    • UG: Language awareness in the workplace
      (wrote, lectured, convened).
    • UG: Language of the media
      (wrote, lectured, convened).
    • UG: Pragmatics
      (wrote, lectured, convened).
    • UG: Semantics
      (wrote, lectured, convened).
    • UG: Sociolinguistics
      (wrote, lectured, convened).