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Understanding, communicating and managing uncertainty and risk related to future changes in catchments.

Guidelines for valuing ecosystem services published by Defra

Defra has produced an introductory guide which will help you make a start on valuing the benefits society is getting from ecosystem services you have identified as important to your policy or decision.

  • (PDF 436 KB)

Value transfer

Value transfer refers to the use of existing economic valuation evidence in a new policy appraisal context. We have produced detailed practical guidelines which will assist economists, policy analysts, scientists and other technical experts understand and present evidence on the environmental impacts of proposed policies and projects for decision-making:

Non-technical summary

This document provides a non-technical summary of the guidelines for policy analysts, scientists and other technical experts and economists:

  • (PDF 263KB)

Full guidelines

The main guidance is available to view on line or download as documents:

View the guidelines on-line:

Download the guidelines as documents:

  • (PDF 1.1MB)
  • (PDF 234KB)


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Examples of application

Technical report

The Technical Report provides the basis for the guidelines, reviewing best practice principles and the state of the art of value transfer:

  • (PDF 135KB)
  • (PDF 2.5MB)


For technical queries related to the value transfer guidelines please contact the Defra Natural Environment Economics team by emailing:


The guidelines and supporting material and technical report have been developed for Defra by Economics for the Environment Consultancy Ltd. (). While the official rollout of the ota update of 7

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