Volume 8 (2) 2017


Warning: implode() [function.implode]: Invalid arguments passed in /export/depts/fass/journals/cadaad/wp-content/plugins/easy-responsive-tabs/easy_res_tab.php on line 170

Warning: implode() [function.implode]: Invalid arguments passed in /export/depts/fass/journals/cadaad/wp-content/plugins/easy-responsive-tabs/easy_res_tab.php on line 170

NEUTRAL GROUND AND NAMING: THE IMPLICATIONS OF TAR SANDS AND OIL SANDS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL DEBATES IN ALBERTA  Pages 1-18

Keely Kidner

Download Full Text

  • Lexical choices reflect stances of evaluation and position speakers in relation to each other. With highly controversial issues however, speakers’ terms can index polarized positions, leaving little room for those who wish to indicate a more neutral stance. This paper explores how speakers name the controversial Athabasca tar/oil sands during public debates. Two roundtable discussions were recorded in Alberta in 2010, and the panelists completed a short questionnaire about their practices and attitudes regarding the terms tar sands and oil sands. An analysis of naming practices, drawing on stance theory and a critical approach to discourse, shows that these terms can be problematic for speakers. Participants employ various strategies to direct the interpretation of the speaker’s stance and to avoid positioning on either side of the controversy. These findings contribute to stance-taking in highly contested political contexts while also having practical implications for naming practices of the tar/oil sands in Alberta.
    1. Babad, M. (2013, September 10). Neil Young on oil sands: ‘Fort McMurray looks like Hiroshima.’ The Globe and Mail. Retrieved February 5, 2014, from http://www.theglobeandmail.com/report-on-business/top-business-stories/neil-young-on-oil-sands-fort-mcmurray-looks-like-hiroshima/article14213233/
    2. Baker, P. (2010). Sociolinguistics and Corpus Linguistics. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
    3. Blommaert, J. (2005). Discourse: A Critical Introduction. Cambridge, New York: Cambridge University Press.
    4. Carbaugh, Donal. (2006). ‘The Mountain’ and ‘The Project’: Dueling Depictions of a Natural Environment. In A. Fill and P. Muhlhausler (eds.), Ecolinguistics Reader: Language, Ecology and Environment. London, New York: Continuum. pp. 124–142.
    5. Cosh, C. (2012, April 3). Don’t call them ‘tar sands.’ Macleans. Retrieved from http://www2.macleans.ca/2012/04/03/oil-by-any-other-name/
    6. Davidson, D. J., and Gismondi, M. A. (2011). Challenging Legitimacy at the Precipice of Energy Calamity. New York: Springer.
    7. Dorow, S., and O’Shaughnessy, S. (2013). Fort McMurray, Wood Buffalo, and the Oil/Tar Sands: Revisiting the Sociology of ‘Community.’ Canadian Journal of Sociology 38 (2): 121–140.
    8. Du Bois, J. (2007). The Stance Triangle. In R. Englebretson (ed.), Stancetaking in Discourse: Subjectivity, Evaluation, Interaction. Amsterdam, Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing. pp. 139–182.
    9. Evans, J., and Garvin, T. (2009). ‘You’re In Oil Country’: Moral Tales of Citizen Action against Petroleum Development in Alberta, Canada. Ethics, Place and Environment 12 (1), 49–68. http://doi.org/10.1080/13668790902753070
    10. Fairclough, N. (2003). Analysing Discourse: Textual Analysis for Social Research. London: New York: Routledge.
    11. Goldenberg, S. (2011, August 19). Massive protest at White House against Alberta tar sands pipeline. The Guardian. Retrieved from http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2011/aug/19/protest-white-house-tar-sands
    12. Gordon, J. (2012). Displacing oil: Towards ‘lyric’ re-presentations of the Alberta oil sands. In D. Coleman, E. G. Glanville, W. Hasan, and A. Kramer-Hamstra (Eds.), Countering Displacements: The Creativity and Resilience of Indigenous and Refugee-ed Peoples. Edmonton: The University of Alberta Press. pp. 1–30.
    13. Gumperz, J. J. (1982). Discourse Strategies. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press.
    14. Haluza-Delay, R. (2012). Giving consent in the petrostate: Hegemony and Alberta oil sands. Journal for Activism in Science and Technology Education 4 (1): 1–6.
    15. Harré, R., and Langenhove, L. V. (1991). Varieties of Positioning. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 21 (4): 393–407. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-5914.1991.tb00203.x
    16. Holmes, J. (2000). Politeness, Power and Provocation: How Humour Functions in the Workplace. Discourse Studies 2 (2): 159–185. http://doi.org/10.1177/1461445600002002002
    17. Humphries, M. (2009). North American oil sands: History of development, prospects for the future. International Journal of Energy, Environment, Economics 16 (2/3): 227-314.
    18. Jaffe, A. (2009). Stance: Sociolinguistic Perspectives. New York: Oxford University Press.
    19. Katz-Rosene, R. (2012). Materiality informs subjectivity informs materiality: An environmental history of Alberta’s bituminous sands. Presented at the Canadian Association of Geographers’ Annual Meeting, Wilfrid Laurier University.
    20. Kelly, E. N., Short, J. W., Schindler, D. W., Hodson, P. V., Ma, M., Kwan, A. K., and Fortin, B. L. (2009). Oil sands development contributes polycyclic aromatic compounds to the Athabasca River and its tributaries. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 106 (52): 22346–22351. http://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0912050106
    21. Kidner, K. (2015). Beyond Greenwash: Environmental Discourses of Appropriation and Resistance. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington New Zealand.
    22. Kowalsky, N. and Haluza-DeLay, R. (2013). Homo Energeticus: Technological Rationality in the Alberta Tar Sands. In H. M. Jerónimo, J. L. Garcia and C. Mitcham (eds.), Jacques Ellul and the Technological Society in the 21st Century. Dordrecht: Springer. pp. 159–175. Retrieved from http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-94-007-6658-7_12
    23. Levinson, S. (2003). Contextualizing ‘contextualization cues.’ In S. L. Eerdmans, C. L. Prevignano and P. J. Thibault (eds.), Language and Interaction: Discussions with John J. Gumperz. Amsterdam, Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing. pp. 31–39.
    24. Machin, D. (2013). What is multimodal critical discourse studies? Critical Discourse Studies 10 (4): 347–355. http://doi.org/10.1080/17405904.2013.813770
    25. McElhinny, B. (2006). Written in Sand. Critical Discourse Studies 3 (2): 123–152. http://doi.org/10.1080/17405900600908087
    26. Miller, G. E. (2004). Frontier Masculinity in the Oil Industry: The Experience of Women Engineers. Gender, Work and Organization 11 (1): 47–73. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0432.2004.00220.x
    27. Nikiforuk, A. (2008). Tar Sands: Dirty Oil and the Future of a Continent. Vancouver; Berkeley: Greystone Books ; Distributed in the U.S. by Publishers Group West.
    28. O’Shaughnessy, S. and Krogman, N. T. (2011). Gender as contradiction: From dichotomies to diversity in natural resource extraction. Journal of Rural Studies 27 (2): 134–143. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrurstud.2011.01.001
    29. Rowland, R. (2011, September 8). Accuracy is the best neutrality. It’s all about the bitumen. Northwest Coast Energy News. Retrieved from http://nwcoastenergynews.com/2011/09/28/133/accuracy-is-the-best-neutrality-its-all-about-the-bitumen/
    30. Stibbe, A. (2014). An Ecolinguistic Approach to Critical Discourse Studies. Critical Discourse Studies 11 (1): 1–12. http://doi.org/10.1080/17405904.2013.845789
    31. Svidal, S. (2006). Will the real Alberta please stand up? ATA News 41 (4): 3–4.
    32. Taylor, A., McGray, R., and Watt-Malcolm, B. (2007). Struggles over labour power: The case of Fort McMurray. Journal of Education and Work 20 (5): 379–396.
    33. Timoney, K. P., and Lee, P. (2009). Does the Alberta tar sands industry pollute? The scientific evidence. Open Conservation Biology Journal 3: 65–81.
    34. Uechi, J. (2013, August 23). CAPP-funded Energy IQ project to tour Canadian schools this fall. The Vancouver Observer. Retrieved from http://www.vancouverobserver.com/environment/capp-funded-energy-iq-project-tour-canadian-schools-fall
    35. Van Dijk, T. A. (1996). Discourse, power and access. In C. R. Coulthard, Malcolm Caldas-Coulthard (ed.), Texts and Practices: Readings in Critical Discourse Analysis. London: Routledge. pp. 84–104.
    36. Van Leeuwen, T. (2004). Ten reasons why linguists should pay attention to visual communication. In P. LeVine and R. Scollon (eds.), Discourse and Technology. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press. pp. 7–19.
    37. Wodak, R., and Fairclough, N. (2010). Critical discourse analysis in action. In C. Coffin, T. M. Lillis and K. O’Halloran (eds.), Applied Linguistics Methods: A Reader: Systemic Functional Linguistics, Critical Discourse Analysis and Ethnography. London: Routledge. pp. 98–111.


‘IN A WORLD OF COMPLEX THREATS …': DISCOURSES OF IN/SECURITY IN THE STATE OF THE UNION ADDRESS (1790-2014). A DIACHRONIC CORPUS-ASSISTED STUDY  Pages 19-36

Cinzia Bevitori

Download Full Text

  • The paper provides an interdisciplinary, corpus-assisted critical discourse investigation of ‘in/security’ in a specialized diachronic corpus consisting of a complete set of 228 State of the Union Addresses covering a whole span of time from President Washington’s first address in 1790 to President Obama in 2014. As such it aims at a long-gaze perspective on the construal of ‘in/security’ in one of the most crucial sites of presidential power. Moving from the assumptions that ‘security’ and ‘insecurity’ are mutually co-existent, the analysis of the lemma threat provides a case-study in order to show what type(s) of ‘in/security’ have been represented by U.S. administrations in order to legitimise and justify security practices throughout their history.
    1. Austin, J.L. (1962). How to Do Things With Words. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    2. Baker, P. (2006). Using Corpora in Discourse Analysis. London: Continuum.
    3. Baker, P., Gabrielatos, C., KhosraviNik, M., Krzyzanowski, M., McEnery, T. and R. Wodak (2008). A useful synergy? Combining critical discourse analysis and corpus linguistics to examine discourses of refugees and asylum seekers in the UK press. Discourse and Society, 19(3): 273-306.
    4. Bayley, P., Bevitori, C. and E. Zoni (2004). Threat and fear in parliamentary debates in Britain, Germany and Italy. In P. Bayley (ed.), Cross-cultural Perspectives on Parliamentary Discourse. Amsterdam, Philadelphia: John Benjamins. pp. 185-236.
    5. Bayley, P. and C. Bevitori (2011). Addressing the congress: Language change from Washington to Obama (1790-2011). Unpublished paper given at Clavier 11 International Conference, Tracking Language Change in Specialised and Professional Genres, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, 24-26 November 2011.
    6. Bayley, P. and C. Bevitori (2014). In search for meaning: what corpora can/cannot tell. A diachronic case study of the State of the Union Addresses (1790-2013)’.  In S. Alsop and S. Gardner (eds.), Language in a Digital Age: Be Not Afraid of Digitality: Proceedings from the 24th European Systemic Functional Linguistics Conference and Workshop. Coventry University: Coventry, UK. https://curve.coventry.ac.uk/open/items/7b5b94aa-6984-48ad-b29a-9a8e9483fa2d/1/ ISBN: 978 18460007 13.
    7. Bayley, P. and C. Bevitori (2015). Two centuries of ‘security’: Semantic variation in the State of the Union Address (1790-2014). In A. Duguid, A. Marchi, A. Partington and C. Taylor (eds.), Gentle Obsessions: Literature, Language and Learning. In Honour of John Morley. Roma: Artemide Edizioni. pp. 59-80.
    8. Bayley, P. and C. Bevitori (2016). Diachronic change from Washington to Obama: the challenges and constraints of corpus-assisted meaning analysis. In S. Alsop and S. Gardner (eds.), Language in a Digital Age: Be Not Afraid of Digitality. London: Equinox.
    9. Bevitori, C. (2015a). Discursive constructions of the environment in American presidential speeches 1960-2013: A diachronic corpus-assisted study. In P. Baker and T. McEnery (eds.), Corpora and Discourse. London: Palgrave. pp. 110-133.
    10. Bevitori, C. (2015b). ‘may God bless America’: Patterns of in/stability in presidential discourse. Paper presented at Corpus Linguistics 2015, University of Lancaster 21-24 July 2015, UK. http://ucrel.lancs.ac.uk/cl2015/doc/CL2015-AbstractBook.pdf
    11. Buzan, B. (1991). People, States and Fear: An Agenda for International Security Studies in the Post-Cold War Era. Harlow: Pearson Education Limited.
    12. Buzan, B. (1998). Security, the dtate, the ‘New World Order’, and beyond. In R. D. Lipschutz (ed.), On Security. New York: Columbia University Press. pp. 187-211.
    13. Buzan, B., Wæver, O. and J. de Wilde (1998). Security: A New Framework for Analysis. Boulder: Lynne Rienner.
    14. Campbell, D. (1998). Writing Security: United States Foreign Policy and the Politics of Identity. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
    15. Campbell, K.K. and K.H. Jamieson (2008). Presidents creating the presidency. Deeds done in words. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    16. Chouliaraki, L. and N. Fairclough (1999). Discourse in Late Modernity. Rethinking Critical Discourse Analysis. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
    17. Dillon, M. (1996). Politics of Security: Towards a Political Philosophy of Continental Thought. London: Routledge.
    18. Dunmire, P. (2007). Emerging threats and coming dangers. In A. Hodges and C. Nilep (eds.), Discourse, War and Terrorism. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. pp. 19-43.
    19. Echavarria-Alvarez, J. (2006). Rethinking (in)security discourses from a critical perspective. Asteriskos, 1/2: 61-82 at http://echavarria.wissweb.at/fileadmin/echavarria/Rethinking_insecurity_Asteriskos_01.pdf (accessed December 2014)
    20. Fairclough, N. (1992). Discourse and Social Change, Cambridge: Polity Press.
    21. Fairclough, N. (2003). Analyzing Discourse and Text: Textual Analysis for Social Research. London: Routledge.
    22. Halliday, M.A.K. and C.M.I.M. Matthiessen (2004). An Introduction to Functional Grammar (3rd edn.). London: Arnold.
    23. Halliday, M.A.K. ([1961]2002). Categories of a theory of grammar. In J. Webster (ed.), On Grammar, Vol. 1 The Collected Works of M.A.K. Halliday. London: Continuum. pp. 37-94.
    24. Hardt-Mautner, G. (1995). Only connect: Critical discourse analysis and corpus linguistics, UCREL Technical Paper 6. Lancaster: University of Lancaster. Available at http://www.comp.lancs.ac.uk/ucrel/tech_papers.html.
    25. Hart, C. and P. Cap (eds.) (2014). Contemporary Critical Discourse Studies. London/New York: Bloomsbury.
    26. Kress, G. (1995). The social production of language: History and structures of domination. In P.H. Freis and M. McGregory (eds.), Discourse in Society: Systemic Functional Perspectives. Norwwod, NJ: Ablex. pp. 115-140.
    27. Mautner, G. (2009). Checks and balances: how corpus linguistics can contribute to CDA.  In R. Wodak and M. Meyer (eds.), Methods of Critical Discourse Analysis. London: Sage. pp. 122-143.
    28. McDonald, M. (2008). Securitization and the construction of security. Journal of International Relations 14:4. Available online at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1354066108097553 (accessed June 2015).
    29. Miller, D.R., Bayley, P., Bevitori, C., Fusari, S. and A. Luporini (2014). ‘Tiklish trawling’: The limits of corpus assisted meaning analysis. In S. Alsop and S. Gardner (eds.), Language in a Digital Age: Be Not Afraid of Digitality: Proceedings from the 24th European Systemic Functional Linguistics Conference and Workshop. Coventry University: Coventry, UK. https://curve.coventry.ac.uk/open/items/7b5b94aa-6984-48ad-b29a-9a8e9483fa2d/1/ ISBN: 978 18460007 13.
    30. Morley, J. and P. Bayley (eds.) (2009). Corpus-assisted discourse studies on the Iraq conflict: Wording the war. New York: Routledge.
    31. Neustadt, R.E. (1990). Presidential Power and the Modern Presidents. The politics of Leadership from Roosevelt to Reagan. New York: The Free Press.
    32. Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. OED online at http://www.oed.com
    33. Partington, A., Morley, J. and L. Haarrman (eds.) (2004). Corpora and Discourse. Bern: Peter Lang.
    34. Stubbs, M. (1996). Text and Corpus Analysis: Computer-assisted studies of language and culture. Oxford: Blackwell.
    35. Teten, R.L. (2011). The Evolutionary Rhetorical Presidency: Tracing the changes in Presidential Address and Power. Bern: Peter Lang.
    36. Thompson, G. and S. Hunston (eds.) (2006).  System and Corpus: Exploring Connections. London: Equinox.
    37. Tulis, J. (1987). The Rhetorical Presidency. Princeton, NJ Princeton University Press.
    38. Wodak, R. and M. Meyer (eds.) (2009). Methods of Critical Discourse Analysis. London: Sage.
    39. Weldes, J., Laffey, M., Gusterson, H. and R. Duvall (eds.) (1999). Cultures of Insecurity: States, Communities, and the Production of Danger. London: Minneapolis University of Minnesota Press.
    40. Williams, R. ([1976]1983). Keywords. A vocabulary of culture and society. London: Fontana.


CONSTRUCTING MEXICAN STEREOTYPES: TELECINEMATIC DISCOURSE AND DONALD TRUMP’S CAMPAIGN RHETORIC Pages 37-57

Christoph Schubert

Download Full Text

  • In the field of mass communication, both telecinematic discourse and political rhetoric are social practices that interdiscursively reinforce cultural categorisations. The present paper discusses the ways in which ethnic stereotypes of Mexico are constructed and perpetuated by mainstream entertainment and the campaign rhetoric of Republican presidential candidate Donald Trump. Adopting the perspective of Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA), the study examines the TV series Breaking Bad and three recent feature films as well as public debates, interviews, and campaign speeches by Trump. Just as the series and films establish violent, unpredictable and morally deficient drug dealers and cartel bosses, Trump’s rhetoric metaphorically frames Mexican immigrants and their government as treacherous criminals and thieves. In order to legitimise enhanced border security, Trump chiefly employs the discursive strategies of misrepresentation, moral evaluation, and mythopoesis. Thus, it becomes obvious that political populism may greatly benefit from biased preconceptions disseminated in popular culture.
    1. Bednarek, M. (2010). The Language of Fictional Television: Drama and Identity. London: Continuum.
    2. Blair, G. (2015). Donald Trump: The Candidate. New York: Simon & Schuster.
    3. Bubel, C. M. (2008). Film audiences as overhearers. Journal of Pragmatics 40 (1): 55–71.
    4. Chilton, P. (2004). Analysing Political Discourse: Theory and Practice. London: Routledge.
    5. Christensen, T. and P. J. Haas (2005). Projecting Politics: Political Messages in American Films. London: Routledge.
    6. Cortés, C. E. (1992). Who is Maria? What is Juan? Dilemmas of analyzing the Chicano image in U.S. feature films. In C. A. Noriega (ed.), Chicanos and Film: Representation and Resistance. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. pp. 74–93.
    7. Croft, S. (2006). Culture, Crisis and America’s War on Terror. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    8. Croft, W. and D. A. Cruse (2004). Cognitive Linguistics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    9. Culpeper, J. (2001). Language and Characterisation: People in Plays and other Texts. London: Longman.
    10. Evans, V. and M. Green (2006). Cognitive Linguistics: An Introduction. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
    11. Fitzgerald, F. (2000). Way Out There in the Blue: Reagan, Star Wars and the End of the Cold War. New York: Simon & Schuster.
    12. Geeraerts, D. (2007). Where does prototypicality come from? In V. Evans, B. K. Bergen, and J. Zinken (eds.), The Cognitive Linguistics Reader. London: Equinox. pp. 168–185.
    13. Hammond, S. J., R. N. Roberts, and V. A. Sulfaro (2016). Campaigning for President in America: 1788–2016. Santa Barbara, CA: Greenwood.
    14. Kaklamanidou, B. and M. J. Tally (2017). The political TV shows of the 2010s: Showrunners, reality and gender. In B. Kaklamanidou and M. J. Tally (eds.), Politics and Politicians in Contemporary US Television: Washington as Fiction. London: Routledge. pp. 17–33.
    15. Kellner, D. (2017). Foreword: Television criticism and contemporary US politics. In B. Kaklamanidou and M. J. Tally (eds.), Politics and Politicians in Contemporary US Television: Washington as Fiction. London: Routledge. pp. xii–xxi.
    16. Lakoff, G. (1987). Women, Fire, and Dangerous Things: What Categories Reveal about the Mind. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    17. Limón, J. E. (1992). Stereotyping and Chicano resistance: An historical dimension (1973). Reprinted in C. A. Noriega (ed.), Chicanos and Film: Representation and Resistance. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. pp. 3–17.
    18. Martínez, O. J. (2001). Mexican-Origin People in the United States: A Topical History. Tucson, AR: The University of Arizona Press.
    19. Mittell, J. (2015). Complex TV: The Poetics of Contemporary Television Storytelling. New York: New York University Press.
    20. Piazza, R., M. Bednarek, and F. Rossi (2011). Introduction: Analysing telecinematic discourse. In R. Piazza, M. Bednarek, and F. Rossi (eds.), Telecinematic Discourse: Approaches to the Language of Films and Television Series. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. pp. 1–17.
    21. Ramírez Berg, C. (2002). Latino Images in Film: Stereotypes, Subversion, Resistance. Austin: University of Texas Press.
    22. Reisigl, M. (2008). Rhetoric of political speeches. In R. Wodak and V. Koller (eds.), Handbook of Communication in the Public Sphere. Berlin: de Gruyter. pp. 243–269.
    23. Reisigl, M. and R. Wodak (2009). The Discourse-Historical Approach (DHA). In R. Wodak and M. Meyer (eds.), Methods of Critical Discourse Analysis. 2nd ed. London: Sage. pp. 87–121.
    24. Rosch, E. (2000). Categorization. In J. Verschueren et al. (eds.), Handbook of Pragmatics: 1998 Installment. Amsterdam: Benjamins. pp. 1–14.
    25. Schneider, D. J. (2004). The Psychology of Stereotyping. New York: The Guilford Press.
    26. Schubert, C. (2014). Cognitive categorization and prototypicality as persuasive strategies: Presidential rhetoric in the USA. In C. Schubert and P. Fischer (eds.), Cognitive Perspectives on Political Discourse. Special issue. Journal of Language and Politics 13 (2): 313–335.
    27. Street, J. (1997). Politics & Popular Culture. Cambridge: Polity Press.
    28. Taylor, J. R. (2003). Linguistic Categorization. 3rd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    29. Thomson, D. (ed.) (2015). Breaking Bad: The Official Book. Toronto: Sterling.
    30. Van Dijk, T. A. (2009). Critical Discourse Studies: A sociocognitive approach. In R. Wodak and M. Meyer (eds.), Methods of Critical Discourse Analysis. (2nd ed.) London: Sage. pp. 62–86.
    31. Van Dijk, T. A. (2014). Discourse and Knowledge: A Sociocognitive Approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    32. Van Leeuwen, T. (2007). Legitimation in discourse and communication. Discourse & Communication 1 (1): 91–112.
    33. Van Leeuwen, T. and R. Wodak (1999). Legitimizing immigration control: A discourse-historical analysis. Discourse Studies 1 (1): 83–118.
    34. Wodak, R. (2009). The Discourse of Politics in Action: Politics as Usual. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
    35. Wodak, R., R. de Cillia, M. Reisigl and K. Liebhart (2009). The Discursive Construction of National Identity. 2nd ed. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
    36. Wodak, R. (2015). The Politics of Fear: What Right-Wing Populist Discourses Mean. London: Sage.


DISEMPOWERMENT AND INSPIRATION: A MULTIMODAL DISCOURSE ANALYSIS OF IMMIGRANT WOMEN IN THE SPANISH AND AUSTRALIAN ONLINE PRESS Pages 58-79

María Martínez Lirola and Katina Zammit

Download Full Text



    1. ABC, (online edition), 1 March 2013-31 May 2014. http://www.abc.es
    2. Abril Vargas, N. (2007). Las mujeres en los media. In Hegoa (ed.), Utopía informativa. Propuestas para un periodismo más social Bilbao: Hegoa. pp. 24-28.
    3. ADB Anti-Discrimination Board (2003). Race for the Headlines: Racism and Media Discourse. Sydney: Anti-discrimination Board of NSW.
    4. Agrela, B. (2005). La acción social y las mujeres inmigrantes ¿Hacia unos modelos de intervención?. Portularia 4: 31-42.
    5. Aierbe, P. (2008). Representación de mujeres trabajadoras inmigrantes en los medios de comunicación. MUGAK http://www.mugak.eu/gunea/mujer/ [accessed 22 April 2015].
    6. Anderson, B. (2000). Doing the Dirty Work? The Global Politics of Domestic Labour. London: Zed Books.
    7. Baldry, A. and P.J. Thibault (2006). Multimodal Transcription and Text Analysis. London: Equinox.
    8. Berger, R. (2004). Immigrant Women Tell Their Stories. Binghamton, NY: The Haworth Press.
    9. Bezemer, J. and C. Jewett (2010). Multimodal Analysis: Key Issues. In L. Litosseliti, (ed.), Research Methods in Linguistics. London: Continuum. pp. 181-197.
    10. Bleiker, R., Campbell, D., Hutchison, E. and X. Nicholson (2013). The visual dehumanisation of refugees. Australian Journal of Political Science 48(4): 398-416. doi: 10.1080/10361146.2013.840769
    11. Bouchoucha, I. (2010). ‘Gender Relations’ as a Factor in Determining Who Migrates and Why: The Case of Tunisia. In The Middle East Institute (ed.), Viewpoints: Migration and the Maghreb.  Washington DC: The Middle East Institute. pp. 20-24.
    12. Bowcher, W. L. (ed.) (2012). Multimodal Texts from Around the World: Cultural and Linguistic Insights. London: Palgrave.
    13. Caetano, H. (2012). A Comparative Study of Brazilian and British Images of the Black Body. In W. Bowcher (ed.), Multimodal Texts from Around the World: Cultural and Linguistic Insights. London: Palgrave. pp. 299-324.
    14. Casal, M.  and R. Mestre (2002). Migraciones femeninas. In J. de Lucas and F. Torres (eds.),  Inmigrantes: ¿Cómo los tenemos? Algunos desafíos y (malas) respuestas. Madrid: Talasa. pp. 120-167.
    15. Castagnani, T. and C. Colorado (2009). La representación de la mujer inmigrante en la prensa escrita española Análisis del discurso citado en textos periodísticos. Discurso & Sociedad 3(4): 621-657.
    16. Checa, F. (ed.) (2005). Mujeres en el camino. El fenómeno de la migración femenina en España. Barcelona: Icaria.
    17. Coates, J. (2012). Gender and Discourse Analysis. In J.P. Gee and M. Handford (eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Discourse Analysis. London: Routledge. pp. 90-103.
    18. Dreher, T. (2003). Speaking up and talking back: News media interventions in Sydney’s ‘othered’ communities. Media International Australia Incorporating Culture and Policy: Quarterly Journal of Media Research and Resources 109: 121-137.
    19. Economou, D. (2006). The big picture: The role of the lead image in print feature stories. In I. Lassen, J. Strunck and T. Vestergaard (eds.), Mediating Ideology in Text and Image: Ten critical studies. Philadelphia, PA: John Benjamins, pp. 211-233.
    20. El Mundo, (online edition), 1 March 2013-31 May 2014. http://www.elmundo.es
    21. El País, (online edition), 1 March 2013-31 May 2014. http://www.elpais.es
    22. Esses, V. M., Medianu, S. and A.S. Lawson (2013). Uncertainty, threat, and the role of the media in promoting the dehumanization of immigrants and refugees. Journal of Social Issues 69(3): 518-536.
    23. Ewart, J. and J. Cockley (2007). Women and male hegemony in Australian regional and country journalism, Journal of Australian Studies 31(91): 155-164. DOI: 10.1080/14443050709388137.
    24. Fairclough, N. (1989). Language and Power. New York: Longman.
    25. Fairclough, N. (1995). Media Discourse. London: Arnold.
    26. Fitzgerald, B. and L. Young (2006). The Power of Language: How Discourse Influences Society. London: Equinox Publishers.
    27. Folgueiras, P. (2009). Ciudadanas del mundo. Participación activa de mujeres en sociedades multiculturales. Madrid: Síntesis.
    28. Gale, P. (2004). The refugee crisis and fear: Populist politics and media discourse. Journal of Sociology 40(4): 321-340. doi: 10.1177/1440783304048378.
    29. Gee, J. P. (2014). An Introduction to Discourse Analysis. Theory and Method. Fourth Edition. London/New York: Routledge.
    30. Gramsci, A. (1971). Selections from the Prison Notebooks of Antonio Gramsci. In Q. Hoare and G. Nowell Smith (eds.), Selections from the Prison Notebooks of Antonio Gramsci. London: Lawrence Wishart.
    31. Halliday, M.A.K. (1985/1994). An Introduction to Functional Grammar. London: Arnold.
    32. Hamilton, A. (2013). Making an example of asylum seeker children. Eureka Street 23(10), 5-7.
    33. Hightower, B. (2014). Refugees, limbo and the Australian media. International Journal for the Semiotics of Law 28(2): 335-358. doi: DOI 10.1007/s11196-014-9382-9.
    34. Hogan, D. and E. Marandola (2005). Towards an interdisciplinary conceptualization of vulnerabiblity. Population, Space and Place 11(6): 455-471.
    35. Horsti, K. (2007). Asylum seekers in the news: Frames of illegality and control. Observatorio 1: 145-161.
    36. Igartua, J.J. and L.F. Cheng (2009). Moderating effect of group cue while processing news on immigration: Is the framing effect a heuristic process?. Journal of Communication 59(4): 726-749.
    37. Igartua, J.J., Moral-Toranzo, F. and I. Fernández (2011). Cognitive, attitudinal, and emotional effects of news frame and group cues, on processing news about immigration. Journal of Media Psychology 23(4): 174–185.
    38. Jewett, C. (ed.) (2009). The Routledge Handbook of Multimodal Analysis. London: Routledge.
    39. Juliano, D. (2000). Las que saben. Subculturas de mujeres. Madrid: Horas y Horas.
    40. KhosraviNik, M. (2009). The representation of refugees, asylum seekers and immigrants in British newspapers during the Balkan conflict (1999) and the British general election (2005). Discourse & Society 20(4): 477–498.
    41. KhosraviNik, M. (2010a). The representation of refugees, asylum seekers and immigrants in the British newspapers: A Critical Discourse Analysis. Journal of Language and Politics 9(1): 1-28.
    42. KhosraviNik, M. (2010b). Actor descriptions, action attributions, and argumentation: towards a systematization of CDA analytical categories in the representation of social groups. Critical Discourse Studies 7(1): 55-72.
    43. Klocker, N. and K.M. Dunn (2003). Who’s driving the asylum debate: newspaper and government representations of asylum seekers. Media International Australia Incorporating Culture and Policy: quarterly journal of media research and resources 109: 71-92.
    44. Kress, G. and T. van Leeuwen (2001). Multimodal Discourse: The Modes and Media of Contemporary Communication. London: Arnold.
    45. Kress, G. and T. van Leeuwen (2006). Reading Images: The Grammar of Visual Design. (2nd edn.). London: Routledge Press.
    46. Laurenzo Copello, P. and R. Muñoz (eds.) (2014). Diversidad cultural, género y derecho. Valencia: Tirant lo Blanch.
    47. Lipszyc, C. (2004). Feminización de las migraciones: sueños y realidades de las mujeres migrantes en cuatro países de América Latina. Urugay: Asociación de Especialistas Universitarias en Estudios de la Mujer. http://www.diba.cat/urbal12/PDFS/CECILIA%20LIPSZYC.pdf [accessed 12 April 2015].
    48. Macdonald, M. (2003). Exploring media discourse. London: Arnold.
    49. Machin, D. (2007). Introduction to Multimodal Analysis, London: Hodder Arnold.
    50. Machin, D. and T. van Leeuwen (2007). Global media discourse: A critical introduction. London: Routledge.
    51. Macken-Horarik, M. (2003). Working the borders in racist discourse: The challenge of the ‘Children Overboard Affair’ in news media texts. Social Semiotics 13(3): 283-303.
    52. Martín, E. (2006). De las migraciones del fordismo a las migraciones de la globalización. Europa: 1960-2005. Africa e Mediterráneo 54: 29-35.
    53. Martín, E. and A. Sabuco (2006). Las mujeres en la globalización: el nuevo tráfico de alianzas y de mercancías. RELEA, Revista Latinoamericana de Estudios Avanzados 24: 65-106.
    54. Martínez Lirola, M. (2010). Explorando la invisibilidad de mujeres de diferentes culturas en la sociedad y en los medios de comunicación. Palabra Clave 13(1): 161-173.
    55. Martínez Lirola, M. (2014). An exploration of the representation of immigrant women in a sample from the Spanish press. Gender Questions 2(1): 84-97.
    56. Martínez Lirola, M. y A. Olmos Alcaraz (2015). Sobre menores y mujeres inmigrantes en la radio y la televisión públicas: imágenes sesgadas y ficciones mediáticas. Tonos Digital 28: 1-23.
    57. Masanet Ripoll, E. and C. Ripoll Arcacia (2008). La representación de la mujer inmigrante en la prensa nacional. Papers 89: 169-185.
    58. McKay, F. H., Thomas, S. L. and R.W. Blood (2011). ‘Any one of these boat people could be a terrorist for all we know!’ Media representations and public perceptions of ‘boat people’ arrivals in Australia. Journalism 12(5): 607-626. doi: 10.1177/1464884911408219
    59. McMaster, D. (2002). Asylum-seekers and the insecurity of a nation. Australan Journal of International Affairs 56(2): 279-290. doi: 10.1080/10357710220147479
    60. Milner, M. W. (2012). The Discursive Construction of Global Poverty: Social Justice in Media Discourse. In K. V. Korostelina (ed.), Forming a Culture of Peace. Reframing Narratives of Intergroup Relations, Equity, and Justice. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 131-164.
    61. Moore, K., Gross, B. and T. Threadgold (eds.) (2012). Migrations and the Media. New York: Peter Lang.
    62. Nash, M. (2007). Repensar las representaciones mediáticas de las mujeres inmigrantes. Quaderns de la Mediterrània 7: 59-62.
    63. Nuñez Puente, S. and H. Establier Pérez (eds.) (2008). La representación/presencia de la mujer en los medios de comunicación. Feminismos, 11. Alicante: Universidad de Alicante.
    64. O’Halloran, K. L. (2011). Multimodal Discourse Analysis. In K. Hyland and B. Paltridge (eds.), The Continuum Companion to Discourse Analysis. London and New York: Continuum. pp. 120-137.
    65. O’Halloran, K. and B. Smith (eds.) (2011). Multimodal Studies. Exploring Issues and Domains. London: Routledge.
    66. Parella, S. (2003). Mujer, inmigrante y trabajadora: la triple discriminación. Barcelona: Anthropos.
    67. Paxton, P. and M. Hughes (2007). Women, Politics and Power: A Global Perspective. Thousand Oak, CA: Pine Forge Press.
    68. Pérez Grande, M.D. (2008). Mujeres inmigrantes: realidades, estereotipos y perspectivas educativas.  Revista Española de Educación Comparada 14: 137-175.
    69. Pham, T. (2014). Moroccan Immigrant Women in Spain. Honor and Marriage. New York: Lexington Books.
    70. Pickering, S. (2001). Common sense and original deviancy: News discourses and asylum seekers in Australia. Journal of Refugee Studies 14(2): 169-186.
    71. Román, M., García, A. and S. Álvarez (2011). Tratamiento informativo de la mujer inmigrante en la prensa española. Cuadernos de Información 29: 173-186.
    72. Rodríguez, E. (2002). Representaciones cotidianas de la alteridad femenina. Mujeres inmigrantes y de otras culturas en la prensa española. Arenal: Revista de historia de mujeres 9(1): 93-121.
    73. Royce, T. D. and W.L. Bowcher (eds.) (2007). New Directions in the Analysis of Multimodal Discourse. London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
    74. Sadiqi, F. (2010). Considering the Gender Dimension of Moroccan Migration: A ‘Win-Win’ Approach to North/South Migration in the Mediterranean. In the Middle East Institute (ed.), Viewpoints: Migration and the Maghreb. Washington DC: The Middle East Institute. pp. 17-19.
    75. Sharda, A. (2014). Media and Gender Stereotyping: The need for Media Literacy. International Research Journal of Social Sciences 3 (8): 43-49.
    76. Sobrados, M. (2006). Mujeres inmigrantes en los medios de comunicación. In C. Herrero (eds.), Periodismo y Cultura. Estudios sobre Periodismo Especializado. Sevilla: Padilla Libros Editores and Libreros. pp. 61-87.
    77. ter Wal, J., d’Haenens, L. and J. Koeman (2005). (Re)presentation of Ethnicity in EU and Dutch domestic news: a quantitative analysis. Media, Culture and Society 27 (6): 937-950.
    78. The Australian (online edition), 1 March 2013-31 May 2014. http://www.theaustralian.com.au
    79. The Daily Telegraph (online edition), 1 March 2013-31 May 2014. http://www.thedailytelegraph.com.au
    80. The Sydney Morning Herald (online edition), 1 March 2013-31 May 2014. http://www.thesydneymorningherald.com.au
    81. United Nations High