BA: Geography (Lancaster); MSc: Geographical Information Systems (Edinburgh); PhD: Historical GIS (London)
Professor of Digital Humanities
Department of History
Lancaster, LA1 4YT, UK
Room: B144, Bowland
Tel: +44 (0)1524 594967
Fax: +44 (0)1524 846102
I am a geographer by training who, after doing an MSc in Geographical Information Systems (GIS) at the University of Edinburgh, got a one-year contract at Queen Mary, University of London working to create a GIS of some nineteenth century administrative data. Somehow this evolved into the Great Britain Historical GIS (GBHGIS), a major database that comprises the majority of statistical data from sources such as the census and vital registration data for the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. This took several years to build and over £500,000 of funding, primarily from the ESRC. It was also the subject of my PhD. Since leaving London I worked at the University of Portsmouth and then as the Associate Director of Centre for Data Digitisation and Analysis at the Queens University, Belfast. In September 2006 I moved to Lancaster to lead a new initiative in Digital Humanities. I am the review editor of the International Journal of Humanities and Arts Computing and I have served on the editorial boards of the journals Social Science History and Historical Methods, have twice been network co-chair of the Social Science History Associations's Historical Geography network and have served a term on their Executive Committee. I am also network co-charir of the European Social Science History Association's Spatial and Digital History network. For several years I was on the Institutional Board and Technical Steering Committee of the Electronic Cultural Atlas Initiative. As shown below I have published widely on historical GIS including four books, one by CUP, and articles in journals including Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, Annals of the Assoc. of American Geographers, Progress in Human Geography, and the British Medical Journal.
Research interests :
1. The use of GIS technology to study long-term change in the societies of Britain and Ireland in particular through the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.
2. Developing an understanding of what GIS has to offer to historical research and to the humanities more generally and developing the use of these technologies in disciplines including history and literary studies.
3. Using computing technology across the humanities and social sciences to gain a better understanding of the past.
What is Historical GIS?
For an answer to this see the Historical GIS Research Network website.
Spatial Humanities project
I am PI on a European Research Council grant on Spatial Humanities: Texts, GIS and places. This project runs from 2012 to 2016 and builds upon Lancaster’s international expertise in Corpus Linguistics and Geographical Information Systems (GIS). The project will develop methodologies for the automatic extraction of place names from large bodies of text, a process which will facilitate spatial interpretations of both historical events and imaginative representations of space and place. These techniques will then be applied to two major case studies. The first will explore the literary geographies of the Lake District from the middle of the eighteenth-century to the early twentieth-century. This strand of the project will focus primarily on mapping an extensive range of literary texts; but it will also explore how the spatial patterns embedded within these writings relate to contemporary web 2.0 representations (such as photographs on Flickr) of the Lakes. The second strand will concentrate on nineteenth-century social and demographic history and will examine how textual sources can be integrated with statistical information – from sources such as the census – to shed new lights on a range of topics including mortality decline. The project will also include a significant training component to widen the skills base in the use of digital technologies within a range of humanities disciplines. It will also involve extensive collaboration with a range of cultural heritage partners in the north west and beyond.
- Gregory I.N. and Geddes A. (2014) Towards Spatial Humanities: Historical GIS and Spatial History. Indiana University Press: Bloomington. The is reviewed by Southern Spaces.
- Gregory I.N., Cunningham N.A., Lloyd, C.D., Shuttleworth I. and Ell P.S. (2013) Troubled Geographies: A spatial history of religion and society in Ireland. Indiana University Press: Bloomington. See the accompanying website for more information.
- Gregory I.N. and Ell P.S. (2007) Historical GIS: Technologies, methodologies and scholarship. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.This has been reviewed in the Economic History Review and the International Journal of Humanities and Arts Computing and was discussed in Progress in Human Geography.
- Gregory I.N. (2003) A place in history: A guide to using GIS in historical research. Oxford: Oxbow Books. A second edition of this is available online from the ESRC's Research Methods Programme while the first edition is available from AHDS History.
- Cunningham N.A. and Gregory I.N. (2014) “Hard to miss, easy to blame?: Peacelines, interfaces and political deaths in Belfast during the Troubles” Political Geography, 40, pp. 64-78. See DOI: 10.1016/j.polgeo.2014.02.004
- Klüsener S., Devos I., Ekamper P., Gregory I., Gruber S., Marti-Henneberg J., van Poppel F., Sliveria L. and Solli A. (2014) “Spatial inequalities in infant survival at an early stage of the longevity revolution: A pan-European view across 5000+ regions and localities in 1910” Demographic Research, 30, pp. 1849-1864. See http://www.demographic-research.org/volumes/vol30/68/default.htm
- Gregory I.N. (2014) “Challenges and opportunities for Digital History” Frontiers in Digital Humanities, 1, pp. 1-2. See DOI: 10.3389/fdigh.2014.00001
- Cunningham N. and Gregory I. (2013) “Religious change in twentieth century Ireland: A spatial history” Irish Geography, 45, pp. 209-233. See DOI: 10.1080/00750778.2013.835965
- Gregory I. and Cooper D. (2013) “The interdisciplinary mapping of the past: Geographical technologies, history and texts” Journal of Victorian Culture, 18, pp. 265-272. See DOI: 10.1080/13555502.2013.797686
- Mojica L., Gregory I. and Marti-Henneberg J. (2013) “A new approach to the analysis of urbanisation: The agglomerations of England and Wales (1871- 2001)” Historical Methods, 46, pp. 90-101. See DOI: 10.1080/01615440.2012.721720
- Lloyd C.D., Gregory I.N., Shuttleworth I.G.and Lilley K.D. (2012) “Exploring change in
urban areas using GIS: data sources, linkages and problems” Annals of GIS, 18, pp. 71-80. See DOI: 10.1080/19475683.2011.647079
- Cooper D. and Gregory I.N. (2011) “Mapping the English Lake District: A literary GIS” Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 36, pp. 89-108. See DOI: 10.1111/j.1475-5661.2010.00405.x. This is reviewed by B. Sacks in Geography Directions, 22/1/11, which states: The beauty of Cooper and Gregory’s research lies …in the sweeping potential their work signifies in GIS usability. With appropriate interpretation of qualitative sources, many global history texts can be visualised from a host of different parametres, including (but by no means limited to) literature, scientific advancement, economic and social development, and revolution and reform. The paper was also re-printed in a virtual edition of Transactions of the IBG on “The Geographical Imagination”(August 2011, edited by S. Daniels) which “...selects landmark papers from the history of Transactions, the first from 1955, the most recent from 2011.” The introductory essay to this collection states “‘Mapping the English Lake District’ considers GIS as a tool to re-frame nineteenth century literary landscape descriptions in a way which reveals geographical imaginations of the time… [I]t is a sign of the subject’s recent, resurgent appeal for the humanities and social sciences more broadly”
- DeBats D.A. and Gregory I.N. (2011) “Historical GIS and the study of urban history” Social Science History, 35, pp.457-463. See DOI: 10.1215/01455532-1381814
- Gregory I.N. and Hardie A. (2011) “Visual GISting: Bringing together corpus linguistics and Geographical Information Systems” Literary and Linguistic Computing, 26, pp. 297-314. See DOI: 10.1093/llc/fqr022
- Schwartz R.M., Gregory I.N. and Thevinin T. (2011) “Spatial History: Railways, Uneven Development, and Population Change in France and Great Britain, 1850-1914” Journal of Interdisciplinary History, 42(1), pp. 53-88. See DOI: 10.1162/JINH_a_00205
- Gregory I.N., Kunz A. and Bodenhamer D.J. (2011) “A place in Europe: Enhancing European collaboration in Historical GIS” International Journal of Humanities and Arts Computing, 5, pp. 23-39. See DOI: 10.3366/ijhac.2011.0019
- Gregory I.N. and Cooper D. (2011) “GIS, Texts and Images: New Approaches”Poetess Archive Journal, 2(1). See http://paj.muohio.edu/paj/index.php/paj/article/view/20
- Gregory I.N. and Marti Henneberg J. (2010) “The railways, urbanisation, and local demography in England and Wales, 1825-1911” Social Science History, 24, pp. 199-228. See DOI: 10.1215/01455532-2009-025
- Gregory I.N., Marti Henneberg J. and Tapiador F.J. (2010) “Modelling long-term pan-European population change from 1870 to 2000 using Geographical Information Systems” Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series A, 173, pp. 31-50. See DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-985X.2009.00598.x
- Gregory I.N. and Cooper D. (2009) “Thomas Gray, Samuel Taylor Coleridge and Geographical Information Systems: A Literary GIS of Two Lake District Tours” International Journal of Humanities and Arts Computing, 3, pp. 61-84. See DOI: 10.3366/ijhac.2009.0009
- Gregory I.N. and Schwartz R.M. (2009) “National Historical Geographical Information Systems as a tool for historical research: Population and railways in Wales, 1841-1911” International Journal of Humanities and Arts Computing, 3, pp. 143-161. See DOI: 10.3366/ijhac.2009.0013
- Gregory I.N. (2009) “Forum: Is GIS changing historical scholarship” International Journal of Humanities and Arts Computing, 3, pp. 61-84. See DOI: 10.3366/ijhac.2009.0003
- Gregory I.N. (2009) “Comparisons between the geographies of mortality and deprivation from the 1900s to 2001: spatial analysis of census and mortality statistics” British Medical Journal, 339: b3454, pp. 676-679. See DOI: 10.1136/bmj.b3454. I was interviewed about this on BBC Radio 4's Today Programme on the 11th Sept. 2009.
- Dunning A., Gregory I., and Hardie A. (2009) “Freeing up digital content with text mining: New research means new licenses” Serials, 22, pp. 166-173. DOI: 10.1629/22166
- Norman P., Gregory I., Dorling D. and Baker A. (2008) “Geographical trends in infant mortality in England and Wales, 1971-2006” Health Statistics Quarterly, 40, pp. 18-29. Available here.
- Gregory I.N. (2008) “Different places, different stories: Infant mortality decline in England & Wales, 1851-1911” Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 98, pp. 773-794. DOI: 10.1080/00045600802224406. This paper is discussed by Mayhew (2010) in Progress in Human Geography.
- Gregory I.N. and Healey R.G. (2007) “Historical GIS: Structuring, mapping and analysing geographies of the past” Progress in Human Geography, 31, pp. 638-653. DOI: 10.1177/0309132507081495
- Gregory I.N. and Ell P.S. (2006) “Error sensitive historical GIS: Identifying areal interpolation errors in time series data” International Journal of Geographical Information Science, 20, pp. 135-152. DOI: 10.1080/13658810500399589
- Gregory I.N. and Ell P.S. (2005) “Analysing spatio-temporal change using national historical GISs: Population change during and after the Great Irish Famine” Historical Methods, 38, pp. 149-167. DOI: 10.3200/HMTS.38.4.149-167
- Gregory I.N. and Ell P.S. (2005) “Breaking the boundaries: Integrating 200 years of the Census using GIS” Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series A, 168, pp. 419-437. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-985X.2005.00356.x
- Ell P.S. and Gregory I.N. (2005) “Demography, depopulation and devastation: Exploring the Geography of the Irish Potato Famine” Historical Geography, 33, pp. 54-75. Available here.
- Gregory I.N. (2005) “The Great Britain Historical GIS” Historical Geography, 33, pp. 132-134. Available here.
- Gregory I.N., Kemp, K. and Mostern R. (2003) “Geographical Information and historical research: Current progress and future directions” History and Computing, 13, pp. 7-21.
- Gregory I.N., Bennett, C., Gilham, V.L. and Southall H.R. (2002) “The Great Britain Historical GIS: From maps to changing human geography” The Cartographic Journal, 39, pp. 37-49.
- Gregory I.N. (2002) “Time variant databases of changing historical administrative boundaries: A European comparison” Transactions in GIS, 6, pp. 161-178. DOI: 10.1111/1467-9671.00103. In November 2010 this was listed as one of the journal highlights.
- Gregory I.N. (2002) “The accuracy of areal interpolation techniques: Standardising 19th and 20th century census data to allow long-term comparisons” Computers Environment and Urban Systems, 26, pp. 293-314. DOI: 10.1016/S0198-9715(01)00013-8
- Congdon P., Campos R.M., Curtis S.E., Southall H.R., Gregory I.N., and Jones I.R. (2001) “Quantifying and explaining changes in geographical inequality of infant mortality in England and Wales since the 1890s” International Journal of Population Geography, 7, pp. 35-51. DOI: 10.1002/ijpg.203
- Gregory I.N., Dorling D. and Southall H.R. (2001) “A century of inequality in England and Wales using standardised geographical units” Area, 33, pp. 297-311. DOI: 10.1111/1475-4762.00033
- Gregory I.N. (2000) “Longitudinal analysis of age and gender specific migration patterns in England and Wales: A GIS-based approach” Social Science History, 24, pp. 471-503. Available here.
- Gregory I.N. and Geddes A. (2014) “From Historical GIS to Spatial Humanities: Deepening scholarship and broadening technology” in Gregory I.N. and Geddes A. (eds.) Towards Spatial Humanities: Historical GIS and Spatial History. Indiana University Press: Bloomington, pp. ix-xix
- Gregory I.N. and Geddes A. (2014) “From Historical GIS to Spatial Humanities: Challenges and opportunities” in Gregory I.N. and Geddes A. (eds.) Towards Spatial Humanities: Historical GIS and Spatial History. Indiana University Press: Bloomington, pp. 172-185
- Gregory I.N.(2014) “From Historical GIS to Spatial Humanities: An evolving literature” in Gregory I.N. and Geddes A. (eds.) Towards Spatial Humanities: Historical GIS and Spatial History. Indiana University Press: Bloomington, pp. 186-202
- Ell P.S., Cunningham N. and Gregory I.N. (2014) “No spatial watershed: Religious geographies of Ireland pre- and post-Famine” in Corporaal M., Cusak C., Janssen L. and van den Beuken R., (eds.) Global Legacies of the Great Irish Famine: Transnational and Interdisciplinary Perspectives. Oxford: Peter Lang, pp. 197-224
- Bodenhamer D.J. and Gregory I.N. (2011) “Teaching spatial literacy and spatial technologies in the Digital Humanities” in Unwin D.J, Foote K.E, Tate N.J. and DiBiase D. (eds.) Teaching Geographical Information Science and Technology in Higher Education. John Wiley: Chichester, pp. 231-246
- Schwartz R.M., Gregory I.N. and Marti Henneberg J. (2011) “History and GIS: Railways, population change, and agricultural development in late nineteenth century Wales” in Dear M., Ketchum J., Luria S. and Richardson D. (eds.) GeoHumanities: Art, history, text at the edge of place. Routledge: Abingdon. pp. 251-266. This volume is reviewed in the New York Times
- Gregory I.N. (2010) “Time and space, history and geography, humanities and GIS: Creating a coherent approach” in Bodenhamer D.J., Corrigan J. and Harris T.M. (eds.) The Spatial Humanities: GIS and the future of humanities scholarship. Indiana University Press: Bloomington. pp. 58-75
- Gregory I.N. (2008) “Using Geographical Information Systems to explore space and time in the humanities” in Greengrass M. and Hughes L. (eds.) The Virtual Representation of the Past. Ashgate: Aldershot. pp. 135-146
- Gregory I.N. (2008) “‘A map is just a bad graph:’ Why spatial statistics are important in historical GIS” in Knowles A.K. (ed.) Placing History: How maps, spatial data and GIS are changing historical scholarship. ESRI Press: Redlands CA. pp. 123-149
- Campos R.M., Congdon P., Curtis S.E., Gregory I.N., Jones I.R. and Southall H.R. (2004) “Locality level mortality and socio-economic change in Britain since 1920: First steps towards analysis of infant mortality variation” In Boyle P., Curtis S.E., Graham E., and Moore E. (eds.) The Geography of Health Inequalities in the Developed World. Ashgate: Aldershot. pp. 53-75
- Gregory I.N. and Southall, H.R. (2002) “Mapping British population history” In Knowles, A.K. (ed.) Past Time, Past Place: GIS for History. ESRI Press: Redlands, CA., pp. 117-130.
- Gregory I.N., Southall H.R. and Dorling D. (2000) “A century of poverty in England & Wales, 1898-1998: A geographical analysis” In Bradshaw J. and Sainsbury R. (eds.) Researching Poverty. Ashgate: Aldershot, pp. 130-159
- Gregory I.N. and Southall H.R. (2000) “Spatial frameworks for historical censuses – the Great Britain Historical GIS”. In Hall P.K., McCaa R. and Thorvaldsen G. (eds.) Handbook of Historical Microdata for Population Research. Minnesota Population Center: Minneapolis, pp. 319-333
- Gregory I.N. and Knowles A.K. (2011) Using GIS to understand space and time in the social, behavioural and economic sciences: A white paper. See: http://www.nsf.gov/sbe/sbe_2020/submission_detail.cfm?upld_id=78
- Gregory I. (2010) “Time-enabled Geographical Information Systems (GIS) as a humanities research infrastructure in Europe” HERA Conference Report: 4th HERA Annual Conference, European diversities – European Identities, 1st European Conference for Collaborative Humanities Research. IREG: Strasbourg, p. 15. See: http://www.heranet.info/system/files/d5.4.1_hera_2008_conference_report_-_glossy_version.pdf
- Gregory I.N. (2009) “Text, images and statistics: Integrating data and approaches using geospatial computing” Proceedings of the 2009 5th IEEE International Conference on e-Science Workshops, pp. 180-183. DOI: 10.1109/ESCIW.2009.5407966
- Gregory I.N. (2008) “Position Paper: What can GIS offer World History?” History Compass Theory and Methods Blog
- Gregory I.N. (2005) “Creating analytic results from historical GIS” Humanities, Computers and Cultural Heritage: Proceedings of the XVIth international conference of the Association of History and Computing. Royal Netherlands Academy of the Arts and Sciences: Amsterdam
- Ell P.S. and Gregory I.N. (2001) “The Great Britain Historical GIS Project: Current progress and future prospects.” In Proceedings of the 2001 PNC Annual Conference and Joint Meetings, Hong Kong. Computing Centre, Academia Sinica: Taiwan
- Gregory I.N. (2000) “The use of areal interpolation to explore long-term demographic change” In GeoComputation 2000: Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on GeoComputation. GeoComputation CD-ROM: Manchester
- Interviewed on Radio 4's Today Programme on 11/9/09 regarding my British Medical Journal paper on long-term health inequalities.
- Our British Academy funded work on Lake District literature was written up in the Westmorland Gazette (6/8/08) and David Cooper, the project RA, was interviewed about it on Radio Cumbria.
- My work on Lancaster in the First World War (with Corinna Peniston-Bird) has attracted a wide range of media interest from newspapers, radio, TV and online. These include:
Lancaster Guardian (6/2/14)
Lancashire Evening Post (12/2/14)
Lancaster Guardian (13/2/14)
BBC Radio Lancashire (20/5/14)
BBC North-West Tonight (27/5/14)
Lancaster Guardian (29/5/14). This was a full-page spread under the title “New history project maps out the toll of bereavement on city’s streets.” (p. 10)
Lancaster Guardian (19/6/14)
Keynote and plenary presentations:
- Practical Applications of Language Corpora, Lodz, Poland (21/11/14) “Mapping corpora: Approaches to understanding the geographies in texts.”
- Launch event for the North West Consortium Doctoral Training Partnership, Manchester, UK (1/10/14) “New Challenges in the Arts and Humanities.”
- Interdisciplinary Summer School in Digital Methods, Lancaster, UK (17/7/14) “Using corpus data in Geographical Information Systems”
- Society for the History of Authorship, Reading and Publishing, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (31/7/13) “Towards Spatial Humanities: Using GIS to map and analyse the geographies within texts.”
- Interdisciplinary Summer School in Digital Methods, Lancaster, UK (16/7/13) “Bringing together corpus linguistics and GIS: Understanding the geographies in texts”
- HiCor 2013, Oxford, UK (28/2/13) “From Texts to Mapping: Understanding the geographies in historical corpora.”
- ACUMEN (Assembly for Comparative Urbanisation and the Material Environment), Leeds, UK (12/12/13) “Using Textual Sources within a GIS to Explore Urban (and Other) Trends.”
- LENS “Mapping People” Symposium, Redlands, California (31/10/12) “GIS and Texts: New approaches to understanding the geographies of the past.”
- Spatial Narratives and Deep Maps: Explorations in Advanced Geo-spatial Technologies and the Spatial Humanities, Indianapolis, Indiana (19/6/12) “Deep maps, spatial narratives, and quantitative and qualitative scholarship in the humanities”
- Eurel Conference, Manchester, UK (26/10/12) “Long-term religious change and stability in Ireland: A geographical analysis.”
- Text Encoding Initiative Members Meeting, Zadar, Croatia (13/11/10) “Censuses, literature and newspapers: Integrating sources and scholarship using GIS.”
- Summer School Lecture at Digital Humanities Observatory Summer School, Dublin, Ireland (1/7/10) “Space: A neglected frontier. Geographical Information Systems and text.”
- GIS in the Humanities and Social Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taiwan (9/10/09) “Censuses, literature and newspapers: quantitative and qualitative approaches to studying the past with GIS.”
- 4th Annual Humanities in the European Research Area (HERA) Conference and 1st European Conference for Collaborative Humanities Research (8/10/08) “Time-enabled GIS as a Humanities research infrastructure for Europe.”
Current and recently completed grants and funded research:
- European Research Council “Bringing GIS to the Digital Humanities: Defining the Spatial Humanities” (With Drs. A. Hardie and P. Rayson) 2012-16. See Spatial Humanities: Texts, GIS and places.
- Economic and Social Research Council “ESRC Centre for Corpus Approaches to Social Science (CASS)” (Led by Prof. A. McEnery) 2013-18. See CASS website.
- Newby Trust “Newspapers, poverty and long-term change. A corpus analysis of five centuries of texts” (With Prof. A. McEnery and Dr. A Hardie) 2014-15.
- COST “Reassembling the Republic of Letters, 1500-1800 A digital framework for multi-lateral collaboration on Europe‘s intellectual history” 2014-17. This COST Action is led by Prof Howard Hotson (Oxford) and Dr Thomas Wallnig (Vienna). I chair its work-group on ‘Space and Time’
- British Academy “The Presbyterian Church in Ireland, 1871-2001.” (With Dr. I. Shuttleworth) 2010-11
- Arts and Humanities Research Council “Landscapes, memories and cultural practices: a GIS / GPS digital heritage mapping network.” (Led by Dr. J. Hallam) 2009-10
- Spatial Literacy In Teaching “GIS in the Humanities: Towards an educational strategy in Britain and America.” (With Prof. D. Bodenhamer and Dr. J. Wilson) 2009-10
- Jean Monnet Programme “European Integration through the (lengths) of railway connections in Europe. An applied Geographical Information System” (Led by Prof J. Marti Henneberg, with Dr. F. Tapiador and Dr. F. Moriconi-Ebrard). 2008-09.
- European Science Foundation: Deputy leader of the Eurocores Inventing Europe Collaborative Research Project: “The Development of European Waterways, Road and Rail Infrastructures: A Geographical Information System for the History of European Integration (1825-2005)” (Led by Prof. J. Marti-Henneberg) 2007-10.
- Arts and Humanities Research Council/Economic and Social Research Council “Troubled Geographies: Two centuries of Religious Division in Ireland” (With Drs. P.S. Ell, C. Lloyd and I. Shuttleworth). 2007-09. This grant is under their Religion and Society Programme.
- Joint Information Systems Committee “A digital library of core e-resources on Ireland” (Led by Dr. P.S. Ell). 2007-09
- Economic and Social Research Council Seminar Series “The Historical GIS Research Network” (with Dr. P.S. Ell as co-applicant). 2007-08. For more on this see the Historical GIS Research Network website.
- British Academy “Literary mapping of the Lakes: A pilot for a Humanities GIS” (with Dr. S. Bushell and Mr David Cooper). 2007-08. A website that maps the accounts Thomas Gray and Samuel Taylor Coleridge was produced by this grant and is available as Mapping the Lakes: A Literary GIS. The Westmorland Gazette ran a story on this.
- National Endowment for the Humanities “History and Geography: A comparative study of railways, uneven geographical development, and a crisis of globalization in France and Great Britain, 1830-1914” (Led by Prof. R. Schwartz, with Dr. T. Thevenin). 2006-09. The project's website is here.
- Arts and Humanities Research Council “Geographical Information Systems e-Science: Developing a roadmap.” (Led by Dr. P.S. Ell). 2006-07
- Leverhulme Trust Early Career Fellowship “Two centuries of geo-demographic change.” 2005-06
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