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 Ling 131: Language & Style

 Topic 8 - Discourse structure and point of view > Point of view checksheet

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Session Overview
Discourse structure and point of view
Discourse structure of 1st and 3rd person novels
Being the author!
Different kinds of point of view
Linguistic indicators of point of view
Ideological viewpoint
Point of view in a more extended example
Point of view checksheet
Topic 8 'tool' summary
Useful Links


Printer friendly version of checksheet

(1) Given vs. New information, e.g.

(a) Definite/indefinite articles (a/the);
(b) textually referring (anaphoric) pronouns (you, it, they, etc.).

(2) Deictic (shifting) expressions related to place, e.g.

(a) adverbials (here/there, etc., to my left, in front of him);
(b) demonstrative pronouns (this/that, etc.);
(c) verbs (come/go, etc.).

(3) Deictic expressions relating to time, e.g.

(a) adverbials (now/then, today/that day, tomorrow, the following day, etc.);
(b) past and present tenses.

(4) "Socially deictic" expressions, e.g.

(a) personal and possessive pronouns (I, you, he: mine, yours, etc.);
(b) variant socially relevant expressions for the same person, e.g.
(i) the naming system: Mick, Mr. Short, dad
(ii) varying expressions in third person reference (sometimes called 'elegant variation'): Bunter, the hapless owl, the fat ornament of the Remove, the grub raider of the Remove.

(5) Indicators of the internal representation of a particular character's thoughts or perceptions, e.g.

(a) verbs of perception and cognition (see, hear, imagine, think,believe);
(b) verbs related to factivity
(cf. It was obvious that he was ill vs. It seems that he was ill vs. He pretended to be ill);
(c) adverbs related to factivity (actually, apparently).

(6) Value-laden and ideologically slanted expressions, e.g.

I saw Mick Short vs. I saw that awful Mick Short;
He is a freedom fighter
vs. He is a terrorist;
the Far East vs. South East Asia.

(7) Event coding within and across sentences, e.g.

The man burst the door open vs. The door burst open;
Robin Hood ran past me
vs. Someone ran past me. It was Robin Hood.


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