Lancaster UniversityGraduate School
Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences

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Appendix 1 - Referencing: guidelines for students

We place emphasis on proper documentation and presentation of essays, dissertations and theses. All sources must be fully acknowledged in the text of short or long essays as well as dissertations and theses.  This includes the use of ideas and information as well as direct quotations.  Failure to acknowledge the source of your material is plagiarism, a very serious offence that is commonly penalised by a fail mark. Thus essays etc. should include a full ‘Reference List’ or Bibliography.

Various reference systems are used in the social sciences and humanities and you may want to consults with your supervisor when deciding which system to follow. In principle, you can use any system that is commonly used in your discipline and which your supervisor and Department deem to be appropriate. The most important issue is that you are consistent and stick to the rules of the system you have chosen.  If you want to have a look at a specific system, the Harvard Referencing System is widely used, and you can find information about it here:

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