A Level Requirements
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Full time 4 Year(s)
You won’t just be sat in lectures at Lancaster. Study geography in our outstanding practical facilities; explore our beautiful surroundings; take part in international field trips; learn from world-renowned lecturers; and collaborate with industry professionals and businesses.
Geography is a distinctive subject: it studies our world in a vast range of areas. Our Geography degree programme explores the Earth’s landscapes, species, places and environment in a dynamic range of modules that draw from the humanities, social science and physical science subjects. Through this programme, you will also be given the fantastic opportunity to get involved with real-world projects, working with our partners in industry.
While studying in the Lancaster Environment Centre (LEC), you will have access to new teaching and research labs, computer systems and software and even our very own weather monitoring station. Working in comfortable class sizes, you will have the opportunity to get to know your lecturers personally, enabling you to benefit from their expert knowledge and helpful one-to-one advice.
Our location, between the rural settings of the north and the bustling cities of Liverpool and Manchester, enables us to explore some of the UK’s most unique areas of geographic interest. You will gain a wealth of hands-on experience with field trips to places such as the Yorkshire Dales, Cumbrian coast and Lake District, as well as international locations such as Iceland, Amazonia, New York and Croatia.
You will develop a fundamental understanding of human, physical and environmental geography in the Double Year 1 Geography modules. These first year modules equip you with a well-rounded introduction to some of the key themes of geography, as well as providing you with some of the key skills used by geographers to analyse problems in both the physical and human aspects of the discipline.
Specialisation begins in second year, enabling you to choose topics that match your interests. Core modules will focus on practical work, giving you a range of analytical and research project skills. A series of optional modules offer exciting field trips to Spain and France.
In the third year, you will undertake a dissertation, guided by your academic supervisor which offers a chance to perform original geographical research on a topic of your choice. You will complete this piece of research by working alongside a business, working with professionals and gaining valuable insight into working life and industry. This will be a fantastic opportunity to apply and develop your geography skills in a real, working environment, allowing you to gain experience and employability skills that will be invaluable when pursuing your career goals.
You will also be offered further optional module choices, and there will be fieldwork opportunities in locations such as Iceland, Croatia and New York. Topics may include the study of coastal processes, geological hazards and glacial systems, but could also include an element of human geography, such as Global Consumption, Urban Infrastructure in a Changing World or Geographies of Health.
Your fourth year of study provides an advanced qualification which will give you a competitive edge in the graduate jobs market by equipping you with the extra experience, knowledge and skills that come with studying Masters-level modules and undertaking a second dissertation. This will enable you to stand out from the crowd in the selection process for graduate roles.
In addition, this programme provides a ten-week placement with a graduate employer where you will utilise and develop your skills in a professional environment, gaining valuable real-world experience. You will also gain communication and IT skills, and will become familiar with data handling and environmental sampling and analysis.
We offer flexible programmes with a strong emphasis on practical learning. You will engage in a wide range of modules that span the breadth of geographical topics and infuse content from the humanities, along with the social and physical sciences. Your work will be regularly assessed by a combination of assignments, written examinations and project reports.
A Level AAA
Required Subjects A level grade A in Geography
GCSE Mathematics grade C, English Language grade C
IELTS 6.5 overall with at least 5.5 in each component. For other English language qualifications we accept, please see our English language requirements webpages.
International Baccalaureate 36 points overall with 16 points from the best 3 Higher Level subjects including Geography at HL grade 6
BTEC Distinction, Distinction, Distinction in a related subject but may additionally require a supporting A level in Geography at grade A. Please contact the Admissions Team for further advice.
Access to HE Diploma 36 Level 3 credits at Distinction and 9 Level 3 credits at Merit in a related subject but may additionally require a supporting A level in Geography at grade A. Please contact the Admissions Team for further advice.
We welcome applications from students with a range of alternative UK and international qualifications, including combinations of qualification. Further guidance on admission to the University, including other qualifications that we accept, frequently asked questions and information on applying, can be found on our general admissions webpages.
Contact Admissions Team + 44 (0) 1524 592028 or via email@example.com
Many of Lancaster's degree programmes are flexible, offering students the opportunity to cover a wide selection of subject areas to complement their main specialism. You will be able to study a range of modules, some examples of which are listed below.
This module provides an introduction to environmental processes and their impacts in a variety of different environments. We discuss the physical processes governing the Earth's global climate system and their influence on recent and future patterns of climate and environmental change. We investigate the Earth’s surface materials and the laws that govern the behaviour of fluids, and how these affect environmental flow and fluid transport processes. We also explore the processes which influence the development of soils and associated ecosystems at the land surface, including deposition and erosion processes.
This module provides an introduction to the skills used by geographers to analyse problems in both human and physical geography. The module begins by reviewing the principles of cartography and recent developments in the electronic delivery of map-based information through mobile devices and web-based services. This is followed by an introduction to Geographic Information Systems (GIS) which provide facilities for the capture, storage, analysis and display of spatially-referenced information. Later in the module we introduce remote sensing and explain its relationship to GIS. We also consider quantitative and qualitative techniques of analysis (which are taught within the context of contemporary conceptual approaches), with emphasis placed on the study of both environmental and societal processes.
The global environment and human society are now threatened by unprecedented changes resulting from human activities such as intensive agriculture and fossil fuel combustion, as well as facing natural hazards like volcanic eruptions and climatic extremes. This module introduces you to the major contemporary environmental issues and the complexities associated with researching, explaining and managing the Earth's environment. It provides a broad foundation in the skills required to contribute to future understanding and management of global environmental challenges. You will gain a clearer understanding of the connections between social, environmental and biotic processes and explore possible solutions for key environmental issues.
Introducing you to contemporary human geography, this module focuses on the interactions between society and space, and between people and places at a variety of spatial scales and in different parts of the globe. We introduce the key processes driving geographical change affecting society, economies, the environment, and culture. We critically analyse relevant issues using theoretical models, with examples from across the world. The module encourages you to think critically, argue coherently, appraise published material, and relate real world issues to relevant theoretical frameworks.
Introducing the nature of biological diversity and the patterns of distribution of organisms on global, regional and ecosystem scales, students discover the underlying causes of the observed biodiversity patterns and the main current threat to biodiversity. The reasons why species become extinct is explored and then the reasons why species should be preserved. Students will be able to outline the criteria that can be used to identify species and areas of high conservation importance.
Fieldtrips take place on campus, where students will look at sampling techniques and biodiversity, and to sites of special conservation interest in the Arnside and Silverdale AONB. There will also be an excursion to Blackpool Zoo.
This module explores Earth's natural hazards, including earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, tsunamis, hurricanes, tornadoes and floods, using case studies from around the world. We investigate the causes and effects of such hazards, and the dangers they pose to people and infrastructure. We look at methods of monitoring, predicting and mitigating them, and consider approaches to minimizing the harm they cause.
This module will provide specific knowledge on the historical, philosophical and conceptual bases of 21st century geographical enquiry, and the tensions, controversies and convergences that characterise it. It will cover conceptual issues relevant across geography - space, time, risk etc. - and link them to the methodological skills for data collection, analysis and interpretation that it will also cover. These are detailed in the syllabus provided, and cover a wide range of field, laboratory and secondary source techniques.
This module will provide a strong general understanding of the shape and nature of the discipline of geography, its various research communities and their inter-relationships. It will provide students with a panorama of conceptual and methodological approaches to geographical enquiry and of specific techniques for the collection, analysis and interpretation of data.
Students will be able to explain the current nature of the discipline of geography and the inter-relationships between its various parts and how they have evolved. In addition, students will gain the level of knowledge required to explain and utilise a variety of conceptual and methodological approaches to geographical enquiry, and select appropriate approaches to given situations. Students will also gain the amount of practical knowledge necessary to apply a variety of techniques for data collection and analysis to geographical enquiry, and use knowledge of their strengths and limitations to interpret their outcomes in a relevant and appropriate manner.
Eco-innovation, being the development of new products, processes or services that support business growth with a positive environmental impact, is one of the key enabling instruments identified by the European Union for the transition to a more resource efficient economy. It is embedded in the Europe 2020 strategy for supporting sustainable growth. This module will provide several case studies which outline the way in which businesses have applied eco-innovation in practice Students will gain knowledge of the key approaches to, and models of, eco-innovation in a range of business and policy contexts in addition to a reinforced understanding of how innovative ideas can be turned into practical solutions for complex socio-environmental problems, and how different business models and financing approaches can be used to make the solution commercially viable and potentially profitable.
Students will gain knowledge of eco-innovation and understand how the concept relates to business opportunities for environmental goods and services. In addition, students will gain the knowledge and skillset required to analyse how both small businesses and large global organisations apply eco-innovation into their business planning, whilst
Evaluating business opportunities related to the environment in the context of products and services to address flooding or other complex problems. Students will learn how to create proposals for eco-innovation, and prepare presentations for a panel of experts, and will develop the necessary level of understanding required to analyse technical, financial, and environmental information from a wide range of sources in order to comprehend and evaluate strategies to address complex environment-society problems and challenges.
This module follows on from what you have learnt about conceptual approaches and methodological skills for geographical research, and allows you to practice their application in the context of a geographical research project. The module develops skills in project management and execution, and enhances understanding of the skills and concepts learnt, showing you how they work in a real situation of geographical enquiry.
Although you will undoubtedly have carried out geographical research projects prior to this, the module will raise the intellectual level of your project execution by ensuring that it is research literature-based and is framed by the higher level conceptual and methodological learning that you have gained from your studies so far. Thus, the module will give you experience that will be of direct benefit for your final year dissertation research. In addition, this module involves workshops on understanding how you can recognise and exploit the skills that you developing in the post-graduation careers market.
More data has been generated in the last 2 years than over whole history of humanity prior to this. Of this data, 80% has spatial content. This module is about understanding properties of spatial data, whether derived from the map, an archive or the field or from space. The module will explore how these data are represented in computer systems and how, through spatial integration, new forms of information may be derived. There will be a focus on major sources of spatial data (topographic, environmental, and socio-economic) and their properties, major forms of analyses based on spatial relationships, and on effective communication of spatial data through adherence to principles of map design.
Students will develop an understanding of what makes spatial data special; this will be taught through exposure to data from a variety of primary, secondary, contemporary and historic data across the breadth of the geographic discipline. The module will introduce common forms of spatial analysis and will provide an understanding of which to use under given the situations. Students will learn the principles of map design and effective cartographic communication, as well as gaining practical experience of critiquing digital outputs. Finally, the module will offer students significant 'hands-on' experience of using state-of-the-art GIS software to capture, integrate, analyse and present geographic information.
This module provides a deeper understanding of atmospheric physics and chemistry, and begins by laying the foundations with the physical properties of the atmosphere and how they affect the movement of air. A major objective is to bring familiarity with meteorological analyses and forecasts. The module covers topics varying from small scale flow in the atmospheric boundary layer affecting pollutant transport to global scale circulation of the atmosphere including important phenomena such as monsoons and El Niño.
Practical sessions and a field trip to the Hazelrigg meteorological station will enable students to gain familiarity with mid-latitude synoptic systems, cyclones and fronts. This is built on by giving students sufficient knowledge about the chemical composition of the Earth's atmosphere, of the fluxes of C, S and N to and from the atmosphere and of the main chemical processes that occur in the atmosphere to allow them to understand how the Earth's atmosphere 'works' chemically within the framework of physical process already covered.
Successful completion of this module will show evidence of students’ ability to describe the structure and behaviour of the atmosphere with reference to meteorological observations and pathways of atmospheric transport from analysis of meteorological charts, in addition to the range of skills required to draw schematic diagrams of the general tropospheric circulation, whilst identifying the major processes (and underlying forces) that drive this circulation. Students will gain knowledge of the methods necessary to calculate atmospheric quantities, such as potential temperature, and use the results of these calculations to describe the state of the atmosphere. Students will also be equipped with the level of understanding needed to list the components of the unpolluted troposphere, including the trace gases of chemical significance, and draw annotated schematic diagrams of the atmospheric cycles of carbon, nitrogen, and sulphur.
The module aims to introduce concepts, plus measurement and analytical techniques used by professional hydrologists to solve water-related problems in catchments (notably flood forecasting and water quality remediation). Through a series of lectures and workshops, students can expect to study topics including the processes, measurement and analysis of rainfall, evapotranspiration and water quality measurement and treatment.
The module aims to develop higher level scientific skills in measuring the natural environment, quantifying dynamic processes numerically and digesting scientific literature. Students will gain the skillset required to describe catchment hydrological processes in a quantitative manner, therefore utilising a developed understanding of fundamental hydrological processes, their field measurement ('hydrometry') and basic aspects of dynamic catchment modelling. Additionally, students will gain a range of transferrable academic skills, such as the ability to use data and basic models to derive solutions, and applying subject-specific literature to help understand theory and limitations of theory, measurements and models.
This ‘hands on’ module provides an exciting opportunity for you to put your geographical skills to work in a real-life classroom setting and to gain some valuable work experience. We organise for you to spend half a day per week in a local primary or secondary school for a whole term so that you can gain first-hand experience as a classroom assistant and learn how Geography (or a related discipline) is communicated in a school setting. Not only is this module a great choice for anyone considering a career in teaching, but it also provides an excellent opportunity to escape from the lecture theatre and learn in a real-world environment. You’ll come back from your experiences as a confident communicator who is well versed in the latest debates in Geography and Education.
Introducing cultural geography, this module addresses culture from a geographical perspective while, at the same time, studies space and the spatial from a cultural point of view. Students will explore the importance of variegated representations such as cultural materials, texts, art, landscapes, everyday objects, performances, and will discover how they interact and impact upon race, class, gender and sexuality. The module’s topics will include theories of power and nature, as well as teaching an appreciation of culture, nature, nation, cosmopolitanism, multiculturalism, community, colonialism and post-colonialism.
Students will develop skills such as the critical analysis of the concepts of landscape, place, space, scale and body. They should understand how to evaluate and apply this knowledge in a working environment, as well as gaining the ability to distinguish and criticise different theoretical traditions in cultural geography, and contemporary debates in cultural geography in relation to previous research traditions in the discipline. The module will provide relevant literature in geography and the social sciences and will ask students to apply it selectively to the methodologies at the core of specific assessments.
You will learn about some of the key challenges (e.g., poverty, inequality, environmental change) that are commonly defined as ‘international development’ issues, and the ways in which initiatives seek to address these problems. We will look at a number of topics (e.g., labour and livelihoods, gender, war and post-conflict, commodity chains of production and consumption) in depth in relation to development in the ‘Global South,’ and the differential impacts of interventions. You will learn to identify the relations between the theories and practices of development, as well as how these have changed over time. This evolution will be placed within the context of wider changes in global political economy.
This course provides an advanced overview of the processes that determine the nature of the Earth's surface features. It will introduce you to glaciology, hydrology, hillslope processes, Aeolian activity, and the impact that these have on both the Earth's surface and on the sediments beneath. The aim is to help you develop a clear and detailed understanding of physical geography and to provide a firm foundation for developing deeper insights through specialisation into different elements of the subject in your third year.
As a result of increasing energy demand, concerns regarding security of supply and the need to de-carbonise energy supplies to mitigate climate change, sustainable energy provisioning is one of the critical challenges society faces. This course provides an overview of energy technologies and the energy system within the UK. Following an introduction on why energy is important, the forms of energy and how it is used, the course focuses on each of the key energy technologies in turn. The specifics of each energy technology including how it works, how much is produced, economics, environmental impacts and its current role in the energy mix will be outlined. Energy distribution networks, overall policy drivers and future energy mixes will also be detailed. The module comprises lecture, workshop and field trip-based learning and will be assessed by two coursework submissions and an exam.
This module introduces students to some of the major issues and debates related to the environment-society relationship through a series of lectures and workshops. The lecture series will provide explanations and insights regarding key ideas, concepts and theories and also provide examples of their practical application. Students will be actively encouraged to think critically about environmentalism and environmental management and to consider the lessons and the implications of the subject matter covered in each lecture. Group work conducted in workshops will include an analysis of how a major environmental controversy is presented to the public.
Students will engage with important historical, contemporary and emerging themes within environmentalism and environmental management, and will develop a broad understanding of the history of environmentalism and the different ways in which environmental concerns and interests are expressed. The module will address how different management approaches and strategies can be used to deal with change, complexity, uncertainty and conflict, and will promote the relevance of environmentalism and environmental management in contemporary society.
Additionally, students will develop practical skills for secondary research using published and web resources. The module will reinforce students’ ability to think critically about the nature of environmentalism and environmental management, as well as the ability to express and defend these thoughts through the medium of essay and examination questions.
Evolution is the fundamental concept in biology and an understanding of its processes and effects are important for biologists in all disciplines. The module aims to show how the morphology and behaviour of animals and plants is adapted to their environment through interactions with their own and other species, including competitors, parasites, predators and prey, and relatives. Students will explore the concept of adaptation to natural and sexual selection pressures at the level of the individual and the effects on the wider population.
Students will gain the ability to describe the roles that variation, heritability and selection play in the evolutionary process, along with a developed understanding of how numerical changes in population occur, and enhanced knowledge of how to analyse such shifts in order to make predictions about future changes. This module will also reinforce students’ understanding of the application of theoretical models, the changing effects of costs and behaviours due to circumstance, and how conflicts of interest might influence the reproductive success of individuals.
Students taking this module will gain a range of transferable skills including: report writing, data analysis and presentation, team working, verbal presentation, summarising technical texts and design of scientific enquiries.
A record of Earth’s geological history – its metamorphic, igneous, sedimentary and tectonic processes, and its surface paleogeography and climate – can be extracted from the analysis and interpretation of its rocks, minerals and fossils. Expanding on an earlier module in geology, this module examines such processes and products (rocks), focusing on how to interpret the geological history from the rock record. This is a strongly practical-based course, designed to provide students with key geologic skills required to interpret the rock record. Students will develop skills in the identification of minerals in thin section, identification of rocks and fossils in hand specimen, geologic map interpretation, use of topographic and geologic maps and field note books, field sketches, compass clinometers and stratigraphic logging, in addition to a range of skills in synthesising data in order to produce overall interpretations.
Students will gain the necessary skills required to describe and classify rocks in a specimen, and identify minerals in thin section. Students will develop a working understanding of how rocks are dated, and will utilise stereonets to extract sedimentological and structural data. Additionally, students will be able to interpret geologic maps, including sedimentological and structural data, and will determine past sedimentary, igneous and metamorphic environments of formation and the processes by which deformation and exhumation occur, along with developing the ability to apply Earth science field techniques in order to unravel the geologic history of an area.
This field module takes you to the historical European city of Paris where we investigate the social, political and environmental impacts which are globalizing food. You will engage in a geographic inquiry into the temporal and spatial links between production and consumption and discover how food, culture and politics are interwoven into daily life and that of the dinner table.
The seven-day field excursion will include visits to urban food settings (e.g. meat, fruit and vegetable markets); industrial food production sites (e.g. cold chain storage, dairy/cheese processing), and ethnic food-stands. We will conduct qualitative research with different actors in selected sites. We will also visit a regional viticulturist outside Paris. In Paris we will meet and discuss labour issues with migrant workers and union associations for fruit and vegetable growers. Each day will start with a short lecture which outlines the day’s theme and learning objectives, led by host-country scholars and by our own academic staff.
This module explores the characteristics of landscapes with an emphasis on the biogeographical and geomorphological processes that underpin them. Delivered in two integrated ways, this module will provide substantive material that will be taught through two weekly lectures before applying and developing the knowledge at twice-weekly field trips.
Students undertaking this module will develop a detailed understanding of key concepts of biogeographical and geomorphological interactions in three related environments. Additionally, they will gain the ability to communicate their knowledge in the area whilst demonstrating a critical appreciation of the conceptual base.
As a field course designed to complement other second year modules, this module provides hands on experience giving students the opportunity to apply a number of concepts and test the theories being addressed in those modules. This module will take the research approaches and techniques that are dealt with in a classroom and laboratory setting and will translate them into the field context, which therefore reinforces learning in the thematic areas of environmental subjects and the development of generic research skills, and, importantly, provides a coherent link between the two.
Students will develop the ability to demonstrate detailed insights into aspects of the physical, biological and anthropogenic characteristics of Mediterranean environments, and will gain an appreciation for the range of different approaches to solving environmental research problems. Additionally, the module will provide an enhanced understanding of the value of field observations in formulating research questions and hypotheses, and students will learn to combine key theoretical concepts together with generic research skills in order to design and implement a coherent scientific investigation.
The contemporary world is full of intriguing political developments. Examples range from questions of national independence in the UK, through geopolitical concern with nuclear arms development, to humanitarian crises brought on by civil war. These political moments and their historical trajectories are united by an engagement with space and power; two themes that largely frame what might be called political geography. Against this background, this course examines the importance of politics to human geography and, indeed, geography to the study of politics. A range of classic ‘staples’ of political geography will be explored including engagements with geopolitics, nationalism and border studies. Additionally, we examine social movement activism and mobilisation, security and what it means to be a ‘superpower’. In all cases, theoretical grounding in these core themes will support empirical engagement with a range of case studies, both historical and contemporary.
Recent emphasis on global change and biodiversity has raised awareness of the importance of species and their interactions in determining how sustainable our lifestyle is. This module explores the factors that drive population and community dynamics, with a strong focus on multi-trophic interactions and terrestrial ecosystems.
Students will be introduced to population ecology and will discover the abiotic factors that regulate populations, life history strategies of populations, competitive interactions within populations, and meta-population dynamics, in addition to an understanding of how species interact both within and across trophic levels. The module exposes students to the belowground system and will look at how the species interactions and soil communities discussed impact on community structure and dynamics. The module aims to give students a fundamental understanding of ecology - such knowledge is essential for informing conservation and sustainable land-use practices, and efforts to mitigate climate change.
In order to complete this module, students will develop the ability to outline the primary factors that drive population dynamics, whilst critically discussing examples, and will reinforce their understanding of the implications of species interactions for community dynamics. Students will also gain a critical awareness of biotic responses and their contribution to climate change.
This module aims to provide students with broad understanding of the discipline of conservation biology. The module starts by defining biodiversity, discussing its distribution in space and time, and its value to humankind, before examining the key anthropogenic threats driving recent enhanced rates of biodiversity loss. The module then focuses on the challenges for conservation of biodiversity at several levels of the biological hierarchy: genes, species, communities and ecosystems, and the techniques used by conservationists at these levels. The final part of the module looks at the practice of conservation through discussion of prioritisation, reserve design and national and international conservation policy and regulation.
Students will develop a range of skills including the ability to discuss the principle threats to global biodiversity and the rationale for biodiversity conservation, in addition to application of a range of metrics to quantify biodiversity. Students will gain a critical understanding of the various approaches to conserving genetic, species and ecosystem diversity, as well as an enhanced knowledge of quantification of popularisation approaches to prioritisation of conservation goals, and how nature reserves can be designed to improve conservation potential.
This module aims to introduce and demonstrate the nature and properties of soils in an environmental context. It will provide an introduction to soil formation, soil description (including field work), chemical and physical properties, and biology, which will lead to the application of soil science to a variety of practical problems. This module gives exciting grounding in the nature and importance of soils in context with wider environmental issues. As well as detailed knowledge of fine scale soil processes, students will learn interdisciplinary thinking that helps them connect different and complex strands of knowledge from around the earth system.
Students will be able to describe the nature and roles of soils in the environment, and will gain the level of understanding required to describe the nature and role of soils in the environment. Successful students will be able to give a basic account of soil chemical and physical properties, as well as soil biology, and will develop the ability to discuss applied aspects of soils, specifically nutrient recycling and carbon storage.
The placement dissertation provides you with experience of the workplace in a context that is relevant to your academic study. It enables you to take your academic knowledge and to experience at first hand how it can be applied in the workplace. You will also get to see how the requirements of a particular organisation influence the interpretation and implementation of academic knowledge. The placement thus provides a unique opportunity to study the ways in which the academic and commercial worlds intersect and to appreciate both the opportunities and constraints involved in applying geographical, environmental and biological knowledge in a real-world context. The experience will both enhance your academic knowledge and understanding and improve your employability in sectors relevant to your degree.
You will have the option of taking either a Dissertation or a Dissertation with External Partner. However, please note that students taking a Study Abroad year may not take this option, as the work placement element would clash with the year abroad.
With a focus on pre-colonial, colonial and post-colonial history, this module provides a focus on the representations of Africa, such as how the ‘dark continent’ has been portrayed in different cultural settings by the media, art, NGOs, governments and public. These representations will be compared and contrasted with, on the one hand, our own perceptions of Africa and, on the other hand, how Africans see themselves. Students will discover African reactions to racial stereotyping during colonial and post-colonial times, and will be introduced to the work of Frantz Fanon, as well as exploring the challenges, constraints and opportunities of rural communities, such as how they manage their livelihood, welfare, development and survival in response to a changing socio-political, economic and ecological environment.
Students will learn to demonstrate a concise understanding of the topic through examinations and coursework, and will develop practical skills such as debating and group discussion, with the aim to critically engage with current perceptions of Africa in newspapers, film, television, visual art, literature amongst other media. Additionally, the module will address the different approaches towards the subject from a Euro-American versus African perspective and will equip students with the ability to develop a detailed understanding of post-colonial theory as a critical lens to study contemporary challenges in Africa.
All cities are shaped by the flows and forces that connect them to other places. Whilst these connections enable cities to become vibrant and creative, this module will focus on a number of challenges that might arise from globalisation.
Students undertaking this module will develop spatial thinking whilst exploring a range of features including urban networks and politics, such as poverty, global change and security. The module will explore the cities’ resulting transformations through a combination of readings, lectures, group activities and fieldwork. The module will also present students an opportunity to compare the experiences of cities in different parts of the world.
This module explores climate change in the context of it being a ‘wicked problem’. The aim is to provoke students to look beyond the simple narratives pushed at us about climate change and to start to think critically as wicked problems require us to do. In doing so, students are invariably forced to abandon often naive assumptions about what can and can't be done to tackle climate related risks. Despite understanding climate change from the perspective of wicked, problems often lead to a sense of powerlessness.
This module employs debate and discussion as its primary learning devices. As a result, students will be expected to actively participate in debate, holding and developing their line of argument both in small groups and in class wide discussions and debates. The module also employs a group structure and activities to engender team working skills. Practical decision making is a theme running through the module supported by approximate quantitative analysis.
By the end of this module, students will recognise the role of societal and climate dynamics in climate change management, and will gain the necessary knowledge required to comprehend the basis of sustainable development arguments in the context of climate change management to be able to perform simple, yet meaningful evaluation of a range of climate related options. Further skills which can be gained from this module include the ability to distinguish the relative positions of adaptation, mitigation and geoengineering and to be able to argue between various options within each.
This module will address the major challenges facing tropical forest regions, such as deforestation, biodiversity loss and rural poverty. Students will spend eight days participating in field work in Brazil, where they will study topics in conservation and ecology, along with development. Whilst studying in the Jari region of the north-eastern Brazilian Amazon, students will engage with a range of research approaches necessary to address conservation and socio-economic issues, including biodiversity monitoring.
Students will be required to conduct social surveys in rural communities, and the module will address a range of literature from conservation science, tropical ecology, agricultural economics and sustainable development. They will analyse evidence based on ecological and well-being indicators, and will develop research ideas for monitoring social and ecological systems in tropical forest regions, making informed viewpoints from the point of view of diverse actors.
Additionally, the module will offer students an opportunity to develop critical arguments based on evidence from natural and social sciences. They will gain the ability to write effectively using a diverse evidence base, and will be able to critically evaluate international and national policies.
In this module, students will be shown how, through manipulation of species, communities and ecosystems, habitats can be managed in a sustainable way that preserves and enhances their aesthetic, scientific, recreational, and often utilitarian, value. The creation of new habitats will be considered, as well as management of existing areas of conservation interest. The module is largely taught by external lecturers who are directly involved in the application of ecological principles to practical problems.
Students will develop the level of ability required to describe the nature of selected habitat types, as well as explaining a series of underlying ecological processes which necessitate management. Students will also be able to identify the techniques used for conservation management specific to a range of habitat types, in addition to reinforcing a range of transferrable skills, such as the ability to present scientific data clearly and concisely, in both written and oral format. Students will learn to work autonomously as well as being involved in group work.
Information for this module is currently unavailable.
This interdisciplinary module draws on perspectives from Geography, Conservation Science, Archaeology and more to explore the past, present and future of Amazonia. You will cover a broad range of topics, including debates around the question of whether the Amazon is a pristine forest or a cultural artefact; deforestation and agricultural transitions; conservation and extractive reserves; mega-dams and environmental justice; rural-urban migration and future resilience of Amazonian socio-ecological systems. By the end you will have learnt to see the world’s largest rainforest and its people through a variety of lenses, and that almost everything you thought previously about the Amazon was wrong!
By illustrating the increasing importance of remotely-sensed data and how it extends our understanding of environmental processes, this module aims to provide students with an appreciation for the principles on which remote sensing systems operate and how we can derive useful environmental information from remotely sensed data. Students are required to compare the information provided by remote sensing to that from other means of sampling.
Essentially, the module will provide an introduction to the physical basis of remote sensing, electromagnetic radiation and its interactions with the Earth’s atmosphere and surface and the sensors and systems which are used to acquire data. Students will learn to recognise the increasing importance of remotely-sensed data in extending our knowledge of environmental processes, and will gain practical knowledge in a range of image processing techniques or remotely sensed imagery.
Food and Agriculture are part of our everyday life as individuals, have shaped our evolution as a species, and may even have been responsible for the beginning of the human-made epoch - the Anthropocene. This course brings critical social science perspectives to bear on a broad range of themes, including the ways in which famines are more to do with access to food than its scarcity; how our global food system produces both chronic malnourishment and obesity; the crisis caused by increasing meat and dairy consumption as countries develop; alternative agricultures and debates around food security; and the future of agriculture in both the UK and globally. This course includes a fieldtrip where you will visit examples of sustainable food projects in the local area.
This module covers both the principles of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and GIScience, and provides practical experience in the use of GIS using ArcGIS, a leading windows-based package. Students will engage with a number of theoretical issues, such as the problems of representing real world phenomena in GIS databases, and will consider emerging trends within the discipline such as WebGIS and the Open Source GIS movement. Lectures also explore the use of GI in government, commercial and academic sectors and related employment opportunities, and are complimented by a series of practical sessions in ArcGIS. Initial exercises are concerned with creating, manipulating and querying spatial data using the core functionality of the software, and subsequent exercises demonstrate more sophisticated forms of spatial analysis using a range of extension products including Spatial Analyst, Network Analyst and ArcScene.
Over the duration of the module, students are required to source their own data, conduct appropriate analyses and produce a project report. This combination of concepts, theories and practical experience provides students with the requisite skills to enter the graduate workplace, and they will learn how to explain how data may be modelled, captured, stored, manipulated and retrieved from within GIS. Additionally, the module will enhance students’ abilities in a range of areas, such as the design and implementation of a spatial database and appropriate forms of analysis, knowledge of the latest developments and emerging issues and trends in GIS and GISc.
Featuring 10 sessions each in lectures and seminars along with a day-long mini-conference, this module will cover approaches to health geography and health inequalities in the global north. There will be a focus on neighbourhoods and health, along with a look at health service provision and utilisation. Further topics will include mobilities of disease, as well as the merging and re-emerging of infections and neglected diseases, ageing and health.
Students will be presented with different theoretical and methodological approaches to understanding the role of space and place for health provision, health-seeking behaviour and health outcomes, and conceptual debates will be explored through a range of cases and current concerns in health geographies, both from the industrialised world and economically deprived countries. The module will enhance students’ ability to review key debates, as well as enabling them to develop analysis approaches to the role of space and place for health and appreciate the methods that underpin them. Students will also be presented an opportunity to apply their theoretical knowledge to specific health problems, across different scales and country cases.
This module takes a broad look at geological hazards, covering contemporary events, to those that have shaped the Earth over geological time. Specific hazards are addressed, including earthquakes and tsunamis, terrestrial and sub-marine landslides at a variety of differing scales, landslide triggering and principles of run-out, volcanic hazards (eruption styles, plumes and pyroclastic flows) and extreme events which civilisation has yet to witness.
The module explores in depth the fundamental processes involved, and to what extent events can be predicted. Case histories of national and international disasters will be used to illustrate these hazards, with the inherent risks and potential mitigation measures discussed. The module develops a sense of human-place in the geological world, promoting an understanding of how the geological world impacts human society, and what can be done to limit that impact.
Students will be able to describe and explain the processes responsible for the occurrence, recurrence and magnitude of geological hazards, and will gain the knowledge needed to evaluate hazard prediction methods. Additionally, students will gain a critical understanding of risk mitigation strategies, with reference to examples from around the world, and will gain the practical knowledge required to apply simple principles of analysis of slope failure using a variety of natural hazard situations. Students will also be able to demonstrate how simple probabilistic models may be applied to forecasting earthquakes, and discuss the uncertainties inherent in these techniques.
This module will give you an insight into the physical dynamics and ecological interactions within glacial systems. We begin with the concept of mass and surface energy balance, determining when and where snow and ice melt may occur. This determines how water flows through a glacier and introduces the concept of hydrological regime. We then study the implications that this has for glacial dynamics and the legacy of past glacial systems in the environment. Where ice sheets and glaciers overlie active volcanic systems there is currently very little understanding of how the two forces interact - does volcanic activity control glacier behaviour or is it the other way round? We introduce the concept of studying glaciers as ecosystems, rather than just physical systems in the landscape, and discuss recent advances in glacier hydrochemistry in the context of climatic change.
Students taking this module will reinforce a number of field skills, including field observation and recording. The module provides first-hand experience of glacial process and their impacts on and interactions with the dynamic tectonic landscape of Iceland. The module’s range of topics will include the ways in which glaciers interact with the surrounding landscape. This will involve observation, recording and understanding of geomorphological features and ice-volcanic interactions. Much of the learning will be of a practical nature, involving development of field observation and recording skills, mapping of geomorphological features in the landscape, logging of snowpack properties, observation and recording of glacial sedimentary features and properties.
The module provides a range of transferrable skills such as the ability to collect field data, and process and interpret the results. Students will effectively deploy practical, quantitative, communication and team work skills, and will learn to demonstrate an appreciation for the subject of glaciology and an enthusiasm for the study of physical geography based on first-hand experience of observing glacier landscape interactions within the field environment. Additionally, students will develop an appreciation for the fundamental principles of glaciology and understand how glaciers fit into the broader study of the physical environment, as well as gaining the ability to demonstrate an appreciation for the enquiry-based approach to learning in the field environment and understand how this can be used across disciplines and in the development of dissertation research questions.
The module will require students to make accurate recordings of field observations and data, integrate these with available published information, and present data and interpretations to their peer group and lecturers; whilst doing so, they will demonstrate independent, critical thinking, fostered through an approach of problem based learning. Among other knowledge, the module will provide an understanding of how glaciers operate and interact with the surrounding landscape, as well as the influence of volcanic activity on glacier dynamics.
The aim of this module is to introduce the concept of the Earth system and how the different components interact with each other to shape the Earth's climate and control how the climate might change. The module begins with underlying concepts that shape the Earth's, before considering natural and human drivers of climate change, including volcanoes, solar output, greenhouse gases and land use change. In addition, it will also introduce the computer models and global observation networks that scientists use to understand the Earth system as well as the IPCC process.
This module provides students with an introduction to the physical processes which influence global climate change, leading to a better understanding of Earth system science and give them a clear understanding of the Earth system and the human impacts on it, and how scientists investigate this area with Earth system model.
Students will gain the level of experience and knowledge necessary to demonstrate subject specific skills, such as how to calculate a global 2-compartment radiative budget, along with an understanding of the major parts of the Earth system and how they interact. Students will develop the communication skills required to describe what an Earth system model is, and will be able to explain pollutant sources and sinks.
This module will examine how biological understanding can contribute to “global change solutions” in respect to a number of key issues, including food production, biofuels and the continuing protection of the ozone layer. However, it will also place that biological understanding in its wider context, not least by considering how the same fundamental information on specific biological approaches can lead to diametrically opposed positions on the utility and desirability of actually using the biology (e.g. the debate around GM crops).
Students will examine how different interpretations of biological technology relate to the underlying biology, and will additionally benefit from a workshop that will consider the needs of “science communication” beyond the scientific community. The module will not only provide a detailed understanding of a range of “global change solutions”, it will also consider how biology is used (and abused?) in assessing climate change and the possible responses and solutions.
Successful students will be able to describe the biology of a range of examples of both responses to global change, and possible biology-based solutions to ameliorate those responses, and recognise the wider context of the underlying biology of global change effects and/or solutions, for example in policy or the practical deployment of new technologies. Students will develop their critical skills, enabling them to evaluate the biological evidence in relation to global change effects and solutions, and assess how such evidence is used to support sometimes diametrically opposed views specific issues. This module will enhance students’ ability to write effective, concise, accurate summaries of complex biological topics in styles appropriate for different audiences, e.g. the scientific community, policy makers or the general public.
This course is about understanding the sustainability challenges, issues and debates in moving towards a responsible form of global consumption. Through theoretical and practical learning based on both geographic and broader social science literature, we will analyse existing and prospective value chains in a critical fashion. We analyse contemporary debates over the possibilities for consumption to be sustainable. How do companies, government, producers and consumers negotiate consumption’s relationship with the environment, economic growth, justice and labour rights?
Topics investigated in more detail include Fair Trade, commodity chain analysis, the commodification of nature, and corporate social responsibility. In-class debates and learning will draw upon key theories and use a range of case studies and empirical material drawn from ‘real world’ examples and initiatives. These will be supplemented by a fieldtrip to Garstang (the world’s first ‘Fair Trade Town’) in order to see how ethical consumption can permeate across geographical scales and spaces.
This course is based at the Slapton Ley Field Studies Centre, South Devon in the summer and centres on a study of the hydrological processes governing nitrate eutrophication of Slapton Ley, a coastal freshwater lake of ecological significance. The course offers a unique opportunity to examine an actual environmental problem - eutrophication - through the integration of field measurements and laboratory analysis. Field measurements, in small groups, will combine qualitative observations with borehole hydraulic testing and some geophysics. Laboratory analysis will include contaminant breakthrough experiments, soil physical properties, nitrate chemistry and topography-based simulation modelling. Your understanding of the nitrate remediation measures will be reinforced through a field visit on 'Catchment Sensitive Farming' led by Natural England staff.
This module introduces the underpinning aspects of geophysical and remote sensing techniques used to investigate the Earth's surface and near surface. The techniques covered are illustrated by case studies demonstrating their advantages and limitations, for example, for the investigation of contaminated sites and sites suitable for exploitation (e.g. for minerals or for hydrothermal energy) and for monitoring hazardous regions such as volcanoes. The module delivers a synoptic view of active and passive techniques, seismic, gravity, magnetic, radar and electrical methods for sub-surface characterisation and GPS, radar and laser techniques for surface measurements. The techniques are linked through developing an understanding of measurements in terms of both spatial and temporal coverage and resolution.
Students will develop a range of skills necessary to describe the range of applications of geophysical measurements, and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of different geophysical and remote sensing techniques. Students will gain the practical experience required to assess appropriate measurement strategies for specific environmental problems and identify sources of geophysical measurement error. Additionally, students will be able to relate different geophysical measurements in terms of spatial and temporal coverage and resolution.
Join a discussion and debate where you are encouraged to critically examine primary literature and ideas on topical issues in conservation biology in the UK and globally. Gain an understanding of the key factors that constrain conservation and of the interdisciplinary nature of conservation problems in the real world.
This module focuses primarily on the physical (hydrodynamic, sedimentary and morphological) processes and phenomena that determine the nature of lakes, rivers and estuaries. It also explores their chemical (water quality) and biological (ecological health) characteristics and how these aspects are related. The module is centred on three pieces of written work on current topics in the research literature, and practical sessions in which data sets from each type of waterbody are investigated in order to understand how the underlying processes manifest themselves in real data. The learning gained in the practical sessions is assessed via a computer-based exam at the end of the module in which you are presented with data sets similar to those used in the practical sessions and asked to interpret them. Learning for both elements of the assessed work is supported via a series of eighteen lectures.
The three cornerstones of this module are a) understanding the sources, impacts of dispersal of particulate pollution, particularly from fossil fuel burning, b) interpreting climate change proxies, over the last 0.5 million years preserved in sediments with a focus on cold climates, and dust, and c) quantifying sediment tracing and sediment transfer mechanisms in modern catchment systems, for help in land management.
The main focus is on how we use magnetic minerals in the environment to address these three core problems, but we also consider additional supporting datasets. The coursework is based around an evaluation of sediment transfer in a Lake District catchment, using data from a one-day fieldtrip to the area, together with statistical analysis of a magnetic dataset from the catchment soils and the ultimate lake-sink for the catchment sediment.
This short-term field course offers students an opportunity to experience and engage, actively and critically, with the geography of New York city. Students will learn to apply theoretical ideas and knowledge learnt from previous modules in the context of New York, whilst reinforcing their awareness of cultural, political and social issues. The module will also equip students with the knowledge required to provide reflections based on first-hand experience of the complex fabric of life in New York, explaining this in terms of the writings of other academics.
Initially, students will attend a series of meetings, designed to set the context and expectations of the field course, whilst exploring key themes such as identity, inequality and difference. The meetings will also provide an opportunity to arrange project groups, and to discuss existing geographical literature on New York city.
Once preparation is complete, students will spend six nights in New York, where they may participate in activities such as visiting activist groups in different parts of the city, as well as exploring the ‘Ground Zero' site to reflect on local and global consequences and debates. Additionally, students will undertake self-planned group-based research work, and observational work of New York as a city of consumption. Activities are subject to change over time, but recent visits have provided opportunities to see Ellis Island, Statue of Liberty and the Tenement Museum, which has educated students about the history of migration and populating of the city, and shifting patterns of community identity. Trips may also feature 'Highline' linear park and the Lower East Side community gardens to examine forms of nature in the city, and subway transects will lead students through New York's different districts, in order to produce commentary of identity of areas and changes between them.
The Quaternary geological period has been a time of enormous environmental changes, on both a global and a local scale. The most obvious is the growth and decay of ice sheets in mid-latitudes, but this went hand in hand with many other changes throughout the globe. This module considers the big picture of global change in terms of six great interlinked themes of environmental change during the Quaternary: the growth and decay of ice sheets, the changing level of the sea, changes in atmospheric and oceanic circulation, terrestrial biological changes, human influences and the engine of the ice ages.
Students will learn the dramatic environmental and climatic changes which have occurred at global and regional scales over the Quaternary, and will gain the ability to summarise the possible drivers, both natural and anthropogenic, of such changes, as well as explain the techniques and resultant datasets that inform us of these changes. Additionally, they will illustrate the complex and non-linear nature of the Earth system responses to Milankovitch forcing, outlining the ramifications for our understanding and prediction of present and future climatic and environmental change. The module will also describe the paradigm shifts that have occurred over the last few decades in Quaternary science and will require students to correlate and interpret palaeoclimatic data, globally and regionally.
Modern resource-intensive agriculture has proved incredibly successful in delivering relatively abundant, cheap food (at least in the developed world), but sometimes at considerable environmental cost. Therefore the general public is usually keen to embrace "sustainable agriculture" but is generally unaware of the economic and food production costs of proposed changes in crop management. By emphasising the concept of crop resource use efficiency, this module focuses on the viability of less intensive agricultural systems.
Students will critically examine primary literature on topical issues concerning the sustainability of different agricultural systems. They will gain an understanding of the key factors constraining food production, and the environmental and food production consequences of different crop production systems.
In addition to gaining the ability to identify key issues affecting the sustainability of agriculture, students will critically appraise the literature on these issues, and will develop the skillset required to recognise the economic and societal problems constraining the adoption of more environmentally sustainable agriculture. Ultimately, students will gain the ability to discuss alternative scenarios and solutions for key environmental problems associated with agriculture and document said issues in a cogent and critical manner.
Radioactive contamination of our environment causes levels of concern unlike almost any other pollutant. In this module, students learn about the mechanisms by which radiation damages the body and the systems by which we measure and control exposure to radiation. They will then study the sources of naturally occurring radioactivity and radioactive contaminants to the environment and their behaviour in the environment, in order to better understand how people can become exposed. Students will develop their understanding and evaluation to the risk to human populations of accidents, such as Chernobyl and Fukushima.
Through the study of specific radiation-related case studies, students develop their understanding of risk in a wider context, thus being able to contribute more thoughtfully to nuclear-related debates in society. Students will practice and develop their numerical skills, through the determination of radioactive decay. Laboratory classes will be used to demonstrate concepts addressed in lectures, and students will be encouraged to put the data generated into the wider context.
By completing this module, students will demonstrate an ability to identify the sources of natural and artificial radionuclides in the environment, and explain the main processes by which radionuclides are distributed through the environment, illustrating them with examples. Practical experience will enable students to apply the principles of dose assessment to determine the impact of environmental exposure to radioactivity, whilst development of critical skills will allow students to evaluate the consequences of nuclear accidents.
This module builds on students’ current knowledge to develop a deeper understanding of the Earth's internal structure and dynamics, and interactions between surface and deep processes. Evidence from a variety of geophysical techniques is evaluated, including the rapidly developing field of seismic tomography, which produces fuzzy images of thermal and compositional anomalies such as mantle plumes and subducted lithospheric plates. Students will read a variety of journal articles as a basis for discussion of current theories and controversies about how the Earth works.
By completing this module, students will demonstrate a good understanding of the principles behind, and applications of, a variety of geophysical techniques in addition to an enhanced ability to compare, contrast and synthesise different types of evidence about how the Earth works. Students will also gain the necessary level of knowledge to be able to discuss and distinguish current theories and debates, such as the mantle plume controversy, and will learn to apply stereonets to determine earthquake focal mechanisms.
As the world becomes increasingly urbanised, so too does the power of urban infrastructure to shape the dynamics of cities and the experience of everyday life. Urban infrastructure is key to sustaining much that we take for granted, for example travel, food, water, energy, communications, and waste. It follows that changes to the way infrastructure is managed will impact both the city as a whole and the experience of everyday urban life. This module examines ways of understanding urban infrastructure as a ‘socio-technical assemblage’, a term that will become more familiar throughout the module. Using case studies from around the world you will engage with the changing pressures on infrastructure and the challenges of building resilient futures. You will learn through a combination of lectures, seminars, a workshop and field course activities.
This module expects students to apply a range of skills already developed in previous modules Geology, Natural Hazards, Geoscience in Practice and Geological Hazards. It allows students to improve their theoretical and practical knowledge of volcanic processes by studying the evolution of a basaltic volcano. Students will explore a wide range of the complex physical volcanic processes that take place both on the surface and beneath volcanoes, including lava flow emplacement, intrusive and explosive events. This problem-based learning module covers two levels of problems: the higher-level problem (e.g. understanding the plumbing system of a complex volcano or the role of ‘volcano spreading’ or slope instability in the evolution of volcanoes) will occupy the entire module. Lower level problems will be solved at a number of key localities where students will be expected to unravel the processes involved.
On completion of this module, students will express the ability to systematically observe and interpret field evidence for emplacement processes of volcanic rocks, along with gaining the knowledge required to describe the intrusive, effusive and explosive processes that take place during volcanic eruptions. Students will also demonstrate the ability to recognise the role of regional tectonics, gravitational deformation of the volcano and major slope instabilities on the evolution of basaltic volcanoes. The module will also prepare students with the level of practical knowledge necessary to explain the problems of dealing with volcanic hazards on heavily populated active volcanoes.
Water is fundamental to life and is therefore a critical natural resource for human society and for all ecosystems. Employers of graduates from a wide range of environment-orientated degrees increasingly value understanding of the frameworks and technologies through which water resources can be conserved and restored, alongside the interactions between water and other natural resources such as land. This module focuses on providing this understanding, drawing on a wide range of real-world examples from the UK water sector. Students will cover the major UK and European regulatory frameworks that currently drive water resource management, the technologies available to treat wastewater, the approaches used to assess chemical and biological water quality, and the links between agricultural and urban development and water quality. This learning will be reinforced by field visits to wastewater treatment works, and by practical work dealing with datasets collected by the Environment Agency of England and Wales.
Over the duration of the module, students will be required to apply standard Environment Agency statistical procedures to assess chemical water quality, along with applying standard Environment Agency procedures to evaluate biological water quality. The module will enhance students’ ability to identify the strategies for assessing and managing water quality in the UK, and they will be able to derive simple dilution models to describe pollutant concentrations in river networks. Finally, students will gain the knowledge required to be able to explain and describe the fundamentals of water treatment processes.
Students undertaking this module will learn about the human and physical aspects of the Mediterranean environment. The module will focus on the distribution, allocation and use of water, whilst exploring the ways in which land use or land management affect the water environment.
Students will learn about the physical constraints on water availability whilst analysing the role of government institutions and private companies in developing and managing water for a range of purposes.
By participating in a four-day field course, students will have the opportunity to experience the distinctive environmental, cultural and socioeconomic nature of the Istrian peninsula. Generally, the module is designed to develop students' independent and group-based skills and enhance their knowledge related to water, particularly in the Mediterranean environment.
Catchments are increasingly perceived as complex and highly interconnected systems. This presents significant difficulties for those who manage catchments, but also a range of novel and timely research opportunities. In this context, the module aims to provide you with understanding and practical experience of key research and management challenges facing the future management of catchments. The module will take the Eden catchment as a case study, and draw on the latest land and water management framework, derived from the Water Framework Directive, as a basis for discussion. After analysing this framework and identifying significant challenges, you will use a combination of field, laboratory and data analysis techniques to investigate research questions related to biophysical processes within catchments. These investigations will lead to an appreciation of the limits to current knowledge and the opportunities for future research.
This module aims to explore and reconfigure the ways in which climate change is understood through a focus on the social, rather than the scientific-environmental discourses that have dominated the policy and politics of climate change. This module give you a wide-ranging and intensive introduction to the politics, cultures and theories of climate change research in the social sciences and humanities. You will be able to critically evaluate different theoretical perspectives on a range of climate change debates and present alternative arguments.
A full first course in statistics and data analysis from a non-mathematical viewpoint. Covering both parametric and non-parametric methods, up to and including generalised linear models.
The module provides you with advanced scientific numeracy skills. The module focuses on data processing and visualisation for use with dissertation work. It includes introductory elements of Matlab and Simulink, currently a de facto visualisation and numerical processing industry standard. Some comparison to other programming languages, in particular Fortran and C, is provided. The main programming elements are introduced and used in examples: data input, processing, output in numerical and graphical forms, programming tools and structures(loops, conditional statements and other flow control). The course introduces selected principles of dynamic systems analysis such as transfer functions applied to environmental systems in the form of examples and case studies.
This module covers the possible positive and negative effects that various forms of renewable energy have on the environment. You will develop a critical understanding of the key concepts of renewable energy, and the tools and techniques for assessing the environmental impact of renewable energy schemes. In particular, you will be able to assess the challenges facing the development and deployment of large renewable energy schemes and the uncertainties related to their environmental impact.
This module provides you with a basic understanding of the principles, methods and practices of environmental auditing. The function of an environmental audit will be reviewed, along with the different types and methods for gathering audit evidence. Key environmental legislation affecting organisations in the UK will be reviewed, along with the use and design of Environmental Managment Systems (EMS) and also ISO standards for auditing and EMS.
This module will help you to develop a critical understanding of key concepts, principles, tools and techniques for the management of natural resources and the environment. Particular attention is given to the challenges of dealing with complexity, change, uncertainty and conflict in the environment and to the different management approaches which can be deployed in 'turbulent' conditions.
Food security is achieved when all people have access to an adequate supply of safe and nutritious food. Currently there are around one billion people who are inadequately fed and this number is likely to double in the next 30 years. In this module you will look at the food system and the range of issues that ultimately determine who eats what. It addresses issues contributing to variation in food availability, the access that people have to food and the different ways in which food is utilised, and you will examine ways in which crops accumulate biomass and undergo reproductive development. You will consider why crop plants are so sensitive to biotic and abiotic stress and why there is so much concern about the effects of climate change on food availability and food prices. The impact of the food production system on the environment is considered along with the tensions arising from our quest for both food security and energy security. Factors impacting food safety and quality are discussed. The approach to the study of these issues is interdisciplinary in nature. The course takes an international perspective on GFS (Global Food Security)
This module will introduce you to the fundamental principles of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and Remote Sensing and shows how these complimentary technologies may be used to capture/derive, manipulate, analyse and display different forms of spatially-referenced environmental data.
This module will introduce you to the fundamentals of geological hazards and the processes responsible. The module puts geological hazards in their context and includes issues of probabilistic and deterministic prediction, with linkage to response and preparedness issues, and issues of hazard monitoring techniques. The module addresses the fundamental processes and mechanism by which prediction geological of hazards can be understood. Specific hazards examined are seismic-based hazards, landslides, volcanic hazards and extreme geological events. These are considered at a variety of scales from big to small. Case studies will be explored and expanded in your own readings.
The aim of this module is to introduce the concept of the Earth system and how the different components (atmosphere, ocean, ice and ecosystems) all interact with each other to shape the Earth's climate and control how the climate might change. The module will cover issues related to recent climate change, including natural and human drivers of the change. It will introduce the computer models and global observation networks that scientists use to understand the Earth system. It will also discuss the role of atmospheric chemistry and climate in the Earth system, including issues related to air quality, greenhouse gases and aerosols.
Overall, this module aims to provide an introduction to the physical processes which influence global climate change, leading to a better understanding of Earth system science.
In this module you will be introduced to the principles of groundwater flow and transport and describe the various approaches for investigating groundwater systems. Challenges facing management of groundwater quantity and quality are outlined. Use is made of computer models to solve practical problems relevant to the water industry.
This module introduces you to the principles of lake ecology, an area with an acknowledged national lack of expertise. The module presents a holistic approach to the drivers and internal interactions that control water quality in lakes. You will learn basic ecological principles, elucidated using lake ecology, introduce application of state-of-the-art techniques and provide essential background information for anyone dealing with EU Directives such as the Water Framework Directive in the future.
This module provides an introduction to basic principles and approaches to computer-aided modelling of environmental processes with applications to real environmental problems such as catchment modelling, pollutant dispersal in rivers and estuaries and population dynamics. Emphasis is placed on the use of computer-based methods and practical examples and you will be introduced to general aspects of environmental systems modelling.
Having a basic level of numerical skill is required in order to perform well in many LEC PGT modules. This modules provides baseline numerical, statistical and mathematical skills to underpin academic modules and as an employability skill in its own right.
This module provides a theoretical foundation for the study of development and the environment from a geographical perspective. You will focus on understanding the ways in which scholars have brought together development theory with the analysis of nature-society relations in the majority world. You will be provided with a critical understanding of the evolution of contemporary development discourses and new ways of thinking about the relationships between environment and development.
This module aims to provide you with knowledge of volcanoes and volcanic systems. Its foundations are an understanding of the properties and behaviour of volcanic materials gained through laboratory, theoretical and field study. The module emphasizes the widely-applicable physical and chemical processes that occur during volcanic activity, including variations in solubility, rheology, phase, density and permeability. The interaction of volcanic processes with the biosphere, atmosphere and hydrosphere are discussed. The products of volcanism, together with the hazard and benefits to life on Earth are studied.
This module will provide you with a critical understanding of the research process and the main approaches, methods and techniques which are typically used for research. You will be prepared to undertake your own, independent research as part of your Masters degree and have developed a solid foundation for PhD research.
The aim of this module is to introduce you to key issues surrounding the ability of the soil to produce crops, and the agricultural / economic consequences of failing to manage this resource properly. Most agricultural production is dependent on the soil not only to anchor plants, but to supply their hydraulic and nutritional needs. Furthermore, the rhizosphere (soil adjacent to the root surface) is a biological hotspot comprising micro-organisms that can directly or indirectly assist crop nutrient acquisition (rhizobia, mycorrhizae and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria) or cause disease. Increasingly, the soil is being recognised as a global resource to aid carbon sequestration (even in agricultural systems) and/or act as repository for waste derived from other industries.
This module will allow you to improve your practical and theoretical knowledge of volcanic processes through a residential field course held on an active basaltic volcano. We start off with classroom sessions to introduce the field site and provide insight into some of the magmatic and tectonic processes involved. Then, in the field, you will visit key localities and unravel the complex links between magma properties and eruptive style. We will examine effusive (lavas) and explosive (tephra) products, and will discuss and observe the roles of dykes, fissures and conduits at first hand. The module is usually held on Mount Etna, Sicily, although the location may change in future years.
Lancaster University offers a range of programmes, some of which follow a structured study programme, and others which offer the chance for you to devise a more flexible programme. We divide academic study into two sections - Part 1 (Year 1) and Part 2 (Year 2, 3 and sometimes 4). For most programmes Part 1 requires you to study 120 credits spread over at least three modules which, depending upon your programme, will be drawn from one, two or three different academic subjects. A higher degree of specialisation then develops in subsequent years. For more information about our teaching methods at Lancaster visit our Teaching and Learning section.
Information contained on the website with respect to modules is correct at the time of publication, but changes may be necessary, for example as a result of student feedback, Professional Statutory and Regulatory Bodies' (PSRB) requirements, staff changes, and new research.
Geography graduates can achieve success in a variety of exciting careers. Recent examples of career opportunities have included entering the profession of Planning Officer, Environmental Consultant, Geographical Information Systems Officer, Weather Forecaster, Emergency Planner or Landscape Architect. Alternatively, many of our graduates choose to continue their studies to postgraduate level. Our goal is to empower all our graduates with the skills, confidence and experience they need to achieve a successful career. You will be offered a wide range of support, helping you realise your career ambitions and providing you with the skills to reach your full potential.
We offer a variety of extra-curricular activities and volunteering opportunities that enable you to explore your interests and enhance your CV. Our weekly careers bulletin and careers blogs are written by student volunteers, and inform you of all careers events. The Green Lancaster programme run by the Students Union offers placements with external organisations, allowing students to gain volunteering experience at weekends by working in the local community, taking part in a wide range of activities and developing their practical skills.
Lancaster University is dedicated to ensuring you not only gain a highly reputable degree, but that you also graduate with relevant life and work based skills. We are unique in that every student is eligible to participate in The Lancaster Award which offers you the opportunity to complete key activities such as work experience, employability/career development, campus community and social development. Visit our Employability section for full details.
We set our fees on an annual basis and the 2018/19 entry fees have not yet been set.
As a guide, our fees in 2017 were:
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Students will be required to pay for travel to field sites and will have to purchase wet weather clothing, boots and waterproof notebooks for fieldtrips for which the estimated cost is approximately £110. The course offers optional field trips and students will have to pay for any travel and accommodation costs. If students undertake placements then they may incur additional travel costs. Students on certain modules may wish to purchase a hand lens and compass clinometer but these may be borrowed from the Department.
Students also need to consider further costs which may include books, stationery, printing, photocopying, binding and general subsistence on trips and visits. Following graduation it may be necessary to take out subscriptions to professional bodies and to buy business attire for job interviews.
Average time in lectures, seminars and similar
Average assessment by coursework