Volume 2 (2) 2008


Andreas Musolff

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  • Over the past decade several studies have been published that investigate the metaphors employed in Nazi racist ideology from the combined perspectives of Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) and Cognitive Semantics.  The paper reviews these studies, and discusses their differences to earlier studies that were based on traditional rhetorical definitions of metaphor.  Particular attention is paid to comparisons between Hitler’s metaphors and recent discriminatory propaganda, as well as to the interpretation of such ideological metaphors as ‘viruses of the mind’, and to the relationship between Hitler’s use of the Great Chain of Being and classical versions of this concept.  In conclusion, it is argued that cognitively oriented CDA studies of metaphor use can contribute significantly not only to the conceptual reconstruction of metaphoric mappings but also to understanding their discursive history.

    1. Bosmajian, H.  (1983).  The Language of Oppression.  Lanham, MD.: University Press of America.
    2. Burke, K.  (1984).  The rhetoric of Hitler’s ‘battle’.  M. Shapiro (ed.).  Language and Politics.  Oxford: Blackwell.   pp. 61-80.   Originally in The Southern Review 5 (1939/40): 1-21.
    3. Charteris-Black, J.  (2004).  Corpus Approaches to Critical Metaphor Analysis.  Basingstoke: Palgrave-Macmillan.
    4. Charteris-Black, J.  (2005).  Politicians and Rhetoric.  The Persuasive Power of Metaphor.  Basingstoke: Palgrave-Macmillan.
    5. Chilton, P. (2005).  Manipulation, memes and metaphors: The case of Mein Kampf.  In L. de Saussure and P. Schulz (eds.),  Manipulation and Ideologies in the Twentieth Century.  Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins.  pp. 5-45.
    6. Dawkins, R.  (1989).  The Selfish Gene.  (New edition).  Oxford/New York: Oxford University Press.
    7. Dawkins, R.  (1999).  The Extended Phenotype.  The Long Reach of the Gene.  Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    8. Deissler, D.  (2003).  ‘The Nazis may almost be said to have ‘invented’ a new German language’.  Der anglo-amerikanische Diskurs über nationalsozialistischen Sprachgebrauch im Zweiten Weltkrieg und in der Besatzungszeit.  Germanistische Linguistik 169-170 (2003), 319-337. 
    9. Fauconnier, G.  and Turner, M.  (2002).  The Way We Think: Conceptual Blending and the Mind’s  Hidden Complexities.  New York: Basic Books.   
    10. Goatly, A.  (2007).  Washing the Brain.  Metaphor and Hidden Ideology.  Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
    11. Gould, S.  J.  (2000).  Wonderful Life.  The Burgess Shale and the Nature of History.  London: Vintage.
    12. Grady, J., Oakley, T.  and Coulson, S.  (1999).  Blending and metaphor.  In R.W. Gibbs and G. Steen (eds.), Metaphor in Cognitive Linguistics.   Amsterdam: John Benjamins.  pp. 101-124.
    13. Hart, C.  (2007).  Critical discourse analysis and conceptualisation: Mental spaces, blended spaces and discourse spaces in the British National Party.   In C. Hart and D. Lukeš (eds.), Cognitive Linguistics in Critical Discourse Analysis: Application and Theory.  Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.  pp. 107-131.
    14. Hawkins, B.  (2001).  Ideology, metaphor and iconographic reference.  In R. Dirven, R. Frank and C. Ilie (eds.), Language and Ideology.  Volume II: Descriptive Cognitive Approaches.  Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins.  pp. 27-50.
    15. Hitler, A.  (1933).  Mein Kampf.  Munich: Verlag Franz Eher. 
    16. Hitler, A.  (1992).  Mein Kampf.  Translated by R.  Manheim.  With an Introduction by D. Cameron Watt.  London: Pimlico.  (Translation originally published in 1943, Boston: Houghton Mifflin).
    17. Jäckel, E.  (1981).  Hitler’s Worldview: A Blueprint for Power.  Translated from the German by Herbert Arnold.  Foreword by F.L. Ford.  Cambridge, MA.: Harvard University Press.
    18. Jones, S.  (2000).  The Language of the Genes: Biology, History and the Evolutionary Future.  Revised Edition.  London: Flamingo.
    19. Lakoff, G.  (1993).  The contemporary theory of metaphor.  In A. Ortony (ed.), Metaphor and Thought.  2nd edn.  Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.  pp. 202-251.
    20. Lakoff, G.  (1996).  Moral Politics: What Conservatives Know That Liberals Don’t.  Chicago & London: University of Chicago Press.
    21. Lakoff, G.  (2004).  Don’t Think of an Elephant! Know Your Values and Frame the Debate.  The essential guide for progressives.  White River Junction, VT.: Chelsea Green Publishing Company.
    22. Lakoff, G.  and Turner, M.  (1989).  More than Cool Reason.  A Field Guide to Poetic Metaphor.  Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press.
    23. Lovejoy, A.  O.  (1936).  The Great Chain of Being.  A Study of the History of an Idea.  Cambridge, MA.: Harvard University Press.
    24. Michael, R.  and Doerr, K.  (2002).  Nazi-Deutsch/Nazi German: An English Lexicon of the Third Reich.  Westport CT: Greenwood Press.
    25. Musolff, A.  (2005).  Genetic information as part of the ‘Great Chain of Being’.  metaphorik.de 8: 52-70. 
    26. Musolff, A.  (2007).  Which role do metaphors play in racial prejudice?  The function of anti-Semitic imagery in Hitler’s ‘Mein Kampf’.  Patterns of Prejudice 41 (1): 21-44.
    27. Niven, W.  (2002).  Facing the Nazi Past: United Germany and the Legacy of the Third Reich.  London: Routledge.
    28. Rash, F.  (2005a).  A Database of Metaphors in Adolf Hitler’s Mein Kampf.  http://www.qmul.ac.uk/%7Emlw032/Metaphors_Mein_Kampf.pdf.  (accessed: 2 April 2007).
    29. Rash, F.  (2005b).  Metaphor in Hitler’s Mein Kampf.  metaphorik.de 9: 74-111. 
    30. Rash, F.  (2006).  The Language of Violence.  Adolf Hitler’s Mein Kampf.  New York: Peter Lang.
    31. Sperber, D.  (1996).  Explaining Culture: A Naturalistic Approach.  Oxford: Blackwell. 
    32. Sperber, D.  (ed.) (2000).  Metarepresentations.  Oxford: Oxford University Press.   
    33. Steiner, G.  (1979).  The hollow miracle.  In Language and Silence.  Essays 1958-1966.  Harmondsworth: Penguin.  pp. 136-151.  First published in 1959.
    34. Tillyard, E.M.W.  (1982).  The Elizabethan World Picture.  Harmondsworth: Penguin.
    35. Weikart, R.  (2004).  From Darwin to Hitler.  Evolutionary Ethics, Eugenics, and Racism in Germany.  Basingstoke: Palgrave-Macmillan.


William R. Crawley & Lynnea J. Dehaan

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  • This study will address the motivations and incentives involved in the attempted cessation of drug abusing behaviors from the perspective of the user. The study used qualitative interviewing techniques based on 2005-2006 data to examine urban current drug users, who had been diagnostically identified as ‘in need’ of treatment, and who had recently renounced the use of drugs by expressing their desire to quit through the use of language. It was this language (vocabulary) that was examined for similarities and differences in their use of justification techniques in order to establish a typology based on their vocabulary of quitting.

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    3. Baumer, T.  L.  1998.   Assessing the need for treatment in the arrestee population.   Journal of Crime and Justice 21 (2): 173-189.
    4. Carey, K., Purnine, D., Maisto, S.  and Carey, M.  (2002).   Correlates of stages of change for substance abuse among psychiatric outpatients.   Psychology of Addictive Behaviors 16 (4): 283-289.
    5. Conrod, P., Stewart, S., Pihl, R., Cote, S., Fontaine, V.  and Dongier, M.  (2000).  Efficacy of brief coping skills interventions that match different personality profiles of female substance abusers.   Psychology of Addictive Behaviors 14 (3): 231-242.
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    8. Downey, L., Rosengren, D.  and Donovan, D.  (2001).   Sources of motivation for abstinence:  A replication analysis of the reasons for quitting questionnaire.   Addictive Behaviors 26: 79-89. 
    9. Erickson, B.H.  (1979).  Some problems of inference from chain data.   Sociological Methodology 10: 276-302.
    10. Glaser, B.G.  and Strauss, A.L.  (1967).   The Discovery of Grounded Theory: Strategies for Qualitative Research.  Chicago, IL: Aldine.
    11. Hansen, W.  and McNeal, R.  (2001).  Self-initiated cessation from substance use: A longitudinal study of the relationship between postulated mediators and quitting.   Journal of Drug Issues 31 (4): 957-976.
    12. Heckathorn, D.D.  (1997).  Respondent driven sampling: A new approach to the study of hidden populations.  Social Problems 44: 174-199.
    13. Heckathorn, D.D.  (2002).  Respondent-driven sampling II: Deriving valid population estimates from chain-referral samples of hidden populations.   Social Problems 49 (1): 11-34.
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    17. Kelly, K., Comello, M.L.  and Edwards, R.  (2004).  Attitudes of rural middle-school youth toward alcohol, tobacco, drugs, and violence.   The Rural Educator Spring: 19-24.
    18. MacKellar, D.A., Valleroy, L.A., Karon, J.M., Lemp, G.F.  and Janssen, R.S.  (1996).  The young men’s survey: Methods for estimating HIV seroprevalence and risk factors among young men who have sex with men.   Public Health Reports 111 (Supplement): 138-144.
    19. McBride, C., Curry, C., Stephens, R., Wells, E., Roffman, R.  and Hawkins, D.  (1994).  Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation for change in cigarette smokers, marijuana smokers, and cocaine users.   Psychology of Addictive Behaviors 8 (4): 243-250.
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    21. Mills, C.W.  (1940).  Situated actions and vocabularies of motive.   American Sociological Review 5 (6): 904-913.
    22. Peters, R.H., Greenbaum, P.E.,  Edens, J.F.,  Carter, C.R.  and Ortiz, M.M.  (1998).  Prevalence of DSM-IV substance abuse and dependence disorders among prison inmates.   American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse 24 (4): 573-587.
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    24. Scully, D.  (1991).  Understanding Sexual Violence: A Study of Convicted Rapists.  London: Harper Collins Academic.
    25. Scully, D.  and Marolla, J.  (1984).   Convicted rapists’ vocabulary of motive: Excuses and justifications.   Social Problems 31 (5):  530-544.
    26. Sklar, S.  and Turner, N.  (1999).   A brief measure for the assessment of coping self-efficacy among alcohol and other drug users.   Addiction 94 (5): 723-729.
    27. Stephens, R., Roffman, R.  and Simpson, E.  (1993).  Adult marijuana users seeking treatment.   Journal of Counseling and Clinical Psychology 61 (6): 1100-1104.
    28. Stotts, A., DeLaune, K., Schmitz, J.  and Grabowski, J.  (2004).  Impact of a motivational intervention on mechanisms of change in low-income pregnant smokers.   Addictive Behaviors 29: 1649-1657.
    29. Sykes, G.  and Matza, D.  (1957).   Techniques of neutralization.   American Sociological Reviews 22 (6): 664-670.
    30. Toneatto, T., Sobell, L., Rubel, E.  and Sobell, M.  (1999).  Natural recovery from cocaine dependence.   Psychology of Addictive Behaviors 13 (4): 259-268.
    31. US Census Bureau (2004).  US Census Data.  Washington, DC: US Census Bureau, Population Division.
    32. Vaughn, C.  and Long, W.  (1999).   Surrender to win: How adolescent drug and alcohol users change their lives.   Adolescence 34 (133): 9-24. 
    33. Wong, C., Anthony, S., Sigmon, S., Mongeon, J., Badger, G.  and Higgins, S.  (2004).  Examining interrelationships between abstinence and coping self-efficacy in cocaine-dependent outpatients.   Experimental and Child Psychopharmacology 12 (3): 190-199.
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Antonio Reyes-Rodriguez

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  • This paper focuses on the linguistic representations of war and their implications; it examines how war is linguistically and rhetorically justified or rejected (Butt, Lukin and Matthiessens 2004).  I propose the theoretical notion of a ‘Rational Decision Filter’ that allows us to understand the tone and intentions of the U.S.  administration (Bhatia 2006), expressed through lexical choices (Caldas-Coulthard 2003).  I analyze several U.S.  presidents’ speeches to observe the characteristics of their discourses when dealing with ‘enemies’ and show how a rational filter applies to legitimate or avoid confrontation.  I describe strategies of legitimatization or de-legitimatization and their emotive effects (Chilton 2004).  The arguments employed to justify war against Afghanistan and Iraq (lack of freedom, lack of democracy, totalitarian regimes, possession of mass destruction weapons …etc) were also applicable to other well-known nations in the world like the Soviet Union, China and North Korea.  However, the U.S.  administrations’ declarations barely refer to those regimes.  Furthermore, this paper accounts for the U.S.  administrations’ intentional elusion (Galasinski 2000) of these regimes when addressing a ‘foreign enemy’ in speech.  I intend to describe when and why these elusions are latent.  When the outcome of the ‘Rational Decision Filter’  is the physical war, politicians often use a device to create emotions of fear and rejection: ‘Explicit Emotional Enumeration’.  I present this theoretical notion as a tool to analyze political discourse.


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    2. Billig, M.  and MacMillan, K.  (2005).  Metaphor, idiom and ideology: The search for ‘no Smoking Guns’ across time.  Discourse & Society, 16(4): 459-480. 
    3. Butt, D., Lukin, A.  and Matthiessen, C.M.I.M.  (2004).  Grammar – The first covert operation of war.  Discourse & Society 15: 267-290.
    4. Caldas-Coulthard, C.R.  (2003) Cross-cultural representation of ‘Otherness’ in media discourse.  In G.  Weiss and R.  Wodak (eds.).  Critical Discourse Analysis: Theory and Interdisciplinarity.  New York: Palgrave Macmillan.  pp.  272-297.
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    23. Reisigl, M.  and Wodak, R.  (2001).  Discourse and Discrimination: Rhetorics of Racism and Antisemitism.  London: Routledge.
    24. Richardson, J.  (2004).  (Mis)Representing Islam: The Racism and Rhetoric of British Broadsheet Newspapers.  Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
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    26. Said, E.  (1995).  Peace and Its Discontents: Essays on Palestine in the Middle East Peace Process.  Preface by Christopher Hitchens.  New York: Vintage. 
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    34. Wodak, R.  (2002).  Discourse and politics: The rhetoric of exclusion.  In R.  Wodak and A.  Pelinka (eds.), The Haider Phenomenon in Austria.  New Brunswick/ London: Transaction.  pp.  33-60.
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John M. Kobia

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  • Since the emergence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (herein refered in this essay throughout as HIV/AIDS) epidemic in Kenya in the 1980s, studies on the same are numerous (Kwena 2004, NACC 2005, Achoka 2007). Quite a number of studies have been done on metaphor (Lakoff & Johnson 1980, Sontag 1989, Goatly 1997, Kovecses 2002, Charteris-Black 2004, Machakanja 2006). Since the first case of HIV/AIDS was reported in Kenya in 1984, many allusions and metaphors have been created and used by various speech communities to communicate the message on the pandemic. However, scholarly studies on metaphors used in relation to HIV/AIDS in general, if any, are very few. As far as the researcher is concerned, studies on metaphors related to HIV/AIDS among Oluluyia speakers of Western Kenya, in particular have been lacking. The abundance of utterances conveying metaphors used in reference to HIV/AIDS and related issues in Oluluyia is a sociolinguistic-cum-discourse analytical issue that calls for investigation. This essay, analyses language used in relation to HIV/AIDS and related issues among the Oluluyia speakers of Western Kenya.

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    2. Black, M. (1979). More on Metaphor. In: A. Ortony (ed). Metaphor and Thought. (pp 1-18). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
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    6. Cienki, A. (2005) Researching Conceptual Metaphors that (may) Underline Political Discourse. Available online at, www.eis.bris.ac.uk/~potfc/Granada/Papers/Cienki.pdf, Accessed 20th September 2007.
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Steffi Retzlaff & Stefan Gänzle

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  • This paper analyses the representation of the EU in Canadian print media focusing in particular on the EU’s 50th anniversary in March 2007. Assuming that the ways by which the European Union (EU) is being construed by the world media co-determines the EU’s role and, probably, its effectiveness as an international actor, we apply this hypothesis to the case of Canada. By utilising Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) as our methodological tool, this paper analyses the reception and representation of the EU in Canadian print media, and further unveils the discursive strategies employed by different media outlets.

    1. Agence France-Presse (2007) Ordinary folks find belonging to EU difficult to swallow. Montreal Gazette. March 25: 4.
    2. Agreement on Commercial and Economic Cooperation, 1976, http://www.delcan.cec.eu.int/en/eu_and_canada/official_documents/instruments/eu-ca_acec_1976.shtml (01.10.2007).
    3. Ash, T. G. (2007) The EU’s midlife crisis. Globe and Mail. March 23: 23.
    4. Associated Press. (2007) Let’s try again on Constitution, Merkel urges. Montreal Gazette. March 25: 4.
    5. Bell, Allan. (1991) Language of the News Media. Oxford: Blackwell.
    6. Barry, D. (2004) Toward a Canada-EU Partnership? In P.M. Crowley (ed.), Crossing the Atlantic: Comparing the European Union and Canada. London: Ashgate.
    7. Carey, S. (2002) Undivided Loyalties. Is National Identity an Obstacle to European Integration? European Union Politics 3 (4): 387-413.
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