Volume 10 (2) 2018


Gabrielle Meagher & David P. Wilkins

Download Full Text | Download Appendices

  • This paper has two aims: to contribute to understanding of the role that private providers in social care markets play in social policy-making, and to present a method that enables systematic identification of themes in large bodies of policy-relevant digitized documents. We pursue these aims through corpus-assisted analysis of submissions by providers (non-profit, for-profit and professional) to an Australian inquiry into aged care policy in 2010-11. We show how quantitative methods from corpus linguistics can be used to identify themes, at the level of the word, phrase and construction, and outline how this form of analysis can support critical discourse analysis in the qualitative interpretive tradition. Our analysis reveals clear differences in how the three groups frame policy ‘problems’ and their ‘solutions’, and that these framings align broadly with their interests. We find evidence of a ‘market frame’ in the For-profit sub-corpus, an ‘advocacy frame’ in the Non-profit sub-corpus, and a ‘professionalism frame’ in the Professional sub-corpus. We also find some important commonalities between the provider groups, which raise questions for further research about internal diversity within these groups and about the interaction between regulation, system structure, and organizational interests.

      1. Alexander, R.J. (2013). Shaping and misrepresenting public perceptions of ecological catastrophes: The BP Gulf Oil spill. Critical Approaches to Discourse Analysis across Disciplines 7(1): 1-18.
      1. Aulich, C. (2011). It’s not ownership that matters: it’s publicness. Policy Studies 32(3): 199-213.
      1. Baker, P., Hardie, A., and McEnery, T. (2006). A Glossary of Corpus Linguistics. Edinburgh: University of Edinburgh Press.
      1. Béland, D. (2005). Ideas and social policy: an institutionalist perspective. Social Policy & Administration 39(1): 1-18.
      1. Bevitori, C. (2016). ‘In a world of complex threats…’: Discourses of in/security in the State of the Union address (1790-2014). A diachronic corpus-assisted study. Critical Approaches to Discourse Analysis across Disciplines 8(2): 19-36
      1. Billis, D. and Glennerster, H. (1998). Human services and the voluntary sector: towards a theory of comparative advantage. Journal of Social Policy 27(1): 79-98.
      1. Blank, R. (2000). When can public policy makers rely on private markets? The effective provision of social services. The Economic Journal 110(462): 34-49.
      1. BNC (2010). What is the BNC? BNC (British National Corpus) Consortium, Oxford.
      1. Bondi, M. (2010). Perspectives on keywords and keyness: an introduction. In M. Bondi, and M. Scott (eds.), Keyness in Texts. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.. pp. 1-18.
      1. Bondi, M., and Scott, M. (eds.) (2010). Keyness in Texts. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
      1. Braithwaite, J., Makkai, T., and Braithwaite, V.A. (2007). Regulating Aged Care: Ritualism and the New Pyramid. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing.
      1. Brennan, D., Cass , B., Himmelweit, S. and Szebehely, M. (2012). The marketisation of care: Rationales and consequences in Nordic and liberal care regimes. Journal of European Social Policy 22(5): 377-391.
      1. Church, K. and Hanks, P. (1990). Word association norms, mutual information, and lexicography. Computational Linguistics 16(1): 22-29.
      1. Commonwealth of Australia (2005). Report on the Operation of the Aged Care Act 1997: 1 July 2004 to 30 June 2005. Canberra: Commonwealth of Australia. Available: https://www.gen-agedcaredata.gov.au/www_aihwgen/media/ROACA/2004-05-ROACA.pdf. Accessed 09 Sept 2018.
      1. De Candia, S., Spinzi, C. and Venuti, M. (2013). ‘I don’t know the answer to that question’: A corpus-assisted discourse analysis of White House press briefings. Critical Approaches to Discourse Analysis across Disciplines 7(1): 66-81.
      1. Department of Health and Ageing (2008). Ageing and Aged Care in Australia. Canberra: Department of Health and Ageing.
      1. Department of Health and Ageing (2009). Report on the operation of the Aged Care Act 1997: 1 July 2008 to 30 June 2009. Canberra: Department of Health and Ageing. Available: https://www.gen-agedcaredata.gov.au/www_aihwgen/media/ROACA/2008-09-ROACA.pdf. Accessed 09 Sept 2018.
      1. Department of Health and Ageing (2010). Report on the Operation of the Aged Care Act 1997: 1 July 2009 to 30 June 2010. Canberra: Department of Health and Ageing. Available: https://www.gen-agedcaredata.gov.au/www_aihwgen/media/ROACA/2009-10-ROACA.pdf. Accessed 09 Sept 2018.
      1. Department of Social Services (2013). Report on the operation of the Aged Care Act 1997: 1 July 2012 to 30 June 2013. Canberra: Department of Social Services. Available: https://www.gen-agedcaredata.gov.au/www_aihwgen/media/ROACA/2012-13-ROACA.pdf. Accessed 09 Sept 2018.
      1. Department of Social Services (2016). Report on the operation of the Aged Care Act 1997: 1 July 2015 to 30 June 2016. Canberra: Department of Social Services. Available: https://www.gen-agedcaredata.gov.au/www_aihwgen/media/ROACA/2015-16-ROACA.pdf. Accessed 09 Sept 2018.
      1. Dunning, T. (1993). Accurate methods for the statistics of surprise and coincidence. Computational Linguistics 19(1): 61-74.
      1. Fairclough, N. (2013). Critical discourse analysis and critical policy studies. Critical Policy Studies 7(2): 177-197.
      1. Farnsworth, K. and Holden, C. (2006). The business-social policy nexus: Corporate power and corporate inputs into social policy. Journal of Social Policy 35(3): 473-494.
      1. Firth, J.R. (1957). A synopsis of linguistic theory 1930-1955. In J.R. Firth (ed.), Studies in Linguistic Analysis. Oxford: Philological Society. pp. 1-32.
      1. Fitzgerald, S. (2017). Murderers, moonwalkers and markets: A corpus based critical discourse analysis of the International Baccalaureate (IB) in Canadian newspapers. Critical Approaches to Discourse Analysis across Disciplines 9(1): 1-26.
      1. Freidson, E. (2001). Professionalism: The Third Logic. University of Chicago Press: Chicago.
      1. Ghachem I. (2015) A sociocognitive approach to agency framing in David Cameron’s 2010 pre-election discourse. Critical Approaches to Discourse Analysis across Disciplines 7(2): 263-282
      1. Gingrich, J.R. (2011). Making Markets in the Welfare State: The Politics of Varying Market Reforms. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
      1. Grimmer, J., and Stewart, B.M. (2013). Text as data: The promise and pitfalls of automatic content analysis methods for political texts. Political Analysis 21(3): 267-297.
      1. Groom, N. (2005). Pattern and meaning across genres and disciplines: an exploratory study. Journal of English for Academic Purposes 4(3): 257-277.
      1. Grundmann, R. and Krishnamurthy, R. (2010). The discourse of climate change: a corpus-based approach. Critical Approaches to Discourse Analysis across Disciplines 4(2): 125-146.
      1. Henriksen, L., Smith, S. and Zimmer, A. (2012). At the eve of convergence? Transformations of social service provision in Denmark, Germany, and the United States. Voluntas 23(2): 458-501.
      1. Hillard, D., Purpura, S. and Wilkerson, J. (2008). Computer-assisted topic classification for mixed-methods social science research. Journal of Information Technology & Politics 4(4): 31-46.
      1. Hoey, M. (1991). Patterns of Lexis in Texts. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
      1. Hopkins, D.J. and King, G. (2010). A method of automated nonparametric content analysis for social science. American Journal of Political Science 54(1): 229-247.
      1. Hunston, S. (2003). Lexis, word form and complementation pattern: a corpus study. Functions of Language 10(1): 31-60.
      1. Klenk, T. (2011). Ownership change and the rise of a for-profit hospital industry in Germany. Policy Studies 32(3): 263-275.
      1. Knutsen, W.L. (2013). Value as a self-sustaining mechanism: why some nonprofit organizations are different from and similar to private and public organizations. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly 42(5): 985-1005.
      1. Le Grand, J. (1991). Quasi-markets and social policy. The Economic Journal 101(408): 1256-1267.
      1. Marko, G. (2010). Heart disease and cancer, diet and exercise, vitamins and minerals: the construction of lifestyle risks in popular health discourse. Critical Approaches to Discourse Analysis across Disciplines 4(2): 147-170
      1. Means, R. (2012). A brave new world of personalized care? Historical perspectives on social care and older people in England. Social Policy & Administration 46(3): 302-320.
      1. Mosley, J.E. (2011). Institutionalization, privatization, and political opportunity: what tactical choices reveal about the policy advocacy of human service nonprofits. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly 40(3): 435-457.
      1. Needham, C. (2011). Personalization: from story-line to practice. Social Policy & Administration 45(1): 54-68.
      1. Parsons, C. (2002). Showing ideas as causes: the origins of the European Union. International Organization 56(1): 47-84.
      1. Pieper, J. (2018) New Private Sector Providers in the Welfare State. Cham: Palgrave Macmillan.
      1. Prasser, S. (2006). Providing advice to government. Senate Occasional Lecture Series. Canberra: Parliament House. Available: https://www.aph.gov.au/sitecore/content/Home/About_Parliament/ Senate/Powers_practice_n_procedures/pops/pop46/providingadvice. Accessed 09 Sept 2018.
      1. Productivity Commission (2010). Caring for Older Australians: Issues Paper. Canberra: Productivity Commission.
      1. Productivity Commission (2012). The public inquiry process. Australian Government. [online]. Available: https://web.archive.org/web/20121009042856/http://www.pc.gov.au:80/about-us/inquiry -process. Accessed 09 Sept 2018.
      1. Rein, M., and Schön, D. (1993). Reframing political discourse. In F. Fischer, and J. Forester (eds.), The Argumentative Turn in Policy Analysis and Planning. Durham and London: Duke University Press. pp. 145-166.
      1. Scott, M. (2004). WordSmith Tools. Version 4.0. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
      1. Sherry, N. (2010). Joint Media Release with The Hon Justine Elliot MP Minister for Ageing: Productivity Commission Inquiry into Aged Care. Parliament House Canberra. Available: http://webarchive.nla.gov.au/gov/20130907102130/http://www.quitnow.gov.au/internet/ministers/publishing.nsf/Content/mr-yr10-je-je030.htm?OpenDocument&yr=2010&mth=04. Accessed 09 Sept 2018.
      1. Stubbs, M. (2010). Three concepts of keywords. In M. Bondi, and M. Scott (eds.), Keyness in Texts. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. pp. 21-42.
      1. Unger, B., van der Linde, D., and Getzner, M. (2017). Public or Private Goods? Redefining Res Publica. Edward Elgar, Cheltenham.
    1. Van Gorp, B. (2007). The constructionist approach to framing: bringing culture back in. Journal of Communication 57(1): 60-78.


Adel Shakour & Abdallah Tarabeih

Download Full Text

  • The article discusses the rhetorical strategies of the Palestinian poet Mahmoud Darwish (1941-2008) and the politician and Israeli Parliament member Ahmed Tibi with regard to Holocaust remembrance. The article compares the rhetorical strategies that these writers use to express messages linked to the Holocaust. The main questions examined in the article are: How should we characterize the construction of the ethos and different types of topoi in their rhetoric, and is there a difference between their rhetorical strategies in the context of Holocaust remembrance, bearing in mind that both are considered anti-Zionists?

      1. Abadi, A. (1998). Source domains of metaphors in political discourse. Helkat Lashon 26: 56-67. (Hebrew).
      1. Amossy, R. (2001). Ethos at the crossroads of disciplines: Rhetoric, pragmatics, sociology. Poetics Today 22(1): 1-23.
      1. Aristotle (1973). Prior Analytics (H. Cooke and H. Tredennick, trans.). London: Loeb Classical Library.
      1. Aristotle (2002). Rhetoric / Aristotle (Z. Gabriel, trans.). Tel Aviv: Sifriyat Poalim. (Hebrew).
      1. Austin, J. (2006). How to Do Things with Words (G. Elgat, trans.). Tel Aviv: Resling. (Hebrew).
      1. Ben Porat, Y. (1999). Talks with Ahmad Tibi. Tel Aviv: Sifriyat Poalim. (Hebrew).
      1. Berggren, D. (1962). The use and abuse of metaphor. Review of Metaphysics 16(2): 237-258.
      1. Berggren, D. (1963). The use and abuse of metaphor. Review of Metaphysics 16(3): 450-472.
      1. Bourdieu, P. (1991). Language and Symbolic Power (G. Raymond and M. Adamson, trans.). Cambridge: Polity Press.
      1. Darwish, M. (2001). Articles and Dialogues. Kafr Qara: Dar Elhouda. (Arabic).
      1. Darwish, M. (2015). Fifty Years of Poetry (R. Snir, trans.). Tel Aviv: Keshev. (Hebrew).
      1. Darwish, M. and S. Al-Kassem (1989). The Letters. Haifa: Arabesque Publishing House. (Arabic).
      1. Dascal, M. and E. Weizman (1987). Contextual exploitation of interpretation clues in text understanding: An integrated approach. In M.J. Verschueren and M. Bertucceli Papi (eds.), The Pragmatic Perspective. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. pp. 31-46.
      1. Ducrot, O. (1984). Le Dire et le Dit. Paris: Minuit.
      1. Eco, U. (2006). Turning Back the Clock: Hot Wars and Media Populism. London: Vintage.
      1. Gavriely-Nuri, D. (2009). Friendly fire: war-normalizing metaphors in the Israeli political discourse. Journal of Peace Education 6(2): 153-169.
      1. Gavriely-Nuri, D. (2011). War metaphors as women’s business. Panim 56: 93. (Hebrew).
      1. Gitay, Y. (2010). The rhetoric of Knesset member Ahmad Tibi in his International Holocaust Remembrance Day address. Israel Studies in Language and Society 3(2): 129-145. (Hebrew).
      1. Hart, C. (2010). Critical Discourse and Cognitive Science: New Perspectives on Immigration Discourse. Basingstoke: Palgrave.
      1. Katriel, T. (2016). The metapragmatics of direct utterances. Interdisciplinary Studies in Pragmatics, Culture and Society 4: 745-766.
      1. Kedar, M. (1998). The Public Political Language of the Asad Regime in Syria: Messages and Means of Communication. Unpublished PhD dissertation, Bar-Ilan University, Israel. (Hebrew).
      1. Keren, N. (2015). Holocaust and politics. Education and Context 37: 169-180. (Hebrew).
      1. Lakoff, G. and M. Johnson (1980). Metaphors We Live By. London: The University of Chicago Press.
      1. Landau, R. (1988). The Rhetoric of Parliamentary Speeches in Israel. Tel Aviv: Eked. (Hebrew).
      1. Lipstadt, D. (1993). Denying the Holocaust: The Growing Assault on Truth and Memory. New York: Free Press.
      1. Litvak, M. and E. Webman (2009). From Empathy to Denial. London: Hurst & Company.
      1. Livnat, Z. (2003). Irony and the linguistic structure of the utterance. In Y. Shlesinger and M. Muchnik (eds.), Studies in Modern Hebrew on the 30th Anniversary of the Israeli Association of Applied Linguistics. Jerusalem: Tzivonim. pp. 140-151. (Hebrew).
      1. Livnat, Z. (2009). The anatomy of governmental vagueness: A linguistic-historical look at political speech. In Y. Gitay (ed.), The Power of Words. Afula: The Max Stern Academic College of Emek Yezreel. pp. 7-38. (Hebrew).
      1. Livnat, Z. (2014a). Introduction to the Theory of Meaning: Semantics and Pragmatics. Vol. 2. Raanana: The Open University of Israel. (Hebrew).
      1. Livnat, Z. (2014b). Negotiating scientific ethos in academic controversy. Journal of Argumentation in Context 3(2): 126-152.
      1. Maingueneau, D. (1999). Ethos, scénographie, incorporation. In R. Amossy (ed.), Images de soi dans le discours. La construction de l’ethos. Lausanne: Delachaux et Niestlé. pp. 75-100.
      1. Margalit, G. (1998). The persecution of the Gypsies in the context of the Israeli public debate about the uniqueness of the Holocaust. Gesher 138: 60-68. (Hebrew).
      1. Meyer, M. (2001). Between theory, method, and politics: positioning of the approaches to CDA. In R. Wodak and M. Meyer (eds.), Methods of Critical Discourse Analysis. London: Sage. pp. 14-31.
      1. Perelman, Ch. (1982). The Realm of Rhetoric. Notre Dame: Notre Dame University.
      1. Perelman, Ch. (1994). L’empire rhétorique. (J. Ur, trans.). Jerusalem: Magnes Press. (Hebrew).
      1. Perelman, Ch. and L. Olbrechts-Tyteca (1969). The New Rhetoric. Notre Dame: Notre Dame University.
      1. Reisigl, M. and R. Wodak (2001). Discourse and Discrimination: Rhetorics of Racism and anti-Semitism. London: Routledge.
      1. Sevi, A. (2012). Introduction to Theoretical Linguistics. Vol. 3. Raanana: The Open University of Israel. (Hebrew).
      1. Stavi, Z. and Y. Schwartz (eds.) (2014). The Heksherim Lexicon of Israeli Authors. Beer Sheva: Heksherim Institute, Ben Gurion University of the Negev. (Hebrew).
      1. Thompson, S.A. (1996). Politics without metaphors is like a fish without water. In J.S. Mio and N.A. Katz (eds.), Metaphor: Implications and Applications. Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. pp. 185-201.
      1. Van Dijk, T.A. (2001). Critical discourse analysis. In D. Schiffrin, D. Tannen, and H.E. Hamilton (eds.), The Handbook of Discourse Analysis. Oxford: Blackwell. pp. 352-371.
      1. Van Dijk, T.A. (2008). Discourse and Power. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
      1. Weizman, E. (2000). Irony in news discourse. In O. Schwarzwald et al. (eds.), Studies in Communication, Linguistics and Language Teaching. Carmel: Jerusalem. pp. 237-248. (Hebrew).
      1. Weizman, E. and M. Dascal (1991). On clues and cues: Strategies of text understanding. Journal of Literary Semantics 20(1): 18-30.
      1. Van Dijk, T.A. (1984). Prejudice in Discourse – An Analysis of Ethnic Prejudice in Cognition and Conversation. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company.
      1. Wodak, R. (2001a). What is CDA about: Summary of its history, important concepts and its developments. In R. Wodak and M. Meyer (eds.), Methods of Critical Discourse Analysis. London: Sage. pp. 1-13.
    1. Wodak, R. (2001b). The discourse-historical approach. In R. Wodak and M. Meyer (eds.). Methods of Critical Discourse Analysis. London: Sage. pp. 63-94.


Eyal Clyne

Download Full Text

  • This article examines the discursive assumptions arising from a prevalent narrative in Israeli Middle East studies, as carrying a public mission. Drawing on Foucauldian, psychosocial and cultural critical discourse analysis, it deconstructs an interview with a key individual in the field to dislodge the political unconscious layers in the pivotal power-knowledge agency, and draw conclusions about the politics of knowledge production, practices of academic elites, and the particularities of language with the specific cultural-historical conditions in which it operates. Arguably, the narration of a ‘public mission’ is a discourse fostered by political suppositions, such as inclusion and exclusion, secularised-religious morphologies, and naturalisation of interested hegemonic and academic discourse, as well as manifests a particular Zionist devotion of the individual to the nation and state.

      1. Abulof, U. (2014). Deep securitization and Israel’s ‘Demographic Demon’. International Political Sociology 8(4): 396-415.
      1. Aked, H. (2018). Israeli State Power and the Zionist Movement in the UK: The Case of the Counter-Campaign against the Boycott Divestment and Sanctions Movement for Palestinian Rights. PhD thesis. Bath: University of Bath.
      1. Althusser, L. (1972). Ideology and ideological state apparatuses. In Lenin and Philosophy, and Other Essays. Monthly Review Press. pp. 85-126.
      1. Althusser, L. (1984). Essays on Ideology. London: Verso.
      1. Barthes, R. (1967). The death of the Author. Translated by Richard Howard. Aspen 5-6: item 3. Available: http://www.ubu.com/aspen/aspen5and6/threeEssays.html. Accessed 09 Sept 2018.
      1. Bernard, H.R. (2006). Research Methods in Anthropology: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches (4th ed.). Lanham, MD: AltaMira Press.
      1. Billig, M. (1999). Freudian Repression: Conversation Creating the Unconscious. Cambridge, UK ; New York: Cambridge University Press.
      1. Brinkmann, S. (2013). Qualitative Interviewing. Series in Understanding Measurement. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
      1. Burke, S. (1998). The Death and Return of the Author: Criticism and Subjectivity in Barthes, Foucault and Derrida (2nd ed.). Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
      1. Burman, E., and I. Parker. (2016). Discourse Analytic Research: Repertoires and Readings of Texts in Action. New York: Routledge.
      1. Buzan, B., O. Wæver, and J. de Wilde. (1998). Security: A New Framework for Analysis. London: Lynne Rienner Publishers.
      1. Charlston, D. (2014). Translatorial hexis: The politics of Pinkard’s translation of Hegel’s phenomenology. Radical Philosophy 186 (August): 11-22.
      1. Chaueka, Y. (1997). Rav-milim: A Comprehensive Dictionary of Modern Hebrew. Tel Aviv: Stimatski ve-ha-Merkaz l’Tekhnologyah Ḥinukhit : Yediot Aḥaronot ve-Sifre Ḥemed. (Hebrew)
      1. Clifford, J. (1988). The Predicament of Culture: Twentieth-Century Ethnography, Literature and Art. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
      1. Clyne, E. (2018). Academic market culture meets Zionism: interest and demand in the case of Israeli Middle Eastern and Islamic studies. Critical Discourse Studies. https://doi.org/10.1080/17405904.2018.1500924.
      1. Clyne, E. (Forthcoming). Orientalism, Zionism and Academic Practice: Middle East and Islamic Studies in Israeli Universities. New York: Routledge.
      1. Eco, U. (1984). The Role of the Reader: Explorations in the Semiotics of Texts. Indiana University Press.
      1. Eco, U. (1991). The Limits of Interpretation (Reprint ed.). Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
      1. Eco, U, J. Culler, R. Rorty, and C. Brooke-Rose. (1992). Interpretation and Overinterpretation (S. Collini, ed.). Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press.
      1. Even-Shushan, A. (1961). Shaliaḥ. New Dictionary, Vowel Pointing and Drawings. Jerusalem: Kiryat Sepher. (Hebrew)
      1. Eyal, G. (2006). The Disenchantment of the Orient: Expertise in Arab Affairs and the Israeli State. London: Stanford University Press.
      1. Fetterman, D.M. (2009). Ethnography: Step-by-Step (3rd ed.). Los Angeles: SAGE Publications, Inc.
      1. Fish, S. (1982). Is There a Text in This Class? The Authority of Interpretive Communities. Cambridge, MA.: Harvard University Press.
      1. Foucault, M. (1980). What is an author. In Language, Counter-Memory, Practice: Selected Essays and Interviews. Cornell University Press. pp. 114-16.
      1. Foucault, M. (2003). Society Must Be Defended: Lectures at the Collège de France, 1975-76 (M. Bertani, F. Ewald, and A. Fontana, ed.; D. Macey, trans.). New York: Picador.
      1. Friedman, E. and D. Gavriely-Nuri. (2017). Israeli Discourse and the West Bank: Dialectics of Normalization and Estrangement (1st ed.). Abingdon, Oxon ; New York, NY: Routledge.
      1. Gavriely-Nuri, D. (2010). The idiosyncratic language of Israeli ‘peace’: a cultural approach to critical discourse analysis (CCDA). Discourse & Society 21(5): 565-85.
      1. Gavriely-Nuri, D. (2012a). Cultural approach to CDA. Critical Discourse Studies 9(1): 77-85.
      1. Gavriely-Nuri, D. (2012b). The Normalization of War in Israeli Discourse, 1967-2008. Lexington Books.
      1. Ghanim, H. (2009.) Reconstructing the Nation: Palestinian Intellectuals in Israel. Jerusalem: Magnes, Hebrew University of Jerusalem Press. (Hebrew)
      1. Gieryn, T.F. (1983). Boundary-work and the demarcation of science from non-science: Strains and interests in professional ideologies of scientists. American Sociological Review 48(6): 781-795.
      1. Givens, D. (2013). Table-Slap. The NonVerbal Dictionary of Gestures, Signs & Body Language Cues. Center for Nonverbal Studies. Available: http://www.nonverbal-dictionary.org/2013/01/table-slap.html. Accessed: 4 May 2016.
      1. Holstein, J. and F.G. Jaber (1995). The Active Interview. Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications, Inc.
      1. Jameson, F. (2007). The Political Unconscious: Narrative as a Socially Symbolic Act. London: Routledge.
      1. Kimmerling, B. (2006). Politicide: The Real Legacy of Ariel Sharon. London ; New York: Verso Books.
      1. Maier, F. and S. Jäger. (2016). Analysing discourses and dispositives: a Foucauldian approach to theory and methodology. In R. Wodak and M. Meyer (eds.), Methods of Critical Discourse Studies (3rd ed.). London: Thousand Oaks, California: SAGE. pp. 109-36.
      1. Matza, D. (2013). The Hegemonic Discourse within Israel’s Ruling Establishment towards the Palestinian Minority 1966-1976. PhD thesis Beer-Sheva: Ben Gurion University of the Negev. (Hebrew)
      1. Mendel, Y. (2016). The Creation of Israeli Arabic: Security and Politics in Arabic Studies in Israel. S.l.: Plagrave Macmillan.
      1. Ophir, A. (2014). On the groundlessness of Prof Rubinstein’s words, and the rudeness of the citizen Ariel. ha-Oketz: A Critical Stage for Economy, Society, Politics, Media, Culture and more. [online]. Available: http://bit.ly/2fQeK57. Accessed: 14 January 14, 2014. (Hebrew)
      1. Rabinowitz, D. (1993). Oriental mostalgia: How the palestinians became Israeli-Arabs. Teoria u-Vikoret 4: 141-51. (Hebrew)
      1. Rabinowitz, D. (2002). Oriental othering and national identity: A review of early Israeli anthropological studies of Palestinians. Identities 9(3): 305-26.
      1. Ricœur, P. (2006). On Translation. London; New York: Routledge.
      1. Said, E. W. (1978). Orientalism. New York: Pantheon Books.
      1. Sheffer, G. and O. Barak. (2010). Militarism and Israeli Society. Indiana University Press.
      1. Sheffer, G. and O. Barak. (2013). Israel’s Security Networks: A Theoretical and Comparative Perspective. New York: Cambridge University Press.
      1. [Chakravorty] Spivak, G. (2012). An Aesthetic Education in the Era of Globalization. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press.
      1. Wetherell, M. (1998). Positioning and interpretative repertoires: conversation analysis and post-structuralism in dialogue. Discourse & Society 9(3): 387-412.
    1. Wetherell, M. (2003). Paranoia, ambivalence and discursive practices: concepts of position and positioning in psychoanalysis and discursive psychology.’ In R. Harré and F.M. Moghaddam (eds.), The Self and Others: Positioning Individuals and Groups in Personal, Political, and Cultural Contexts. Westport, Conn: Praeger. pp. 99-120.


Edwin A. Schmitt

Download Full Text

  • The proper analysis of environmental politics in different national contexts requires a returned focus on ideology. This article demonstrates that a neutral conceptualization of ideology is necessary to understand the way environmental politics integrates with social and cultural interpretations of how to manage environmental issues. The article examines Ecological Civilization, the Chinese Communist Party’s interpretation of sustainability, to demonstrate that the ideology resonates across Chinese society. The article first analyses semantic themes within the Party’s interpretation of Ecological Civilization, which continues to prioritize economic development over environmental protection. The article then shows that these themes are also prevalent in the media but are presented to the public utilizing different genres, styles and voice. Finally, by analysing the interpretation of Ecological Civilization from 245 residents of Chengdu, the article shows how some in China prioritize economic development, while others emphasize the importance of protecting the environment. The central finding is that in general residents support the government’s heavy-handed approach to environmental policy, thereby reinforcing the state’s authoritarian control over society. The article concludes by arguing that this finding is demonstrated by drawing from a neutral conceptualization of ideology and that such a framework should now be extended to other socio-political contexts.

    1. Alexander, R. and A. Stibbe. (2014). From the analysis of ecological discourse to the ecological analysis of discourse. Language Sciences 41: 104-110.
    2. Alford, W.P. and Y.Y. Shen (1998). The Limits of the Law in Addressing China’s Environmental Dilemma.” In M.B. McElroy, C.P. Nielsen, and P. Lydon (eds.), Energizing China: Reconciling Environmental Protection and Economic Growth. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, pp. 405-30.
    3. Anagnost, A. (2004). The corporeal politics of quality (Suzhi). Public Culture 16(2): 189-208.
    4. Beeson, M. (2010). The coming of environmental authoritarianism. Environmental Politics 19(2): 276-294.
    5. Bernard, H.R. (2006). Research Methods in Anthropology: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches. AltaMira Press, Lanham.
    6. Chen, S. (2014). Environmental Communication with Chinese Characteristics: Crises, Conflicts, and Prospects. MA Thesis-Simon Fraser University.
    7. China Central Television. (2014). The 8th meeting of the 12th national people’s congress confirms the passing of the rewritten environmental protection law. CCTV.com. [online]. Available: http://news.cntv.cn/2014/04/24/VIDE1398338103307889.shtml. Last accessed: 16 September 2018.
    8. Chinese State Council. (2015). General Scheme for the Reform of the Ecological Civilization System. 21 Sept 2018. Beijing: State Council.
    9. Duranti, A. (2015). The Anthropology of Intentions: Language in a World of Others. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    10. Dynon, N. (2008) ‘Four Civilizations’ and the evolution of post-Mao Chinese socialist ideology. The China Journal 60: 83-109.
    11. Eaton, S. and G. Kostka (2013). Does Cadre Turnover help or hinder China’s green rise? Evidence from Shanxi Province. In: H. Shou and B. Ren (eds.), Chinese Environmental Governance: Dynamics, Challenges, and Prospects in a Changing Society. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 83-110.
    12. Fairclough, N. (2003) Analysing Discourse: Textual Analysis for Social Research. Routledge: London.
    13. Gare, A. (2010) ‘Toward an ecological civilization.’ Process Studies 39(1): 5-38.
    14. Gerring, J. (1997). Ideology: A definitional analysis. Political Research Quarterly 50(4): 957-994.
    15. Glaeser, Andreas. (2011). Political Epistemics: The Secret Police, the Opposition, and the End of East German Socialism. University of Chicago Press.
    16. Goodland, R. (1995). The concept of environmental sustainability. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics (26): 1-24.
    17. Gunderson, R. (2017). Ideology critique for the environmental social sciences: What reproduces the treadmill of production? Nature and Culture 12(3): 263-289.
    18. Gunderson, R., D. Stuart, and B. Petersen. (2018). Ideological obstacles to effective climate policy: The greening of markets, technology, and growth.’ Capital & Class 42(1): 133-160.
    19. Hajer, M.A. (1995). The Politics of Environmental Discourse: Ecological Modernization and the Policy Process. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
    20. Halliday, M.A.K. (2003). Language and the order of nature. In J. Webster (ed.), On Language and Linguistics. London: Continuum. pp. 116-138.
    21. Halliday, M.A.K., and C.M.I.M. Matthiessen, (2004). An Introduction to Functional Grammar. London: Hodder Arnold.
    22. Hasan, R. (2016). Speaking with reference to context. In J. Webster (ed.), Context in the System and Process of Language. London: Equinox. pp. 247-354.
    23. Holbig, H. (2009). Ideological reform and political legitimacy in China: challenges in the post-Jiang era. In: T. Herberer and G. Schubert (eds.), Regime legitimacy in contemporary China institutional change and stability. New York: Routledge. pp. 13-34.
    24. Joshi, D. (2012). Does China’s recent ‘harmonious society’ discourse reflect a shift towards human development? Journal of Political Ideologies 17(2): 169-87.
    25. Joye, S. (2010). News discourses on distant suffering: A critical discourse analysis of the 2003 SARS outbreak. Discourse & Society 21(5): 586-601.
    26. Kay, S., B. Zhao, and D. Sui. (2015). Can social media clear the air? A case study of the air pollution problem in Chinese cities. The Professional Geographer 67(3): 351-363.
    27. Langman, L. (2015). An overview: Hegemony, ideology and the reproduction of domination. Critical Sociology 41(3): 425-432.
    28. Larrain, J. (1982). On the character of ideology: Marx and the present debate in Britain. Theory, Culture & Society 1(1): 5-22.
    29. Li, X. (2014). Use economic measures to declare war on pollution. China Environmental News, 5 June 2014. p. 9.
    30. Li, Z. (2014). Defusing PX concerns through more meticulous efforts. People’s Daily, 2 April 2014. p. 5.
    31. Liu, H. (2014). Bo river repeat photography. People.cn. [online]. Available: http:// env.people.com.cn/n/2014/0730/c1010-25367069.html. Last accessed: 16 September 2018.
    32. Liu, X. (1999). On Ecology Civilization. Changsha: Hunan Education Press.
    33. Liu, Y. (2014). Sichuan begins environmental quality testing of soil. Scdaily.cn. [online]. Available: http://politics.scdaily.cn/szyw/content/2014-05/30/content_8017148.htm? node=3605. Last accessed: 14 May 2016.
    34. Lu, Q. (2014) Official announcement comes 23 hours after benzene levels in the water surpass safety standards. caixin.com. [online]. Available: http://china.caixin.com/2014-04-13/100664459.html. Last accessed: 16 September 2018.
    35. Lukin, A. (2017). Ideology and the Text-in-context Relation. Functional Linguistics 4(16).
    36. Maynard, J.L. (2013). A map of the field of ideological analysis. Journal of Political Ideologies 18(3): 299-327
    37. NPC (Chinese National People’s Congress) (2014). The Environmental Protection Law of the PRC. 25 April 2014. Beijing: National People’s Congress.
    38. NPC (Chinese National People’s Congress) (2002) The Environmental Impact Assessment Law of the PRC. 28 October 2002. Beijing: National People’s Congress.
    39. O’Brien, K.J. and Y. Deng (2015). Repression backfires: Tactical radicalization and protest spectacle in rural China. Journal of Contemporary China 24(93): 457-470.
    40. Oswald, J. P. F. (2014) What does eco-civilisation 生态文明 mean? The China Story. [online]. Available: http://www.thechinastory.org/2014/09/what-does-eco-civilisation-mean. Last accessed 16 September 2018.
    41. Pan, L. (2014). Investigating institutional practice in news translation: An empirical study of a Chinese agency translating discourse on China. Perspectives 22(4): 547-565.
    42. Pan, Y. (2006). On a socialist ecological civilization. Green Leaf 10: 10-18.
    43. Pan, Y. (2003). Environmental culture and national rejuvenation. Green Leaf 6: 7-11.
    44. People’s Daily (2014). Save the mother river of your hometown together with the People’s Daily! People.cn. [online]. Available: http://mp.weixin.qq.com/s?__biz= MjM5MjAxNDM4MA==&mid=200805342&idx=2&sn=02a86ac49d4ca421bee94215b6d2e2fe#rd. Last accessed: 16 September 2018.
    45. Potter, L. (2016). Ideological representations and theme-rheme analysis in English and Arabic news reports: A systemic functional approach. Functional Linguistics 3(5).
    46. Ren, B. (2014). Veolia denies that the drainage ditch which allowed benzene into water supply was beyond its service date. caixin.com. [online]. Available: http://china.caixin.com/2014-04-13/100664514.html. Last accessed: 16 September 2018.
    47. Ren, Z. (2013). The Chinese awakening of an ecological civilization. People’s Daily, 22 July 2013. p 1.
    48. Ross, L. (1984). The implementation of environmental policy in China: A comparative perspective. Administration & Society 15(4): 489-516.
    49. Schmitt, E. (2016). The Atmosphere of an Ecological Civilization: A Study of Ideology, Perception and Action in Chengdu, China. Ph.D. Dissertation: The Chinese University of Hong Kong.
    50. Scoones, I. (2016). The politics of sustainability and development. Annual Review of Environment and Resources 41: 293-319.
    51. Sorace, C. (2017). Shaken Authority: China’s Communist Party and the 2008 Sichuan Earthquake. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
    52. Tilt, B. (2015). Dams and Development in China: The Moral Economy of Water and Power. New York: Columbia University Press.
    53. Tilt, B. and O. Xiao (2010). Media coverage of environmental pollution in The People’s Republic of China: Responsibility, cover-up and state control. Media, Culture and Society 32(2): 225-245.
    54. Tong, J. (2015). Investigative Journalism, Environmental Problems and Modernisation in China. New York: Palgrave MacMillan.
    55. Tong, J. (2009). Press self-censorship in China: a case study in the transformation of discourse. Discourse & Society 20(5): 593-612.
    56. Trevaskes S. (2011). Political ideology, the party, and politicking: Justice system reform in China. Modern China 37(3): 315-344.
    57. Tsai, W.H. and P.H. Kao. (2013). Secret Codes of Political Propaganda: The Unknown System of Writing Teams. The China Quarterly, 214: 394-410.
    58. Wang, W. (1997). Considering the construction of ecological agriculture. People’s Daily, 8 March 1997. pp. 6.
    59. Wang, Y. (2014). The New Environmental Protection Law, Do You Get It? Guangming Daily, 30 April 2014. p. 5.
    60. Williams, R. (1976). Keywords: A Vocabulary of Culture and Society. New York: Oxford University Press.
    61. Wodak, R. (2001). What is CDA about – a summary of its history, important concepts and its developments. In R. Wodak and M. Meyer (eds.), Methods of Critical Discourse. London: Sage, pp. 1-13.
    62. Wu, Shufang. 2014. The Revival of Confucianism and the CCP’s Struggle for Cultural Leadership: a content analysis of the People’s Daily, 2000-2009. Journal of Contemporary China. 23(89): 971-991.
    63. Xinhua (2014). Li Keqiang: Working hard to build a beautiful home of an ecological civilization. Xinhuanet.com. [online]. Available:  http://news.xinhuanet.com/politics/ 2014-03/05/c_119615795.htm. Last accessed: 16 September 2018.
    64. Yan, D. (2014). Environmental court enters the people’s supreme Court. Infzm.com. [online]. Available: http://www.infzm.com/content/101787. Last accessed: 16 September 2018.
    65. Ye, Q. (1988). Ecological Agriculture: The Future of Agriculture. Chongqing: Chongqing Press.
    66. Zhang, X. (2014). Chronical of the Lanzhou benzene water pollution event. caixin.com. [online]. Available: http://china.caixin.com/2014-04-14/100664988.html . Last accessed 16 September 2018.
    67. Zhou, S. (2008). Walking the road of a harmonious development of an ecological civilization.’ Environmental Economics (Chinese) 1: 10-15.
    68. Zhou, Y. (2014a). My home, my river: Governing a river and beautifying a city. Caixin.com. [online]. Available: http://env.people.com.cn/n/2014/0623/c1010-25183647.html. Last accessed: 16 September 2018.
    69. Zhou, Y. (2014b). Repeat photography: In governing a river and beautifying a city, treating the pollution of the Fen river costs 100 million/km. People.cn. [online]. Available: http://env.people.com.cn/n/2014/0623/c1010-25184556.html. Last accessed: 16 September 2018.
    70. Zhu, C. (2014). Hello, polluting enterprises, I would like to give you a call. Chengdu Commercial Daily. [online]. Available: http://e.chengdu.cn/html/2014-08/08/content_ 482870.htm . Last accessed: 16 September 2018.

BOOK REVIEW Page 92-95

Viola Wiegand

Download Full Text

Jeffries, L., & Walker, B. (2018). Keywords in the Press: The New Labour Years. London: Bloomsbury; 224 pages; 9781441162229; £95 (hbk).

    1. Anthony, L. (2014). AntConc (Version 3.4.3w) [Computer Software]. Tokyo, Japan: Waseda University. Retrieved from http://www.laurenceanthony.net/
    2. Baker, P. (2006). Using Corpora in Discourse Analysis. London: Continuum.
    3. Baker, P., Gabrielatos, C., & McEnery, T. (2013). Discourse Analysis and Media Attitudes: The Representation of Islam in the British Press. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    4. Fairclough, N. (2000). New Labour, New Language? London: Routledge.
    5. Jeffries, L. (2010). Critical Stylistics: The Power of English. Basingstoke: Palgrave.
    6. Jeffries, L., & Walker, B. (2018). Keywords in the Press: The New Labour Years. London: Bloomsbury.
    7. L’Hôte, E. (2010). New Labour and globalization: Globalist discourse with a twist? Discourse & Society, 21(4), 355–376.
    8. Mahlberg, M. (2014). Corpus Stylistics. In M. Burke (Ed.), The Routledge Handbook of Stylistics (pp. 378–392). London: Routledge.
    9. Tabbert, U. (2015). Crime and Corpus: The Linguistic Representation of Crime in the Press. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
    10. Williams, R. (1983). Keywords: A Vocabulary of Culture and Society (2nd ed.). London: Fontana.