The Project

The Journals



Early Quakers

Other Sources




Early Maps

Road Maps

Modern Maps


The project is preparing two kinds of evidence to show the terrain over which Fox journeyed in 1652-1653:

  • Contemporary maps.     The great era of English map-making begins in 1579 with the publication of Christopher Saxton's Atlas of the Counties of England and Wales. Saxton's maps were adapted by Camden's Britannia (1607) and John Speed's The theatre of the empire of Great Britaine (1611). They are surprising to modern eyes because they do not show roads: but they give detailed information about rivers, bridges, towns, and, useful for our purposes, chapels. Hills are shown as individual humps.

    A different genre is the road map, which like the old Automobile Association personalised maps, concentrates on the routes, orienting the traveller with a compass rose, and showing side roads, landmarks, and the type of terrain, hills to be surmounted and rivers to be crossed. John Ogilby published his Britannia in 1675: the routes he shows would have been familiar to Fox, though Fox sometimes moved off the main roads.

    An invaluable resource for the area is the Old Cumbria Gazetteer by Martin and Jean Norgate.

  • Modern maps.    The facilities provided by Google Maps™ allow us to customise their satellite images to show not only where Fox's contacts lived, but the routes he probably took. We can combine this with our ground-level photographs to give a sense of the kind of terrain through which he passed. Google also now supports its Street View which allows you to tour through the terrain but only by adopted roads.

    Ordnance survey maps, especially the large scale 'Explorer' range, are obviously essential for investigating the modern terrain, and the original 19th-century ones (see will sometimes give the original names and locations of places since swallowed up by modern developments.

  • GIS mapping.    The next stage of the project will use various techniques to layer information about terrain, routes, clusters of Friends and Seekers, and centres of interest (markets, churches and chapels, prisons, safe houses, Quaker 'pulpits', &c) onto modern maps.


The left-hand map (Saxton 1579) showns the same terrain as the right-hand map (Google satellite view).