Dr Andrew Folkard

Senior Lecturer

Research Overview

Andrew’s research interests focus primarily on eco-hydrodynamics: the ways in which currents, waves and turbulent mixing processes affect, and are affected by, ecological phenomena from plankton to seagrass meadows. He is particularly interested in the effects of heterogeneity on the hydrodynamics and ecology of surface waterbodies. More recently, he has developed an interest in the area of environmental impacts of, and on, offshore renewable energy installations.

Andrew also actively researches the development of learning and teaching, particularly of quantitative methods in geography and environmental sciences. He was awarded a prestigious National Teaching Fellowship by the UK Higher Education Academy in 2006 in recognition of his work in this area. He is currently Director of Geography Undergraduate Programmes in LEC.

Published Research

Andrew has 20 years of experience of using fieldwork, laboratory flume experiments and remote sensing to investigate a range of hydrodynamic problems in lakes, rivers, coastal waters and oceans. His recent publications have focussed on:

Current Research

Andrew’s current research and doctoral student supervision covers a range of topics, all of which cluster around the key topics of hydrodynamics-ecology-biogeochemistry interactions, landscape patterning, fragmentation and heterogeneity; and impacts of societal activities on ecosystems and vice versa.

Teaching & Teaching Development

Andrew teaches across physical geography and in particular in his research area of aquatic processes and environments. He also teaches extensively on the core skills modules of our Geography degree schemes, focussing in particular on quantitative skills and research design. In addition, he is the programme consultant for the BSc/FdSC in Marine Biology and Coastal Zone Management at Blackpool and the Fylde College, an affiliate institution of Lancaster University. He has grown collaboration with the Student Union’s Green Lancaster team, and the university’s Facilities team, enabling students to carry out projects with real consequences and benefits for the university. Currently, together with Small World Consulting, he is working with Green Lancaster on their NUS-funded Edible Campus project, and seeking to develop ways in which this can be incorporated in student learning. Andrew is a member of the Editorial Board of the Journal of Geography in Higher Education.

What is a macrophyte patch?: Patch identification in aquatic ecosystems and guidelines for consistent delineation
Schoelynck, J., Creëlle, S., Buis, K., De Mulder, T., Emsens, W., Hein, T., Meire, D., Meire, P., Okruszko, T., Preiner, S., Roldan Gonzalez, R., Silinski, A., Temmerman, S., Troch, P., Van Oyen, T., Verschoren, V., Visser, F., Wang, C., Wolters, J., Folkard, A. 01/2018 In: Ecohydrology & Hydrobiology. 18, 1, p. 1-9. 9 p.
Journal article

How well does random forest analysis model deforestation and forest fragmentation in the Brazilian Atlantic forest?
Zanella, L., Folkard, A.M., Blackburn, G.A., Carvalho, L. 12/2017 In: Environmental and Ecological Statistics. 24, 4, p. 529-549. 21 p.
Journal article

Sediment deposition from turbidity currents in simulated aquatic vegetation canopies
Soler, M., Colomer, J., Serra, T., Casamitjana, X., Folkard, A.M. 06/2017 In: Sedimentology. 64, 4, p. 1132-1146. 15 p.
Journal article

Creating patches of comprehension and filling gaps in knowledge: physical modelling contributions to joined-up understanding of heterogeneous eco-scapes
Folkard, A.M. 19/12/2016
Conference paper

Flow interactions with blue mussel patches: hydrodynamic and ecological implications
Folkard, A.M., Bouma, T. 19/12/2016
Conference paper

The exchange of dissolved nutrients between the water column and substrate pore-water due to hydrodynamic adjustment at seagrass meadow edges: a flume study
Adhitya, A., Folkard, A.M., Govers, L., van Katwijk, M., de Iongh, H., Herman, P., Bouma, T. 11/2016 In: Limnology and Oceanography. 61, 6, p. 2286-2295. 10 p.
Journal article

Variations in flow resistance in small agricultural streams due to idealized aquatic vegetation distributions
Folkard, A.M. 7/02/2016
Conference paper

Comparison of the influence of patch-scale and meadow-scale characteristics on flow within seagrass meadows: a flume study
Aditya, A., Bouma, T., Folkard, A., van Katwijk, M., Callaghan, D., de Iongh, H., Herman, P. 3/12/2014 In: Marine Ecology Progress Series. 516, p. 49-59. 11 p.
Journal article

Interannual variations in atmospheric forcing determine trajectories of hypolimnetic soluble reactive phosphorus supply in a eutrophic lake
Mackay, E., Folkard, A., Jones, I. 08/2014 In: Freshwater Biology. 59, 8, p. 1646-1658. 13 p.
Journal article

Flow and turbulence in vegetation in a channel
Montakhab, A., Yusuf, B., Folkard, A. 18/07/2014 In: Proceedings of the ICE - Water Management. 168, 1, p. 16-23. 8 p.
Journal article

Time development of scour around a cylinder in simulated tidal currents
McGovern, D., Ilic, S., Folkard, A., McLelland, S., Murphy, B. 06/2014 In: Journal of Hydraulic Engineering. 140, 6
Journal article

Steep wave impact on a jacket type wind turbine substructure
Luxmoore, J.F., Ilic, S., Folkard, A.M., McLelland, S.J., Murphy, B. 2013 In: The Proceedings of The Twenty-third International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference. International Society of Offshore and Polar Engineers p. 211-215. 5 p.

Contribution of sediment focussing to heterogeneity of organic carbon and phosphorus burial in small lakes
Mackay, E., Jones, I., Folkard, A., Barker, P. 02/2012 In: Freshwater Biology. 57, 2, p. 290-304. 15 p.
Journal article

Evolution of local scour around a collared monopile through tidal cycles
McGovern, D.J., Ilic, S., Folkard, A.M., McLelland, S.J., Murphy, B.J. 2012 In: Coastal Engineering 2012 Proceedings. International Conference on Coastal Engineering ( ICCE ) p. 2371-2381. 11 p.

Transition zones in small lakes: the importance of dilution and biological uptake on lake-wide heterogeneity
Mackay, E., Jones, I., Folkard, A., Thackeray, S. 12/2011 In: Hydrobiologia. 678, 1, p. 85-97. 13 p.
Journal article

Vegetated flows in their environmental context : a review.
Folkard, A.M. 02/2011 In: Proceedings of the ICE - Engineering and Computational Mechanics. 164, 1, p. 3-24. 22 p.
Journal article

Spatial heterogeneity in a small, temperate lake during archetypal weak forcing conditions
Mackay, E., Jones, I., Thackeray, S., Folkard, A. 4/01/2011 In: Fundamental and Applied Limnology. 179, 1, p. 27-40. 14 p.
Journal article

Flow regimes in gaps within stands of flexible vegetation: laboratory flume simulations
Folkard, A.M. 2011 In: Environmental Fluid Mechanics. 11, 3, p. 289-306. 18 p.
Journal article

Priority water research questions as determined by UK practitioners and policy makers.
Brown, L.E., Mitchell, G., Holden, J., Folkard, A.M., et al., .. 15/12/2010 In: Science of the Total Environment. 409, 2, p. 256-266. 11 p.
Journal article

Statistics for the biological and environmental sciences: improving service teaching for postgraduates
Allen, R., Folkard, A., Lancaster, G., Abram, B. 07/2010 In: ICOTS 8 proceedings. Auckland : International Association for Statistical Education 6 p.
Conference contribution

Hydrodynamics of discontinuous mussel beds : laboratory flume simulations.
Folkard, A.M., Gascoigne, J. 11/2009 In: Journal of Sea Research. 62, 4, p. 250-257. 8 p.
Journal article

The effects of littoral zone vegetation on turbulent mixing in lakes.
Coates, M.J., Folkard, A.M. 24/10/2009 In: Ecological Modelling. 220, 20, p. 2714-2726. 13 p.
Journal article

Flow in Wetlands and Macrophyte Beds.
Folkard, A., Coates, M. 2009 In: Encyclopedia of Inland Waters. London : Academic p. 594-605. 12 p. ISBN: 9780120884629 (set).

Turbulence and shear stress around offshore wind turbine pile in tidal currents using particle image velocimetry
McGovern, D., Ilic, S., Folkard, A., McClelland, S., Murphy, B. 2009 In: Proceedings of Coastal Dynamics 2009. Singapore : World Scientific Publishing 13 p.

Turbulence and stratification in Priest Pot, a productive pond in a sheltered environment.
Folkard, A.M., Sherborne, A.J., Coates, M.J. 7/07/2007 In: Limnology. 8, 2, p. 113-120. 8 p.
Journal article

Laboratory measurements of flow and turbulence in discontinuous distributions of ligulate seagrass.
Maltese, A., Cox, E., Folkard, A.M., Ciraolo, G. 1/07/2007 In: Journal of Hydraulic Engineering. 133, 7, p. 750-760. 11 p.
Journal article

Spatial dynamics of estuarine water surface temperature from airborne remote sensing.
Hedger, R.D., Malthus, T.J., Folkard, A.M., Atkinson, P.M. 02/2007 In: Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science. 71, 3-4, p. 608-615. 8 p.
Journal article

Observing estuarine currents and fronts in the Tay Estuary, Scotland, using an airborne SAR with along-track interferometry (ATI).
Ferrier, G., Macklin, J., Neill, S., Folkard, A., Copeland, G., Anderson, J. 20/10/2005 In: International Journal of Remote Sensing. 26, 20, p. 4399-4404. 6 p.
Journal article

Hydrodynamics of model Posidonia oceanica patches in shallow water.
Folkard, A.M. 09/2005 In: Limnology and Oceanography. 50, 5, p. 1592-1600. 9 p.
Journal article

The verticle distribution of soluble reactive phosphorus in the water column of Esthwaite Water and the effect of physical variables.
Miller, H., Jones, I., Folkard, A.M., Maberley, S.C. 09/2005 In: Proceedings of the 9th workshop on physical processes in natural waters. Lancaster p. 183-190. 8 p.

On the influence of flexible vegetation on flow fields in shallow water : a flume experiment.
Maltese, A., Folkard, A.M. 2005 In: Proceedings of the 9th workshop on physical processes in natural waters. Lancaster p. 195-202. 8 p.

Rivers and the British Landscape
Owen, S., Pooley, C.G., Folkard, A.M., Park, C., Clark, G., Watson, N. 2005 Lancaster : Carnegie Press. 243 p. ISBN: 185936120X , 9781859361207.

Rivers and their environment
Folkard, A. 2005 In: Rivers and the British landscape. Lancaster : Carnegie Publishing p. 73-100. 28 p. ISBN: 185936120X 9781859361207.

What rivers do: flows and forms
Folkard, A. 2005 In: Rivers and the British landscape. Lancaster : Carnegie Publishing p. 51-72. 22 p. ISBN: 185936120X 9781859361207.

Mathophobic students' perspectives on quantitative material in the undergraduate geography curriculum.
Folkard, A.M. 07/2004 In: Journal of Geography in Higher Education. 28, 2, p. 209-228. 20 p.
Journal article

Observations and numerical modelling of a non-buoyant front in the Tay Estuary, Scotland.
Neill, S.P., Copeland, G.J.M., Ferrier, G., Folkard, A.M. 01/2004 In: Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science. 59, 1, p. 173-184. 12 p.
Journal article

Thermal microscale profiling of a small, sheltered lake : implications for plankton population modelling.
Folkard, A.M. 2004 In: Proceedings of the 8th European workshop on physical processes in natural waters. Sweden : Lund University Press p. 51-58. 8 p.

Laboratory studies of the effects of interrupted, sloping topography on intermediate depth boundary currents in linearly stratified fluids.
Folkard, A., Davies, P. 05/2001 In: Dynamics of Atmospheres and Oceans. 33, 4, p. 239-261. 23 p.
Journal article

Estimation of velocity fields at the estuary-coastal interface through statistical analysis of successive airborne remotely sensed images.
Hedger, R., Malthus, T., Folkard, A. 2001 In: International Journal of Remote Sensing. 22, 18, p. 3901-3906. 6 p.
Journal article