Professor Bill Davies

Distinguished Professor

Research Overview

Since the early 1980s, Bill Davies’ research work has provided a novel view of how above-ground plant parts can “sense” changes in both their atmospheric and edaphic environments. The work has also provided insight into the ways in which different environmental stresses interact in their effects on plant growth and functioning through changes in both chemical and hydraulic regulation. In recent years our discoveries have led to radical changes in irrigation practice and to the introduction of crop management techniques which contribute to sustainable intensification of agriculture in drought-prone environments. The work is helping to deliver sustained levels of food production in dry regions of the world, while also addressing the issue of world-wide conservation of water resources. Particularly strong collaborations exist with CSIRO Adelaide (Loveys), Zhang (HKBU and CUHK), CAU (Kang and Du) and with Cranfield University (Knox). Ian Dodd has much deficit irrigation work underway with a variety of research teams in Spain.

The Lancaster plant water group leads a campus-wide and an international effort to address the issue of food insecurity through both collaborative research and training programmes (www.foodsecuritylancaster.net). Collaborating teams are from Rothamsted Research (Parry), CAU (Zhang and Shen), The University of Missouri (Sharp), UTL (Pereira and Chaves), Bologna, (Tuberosa) Paris 13 (Repellin) and other Universities and Research Centres in Brazil, Mexico, Zambia and Russia.

Davies’ group was responsible for some of the first research which highlighted the possibility that control of gas exchange and growth via chemical regulation could explain many of the responses seen in plants growing in drying soil and subjected to other abiotic stresses. Prior to this time, the predominant view in the literature was that soil drying and other stresses modified plant growth, functioning and development only after uptake of water was reduced and water deficits had developed in the leaves. As a result of the Lancaster group's work there has been a paradigm shift in our thinking about plant responses to drought. This has led not only to entirely new perspectives on what actually constitutes the commonly-occurring phenomenon of 'plant water stress', but also has pointed to new possibilities for the modification of plant growth and food production via simple agronomical strategies as well as innovative biotechnological manipulations. Further, our understanding of the ways in which plants can detect and respond to very mild soil drying provides some explanation of how plant communities and landscape may be affected by modified rainfall patterns under a changing climate.

Early work by the Lancaster group provided unequivocal evidence of regulation of stomatal functioning and leaf growth via a chemical message moving from the roots to the shoots in the xylem stream. It was clear from the group's early experiments that leaf water balance of plants in drying soil could be controlled as a result of stomatal closure and reduced leaf expansion. The view virtually unchallenged in the literature up to that time was that a reduction in the water status of the plant was necessary before physiological controls such as stomatal closure were initiated. What then was restricting shoot growth and functioning? The group hypothesised that the causal agents were chemicals delivered to the shoots in the xylem stream which constituted a ‘signal’ generated as a result of the interaction between some of the plant’s roots and drying soil.

Davies’ group has provided strong evidence that the plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) can play a central part in the long distance chemical signalling process in plants in drying soil. Work by Zhang and Davies showed that enhanced xylem ABA fluxes from roots in contact with drying soil, could provide shoots with a measure of the extent of soil drying. This ABA can be both root-synthesised and re-circulated from shoots via roots in quantities reflecting the plant’s access to soil water.

ABA is clearly not the only chemical signal responsible for regulation of gas exchange and growth and the Lancaster group has shown that some other ionic signals moving from roots to shoots via the xylem can impact on leaf growth and functioning via a local redistribution of ABA from anion traps in leaves to sites of action for regulation. A hypothesis for stomatal and growth control based on ionic effects on pH gradients and ABA redistribution is now generally accepted in the literature.

It is well recognised that ethylene is an important plant growth regulator which is involved in plant responses to a variety of stresses. However, our work (led by Sally Wilkinson) is among the first to show an important effect of ethylene on stomatal functioning. This response has become apparent in a study of ozone effects on stomatal behaviour. Low concentrations of ozone can lock open stomata of drought stressed plants, a response that can be catastrophic for water conservation by plants in droughted environments. The basis of this response appears to be an ethylene-stimulated blocking or even a reversal of the effects of ABA on stomata.

In collaboration with Mike Jackson (formerly of Long Ashton Research Station) and Mark Else (EMR) the Lancaster group has elucidated a role for ABA, ethylene, nutrients and unidentified chemical species in long distance signalling in flooded plants.

We have tested some of our hypotheses in the field in collaboration with the group of Francois Tardieu at INRA Montpellier. These studies suggest a strong controlling influence for ABA in the regulation of gas exchange in the field. Some of these hypotheses are being tested as part of the EU-funded DROPS project led by Tardieu at INRA.

The Lancaster team is currently using a FACE system to assess ozone and hence ethylene effects on both gas exchange and growth in the field. Whole plant and canopy scale data are being scaled up so that we can look at carbon and water balance at a catchment scale (Defra funded ozone study in collaboration with CEH Bangor (Gina Mills and Felicity Hayes) and other partners)

Even though the mechanistic bases of chemical regulation of plant responses to environmental stress are not fully elucidated, there are nevertheless substantial opportunities for manipulation of these signals for increasing crop yield in situations where water for agriculture is in short supply. The aim is to produce more ‘crop per drop’ using low technology exploitation of novel plant science to impact on drought limitations to food security. Water saving in agriculture has become unavoidable in most regions of the world but the use of controlled soil drying to enhance chemical signalling is now commonly used as a crop management tool to deliver extra value via enhanced harvest index (HI) and increases in the quality of the plant product. Lancaster science has been directly exploited by CSIRO in the development of Partial Rootzone Drying (PRD) as a deficit irrigation technique applied to crops (Papers 15 and 50) and by several Asian Universities and Research Institutes in the development of Alternate Wetting and Drying as a now widely-used irrigation technique for the rice crop.

Lancaster has collaborated in, and provided much of the basic physiological background for, these novel studies in Australia, Russia, the Balkans, Scandinavia, China, Hong Kong, Malaysia and around the Mediterranean basin.

Manipulations to enhance HI and quality depend on a fundamental understanding of the way in which growth and development of plants is regulated by long-distance chemical signalling – the novel concept of drought sensing developed by Davies’ group over the last 30 years. This new thinking has advanced during this period of time from initial hypothesis to commercial application and these advances have occurred on several fronts. The group continues to apply the outcomes from their latest research in agriculture. Success in this regard was recognised in 2010 by the award of a Queen’s Anniversary Prize for Further and Higher Education. The prize was awarded in recognition of ‘a sustained contribution to ensuring that the outcomes of research in plant biology have real world impact’.

Some current work in collaboration with ARRIAM, St Petersburg and the Ufa Science Centre, both in Russia focuses on the application of plant growth promoting bacteria and ethylene binding inhibitors as low cost, low technology methods of manipulating chemical signalling to enhance resource use efficiency and enhance food security for the world’s poor. The group is also actively involved in collaborative projects (funded by EU and RCUK) to increase yield potential (with CIMMYT and the WYC)) and drought resistance (with the DROPs consortium) of major food crops via regulation of specific chemical signalling pathways.

Abscisic acid metabolizing rhizobacteria decrease ABA concentrations in planta and alter plant growth
Belimov, A.A., Dodd, I.C., Safronova, V.I., Dumova, V.A., Shaposhnikov, A.I., Ladatko, A.G., Davies, W.J. 01/2014 In: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry. 74, p. 84-91. 8 p.
Journal article

Isoprene emission protects photosynthesis but reduces plant productivity during drought in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants
Ryan, A., Hewitt, C.N., Purnell, A., Possell, M., Vickers, C., Mullineaux, P., Davies, B., Dodd, I. 01/2014 In: New Phytologist. 201, 1, p. 205-216. 12 p.
Journal article

Ethylene limits abscisic acid- or soil drying-induced stomatal closure in aged wheat leaves
Chen, L., Dodd, I.C., Davies, W.J., Wilkinson, S. 10/2013 In: Plant, Cell and Environment. 36, 10, p. 1850-1859. 10 p.
Journal article

The rhizobacterium Variovorax paradoxus 5C-2, containing ACC deaminase, promotes growth and development of Arabidopsis thaliana via an ethylene-dependent pathway
Chen, L., Dodd, I.C., Theobald, J.C., Belimov, A.A., Davies, W.J. 04/2013 In: Journal of Experimental Botany. 64, 6, p. 1565-1573. 9 p.
Journal article

Genotypic variation in the ability of wheat roots to penetrate wax layers
Whalley, W.R., Dodd, I.C., Watts, C.W., Webster, C.P., Phillips, A.L., Andralojc, J., White, R.P., Davies, W.J., Parry, M.A.J. 03/2013 In: Plant and Soil. 364, 1-2, p. 171-179. 9 p.
Journal article

Perception of soundscapes: an interdisciplinary approach
Davies, W.J., Adams, M.D., Bruce, N.S., Cain, R., Carlyle, A., Cusack, P., Hall, D.A., Hume, K.I., Irwin, A., Jennings, P., Marselle, M., Plack, C.J., Poxon, J. 02/2013 In: Applied Acoustics. 74, 2, p. 224-231. 8 p.
Journal article

Multiple impacts of the plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Variovorax paradoxus 5C-2 on nutrient and ABA relations of Pisum sativum
Jiang, F., Chen, L., Belimov, A.A., Shaposhnikov, A.I., Gong, F., Meng, X., Hartung, W., Jeschke, D.W., Davies, W.J., Dodd, I.C. 11/2012 In: Journal of Experimental Botany. 63, 18, p. 6421-6430. 10 p.
Journal article

Improving crop productivity and resource use efficiency to ensure food security and environmental quality in China
Fan, M., Shen, J., Yuan, L., Jiang, R., Chen, X., Davies, W.J., Zhang, F. 2012 In: Journal of Experimental Botany. 63, 1, p. 13-24. 12 p.
Journal article

The effect of competition from neighbours on stomatal conductance in lettuce and tomato plants
Vysotskaya, L., Wilkinson, S., Davies, W.J., Arkhipova, T., Kudoyarova, G. 05/2011 In: Plant, Cell and Environment. 34, 5, p. 729-737. 9 p.
Journal article

Drought, ozone, ABA and ethylene: new insights from cell to plant to community.
Wilkinson, S., Davies, W.J. 04/2010 In: Plant, Cell and Environment. 33, 4, p. 510-525. 16 p.
Journal article

Measuring sap flow in “two root-one shoot” grafted plants to model shoot xylem ABA concentration during partial rootzone drying.
Dodd, I.C., Davies, W.J., Egea, G. 30/11/2009 In: Acta Horticulturae. 846
Journal article

Partial phenotypic reversion of ABA-deficient flacca tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) scions by a wild-type rootstock: normalising shoot ethylene relations promotes leaf area but does not diminish whole plant transpiration rate.
Dodd, I.C., Theobald, J.C., Richer, S.K., Davies, W.J. 10/2009 In: Journal of Experimental Botany. 60, 14, p. 4029-4039. 11 p.
Journal article

Ozone suppresses soil drying- and abscisic acid (ABA)-induced stomatal closure via an ethylene-dependent mechanism
Wilkinson, S., Davies, W.J. 08/2009 In: Plant, Cell and Environment. 32, 8, p. 949-959. 11 p.
Journal article

Chronic exposure to increasing background ozone impairs stomatal functioning in grassland species
Mills, G., Hayes, F., Wilkinson, S., Davies, W.J. 06/2009 In: Global Change Biology. 15, 6, p. 1522-1533. 12 p.
Journal article

Defining hybrid poplar (Populus deltoides x Populus trichocarpa) tolerance to ozone: identifying key parameters
Ryan, A., Cojocariu, C., Possell, M., Davies, B., Hewitt, N. 01/2009 In: Plant, Cell and Environment. 32, 1, p. 31-45. 15 p.
Journal article

Measuring Sap Flow in "Two Root-One Shoot" Grafted Plants to Model Shoot Xylem ABA Concentration during Partial Rootzone Drying
Dodd, I.C., Davies, W.J., Egea, G. 2009 In: Proceedings of the VIIth International Workshop on Sap Flow. Leuven : International Society for Horticultural Science p. 277-283. 7 p. ISBN: 978-90-6605-682-4.
Conference contribution

Reaping the Benefits: Science and the sustainable intensification of global agriculture
Davies, B., Baulcombe, D., Crute, I., Dunwell, J., Gale, M., Jones, J., Pretty, J., Sutherland, W., Toulmin, C. 2009 Royal Society. 86 p.
Commissioned report

Rhizosphere bacteria containing 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase increase yield of plants grown in drying soil via both local and systemic hormone signalling
Belimov, A.A., Dodd, I.C., Hontzeas, N., Theobald, J.C., Safronova, V.I., Davies, W.J. 2009 In: New Phytologist. 181, 2, p. 413-423. 11 p.
Journal article

The high light response to arabidopsis involves ABA signaling between vascular and bundle sheath cells
Galvez-Valdivieso, G., Fryer, M.J., Lawson, T., Slattery, K., Truman, W., Smirnoff, N., Asami, T., Davies, B., Jones, A.M., Baker, N.R., Mullineaux, P.M. 2009 In: Plant Cell. 21, 7, p. 2143-2162. 20 p.
Journal article

Accounting for sap flow from different parts of the root system improves the prediction of xylem ABA concentration in plants grown with heterogeneous soil moisture.
Dodd, I.C., Egea, G., Davies, W.J. 11/2008 In: Journal of Experimental Botany. 59, 15, p. 4083-4093. 11 p.
Journal article

An Arabidopsis mutant able to green after extended dark periods shows decreased transcripts of seed protein genes and altered sensitivity to abscisic acid.
Choy, M., Sullivan, J.A., Theobald, J.C., Davies, W.J., Gray, J.C. 10/2008 In: Journal of Experimental Botany. 59, 14, p. 3869-3884. 16 p.
Journal article

Abscisic acid signalling when soil moisture is heterogeneous: decreased photoperiod sap flow from drying roots limits abscisic acid export to the shoots
Dodd, I.C., Egea, G., Davies, W.J. 09/2008 In: Plant, Cell and Environment. 31, 9, p. 1263-1274. 12 p.
Journal article

Manipulation of the apoplastic pH of intact plants mimics stomatal and growth responses to water availability and microclimatic variation
Wilkinson, S., Davies, W.J. 02/2008 In: Journal of Experimental Botany. 59, 3, p. 619-631. 13 p.
Journal article

Improving water use in crop production
Morison, J.I.L., Baker, N.R., Mullineaux, P.M., Davies, W.J. 2008 In: Philosophical Transactions B: Biological Sciences. 363, 1491, p. 639-658. 20 p.
Journal article

Manipulation of soil : plant signalling networks to limit water use and sustain plant productivity during deficit irrigation – a review.
Dodd, I.C., Davies, W.J., Belimov, A.A., Safronova, V.I. 2008 In: Acta Horticulturae. 792, p. 233-239. 7 p.
Journal article

ABA signalling, grafting, irrigation scheduling, partial rootzone drying, tomato, water use.
Belimov, A.A., Dodd, I.C., Safronova, V.I., Hontzeas, N., Davies, W.J. 04/2007 In: Journal of Experimental Botany. 58, 6, p. 1485-1495. 11 p.
Journal article

Delivering enhanced fruit quality to the UK tomato industry through implementation of partial root-zone drying.
Theobald, J.C., Bacon, M.A., Davies, W.J. 04/2007 In: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology - Part A: Molecular and Integrative Physiology. 146, 4 Supp, p. S241-S241.
Journal article

Modification of Leaf Apoplastic pH in Relation to Stomatal Sensitivity to Root-Sourced Abscisic Acid Signals.
Jia, W., Davies, W.J. 01/2007 In: Plant Physiology. 143, 1, p. 68-77. 10 p.
Journal article

The identification of genes involved in the stomatal response to reduced atmospheric relative humidity.
Xie, X.D., Wang, Y.B., Williamson, L., Holroyd, G.H., Tagliavia, C., Murchie, E., Theobald, J.C., Knight, M.R., Davies, W.J., Leyser, H.M.O., Hetherington, A.M. 9/05/2006 In: Current Biology. 16, 9, p. 882-887. 6 p.
Journal article

Identification of Arabidopsis guard cell CO2 signalling mutants using infrared thermography.
Hetherington, A., Davies, W.J., Holroyd, G., McAinsh, M., Tagliavia, C. 04/2006 In: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology - Part A: Molecular and Integrative Physiology. 143, 4 Supp, p. S142.
Journal article

Alternation of wet and dry sides during partial rootzone drying irrigation alters root-to-shoot signalling of abscisic acid.
Dodd, I.C., Theobald, J.C., Bacon, M.A., Davies, W.J. 2006 In: Functional Plant Biology. 33, 12, p. 1081-1089. 9 p.
Journal article

Long-distance signals regulating stomatal conductance and leaf growth in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) plants subjected to partial root-zone drying.
Sobeih, W.Y., Dodd, I.C., Bacon, M.A., Grierson, D., Davies, W.J. 11/2004 In: Journal of Experimental Botany. 55, 407, p. 2353-2363. 11 p.
Journal article

Assessing shifts in microbial community structure across a range of grasslands of differing management intensity using CLPP, PLFA and community DNA techniques.
Grayston, S.J., Campbell, C.D., Bardgett, R.D., Mawdsley, J.L., Clegg, C.D., Ritz, K., Griffiths, B.S., Rodwell, J.S., Edwards, S.J., Davies, W.J., Elston, D.J. 01/2004 In: Applied Soil Ecology. 25, 1, p. 63-84. 22 p.
Journal article

Biomass allocation in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) plants grown under partial rootzone drying : enhancement of root growth.
Mingo, D.M., Theobald, J.C., Bacon, M.A., Davies, W.J., Dodd, I.C. 2004 In: Functional Plant Biology. 31, 10, p. 971-978. 8 p.
Journal article

Non-hydraulic regulation of fruit growth of tomato plants rooted in drying soil.
Mingo, D.M., Bacon, M.A., Davies, W.J. 04/2003 In: Journal of Experimental Botany. 54, 385, p. 1205-1212. 8 p.
Journal article

Adaption of roots to drought.
Davies, W.J., Bacon, M.A. 2003 In: Root ecology. Springer Verlag p. 173-192. 20 p.
Chapter

Regulation of plant growth in container-grown ornamentals through the use of irrigation.
Cameron, R.W.F., Wilkinson, S., Davies, W.J., Harrison-Murray, R.S., Dunstan, D., Burgess, C. 2003 In: Acta Horticulturae. 630, p. 305-312. 8 p.
Journal article

Water saving agriculture and sustainable use of water and land resources : volume 2.
Kang, S., Davies, W.J., Shan, L., Cai, H. 2003 Shaanxi Science and Technology Press. 581 p.
Book

Water-saving agriculture and sustainable use of water and land resources.
Kang, S., Davies, W.J., Shan, L., Cai, H. 2003 Shaanxi Science and Technology Press. 578 p.
Book

ABA-based chemical signalling : the co-ordination of responses to stress in plants.
Wilkinson, S., Davies, W.J. 02/2002 In: Plant, Cell and Environment. 25, 2, p. 195-210. 16 p.
Journal article

Root signals.
Bacon, M.A., Davies, W.J., Mingo, D.M., Wilkinson, S. 2002 In: The hidden half (3rd ed.). New York : Springer p. 461-470. 10 p.
Chapter

Stomatal control by chemical signalling and the exploitation of of this mechanism to increase water use efficiency in agriculture.
Davies, W.J., Wilkinson, S., Loveys, B. 2002 In: New Phytologist. 153, 3, p. 449-460. 12 p.
Journal article

The long-distance ABA signal : the fate of the hormone on its way from the root to the shoot.
Sauter, A., Davies, W.J., Hartung, W. 10/2001 In: Journal of Experimental Botany. 52, 363, p. 1991-1998. 8 p.
Journal article

Rapid low temperature induced stomatal closure occurs in cole tolerant Commelina communis leaves but not in cold sensitive Nicotiana rutica leaves via a mechanism that involves apoplastic calcium but not abscisic acid.
Wilkinson, S., Clephan, A.L., Davies, W.J. 08/2001 In: Plant Physiology. 126, 4, p. 1566-1578. 13 p.
Journal article

Abscisic acid in leaves and roots of willow : significance for stomatal conductance.
Liu, L., McDonald, A.J.S., Stadenberg, I., Davies, W.J. 07/2001 In: Tree Physiology. 21, 11, p. 759-764. 6 p.
Journal article

Stomatal and leaf growth responses to partial drying of root tips in willow.
Liu, L., McDonald, A.J.S., Stadenberg, I., Davies, W.J. 07/2001 In: Tree Physiology. 21, 11, p. 765-770. 6 p.
Journal article

Is stomatal sensitivity to air humidity related to habitat of origin?
Dilkes, N.B., Kerstiens, G., Davies, W.J. 2001 In: Proceedings of the new phytologist symposium. p. 4.
Chapter

New irrigation methods to increase water and nutrient use efficiency.
Mingo, D.M., Davies, W.J. 2001 In: Proceedings of a conference of the International Fertiliser Society. p. 271-284. 14 p.
Chapter

Plant factors and opportunities for the improvement of root functioning.
Davies, W.J., Dobson, C., Rados-Blanusa, T. 2001 In: Proceedings of a conference of the International Fertiliser Society. p. 387-402. 16 p.
Chapter

Regulation of leaf and fruit growth in plants growing in drying soil : exploitation of the plants' chemical signalling system and hydraulic architecture to increase the efficiency of water use in agriculture.
Davies, W.J., Bacon, M.A., Thompson, D.S., Sobeih, W., Gonzales-Rodriguez, L. 09/2000 In: Journal of Experimental Botany. 51, 350, p. 1617-1626. 10 p.
Journal article

Stomatal reactions of two maize lines to osmotically induced drought stress.
Stikic, R., Davies, W.J. 09/2000 In: Biologia Plantarum. 43, 3, p. 399-405. 7 p.
Journal article

Physiological markers for microplant shoot and root quality.
Davies, W.J., Santamaria, J.M. 2000 In: Acta Horticulturae. 530, p. 363-376. 14 p.
Journal article

Plant species and nitrogen effects on soil biological properties of temperate upland grasslands.
Bardgett, R.D., Mawdsley, J.L., Edwards, S., Hobbs, P.J., Rodwell, J.S., Davies, W.J. 10/1999 In: Functional Ecology. 13, 5, p. 650-660. 11 p.
Journal article

An analysis of the dynamic response of stomatal conductance to a reduction in humidity over leaves of Cedrella odorata
Jarvis, A.J., Young, P.J., Taylor, C.J., Davies, W.J. 08/1999 In: Plant, Cell and Environment. 22, 8, p. 913-924. 12 p.
Journal article

Stomatal behaviour, photosynthesis and transpiration under rising CO2.
Jarvis, A.J., Mansfield, T.A., Davies, W.J. 06/1999 In: Plant, Cell and Environment. 22, 6, p. 639-648. 10 p.
Journal article

Photosynthetic activity of the calyx, green shoulder, pericarp and locular parenchyma of tomato fruit.
Smillie, R.M., Hetherington, S.E., Davies, W.J. 05/1999 In: Journal of Experimental Botany. 50, 334, p. 707-718. 12 p.
Journal article

A mechanism for low temperature-induced stomatal closure.
Wilkinson, S., Davies, W.J. 1999 In: Crop development for cool and wet climate of Europe. COST p. 298-310. 13 p.
Chapter

Plant responses to small peturbations in soil water status.
Davies, W.J., Gowing, D.J.G. 1999 In: Physiological plant ecology. Oxford : Blackwell p. 67-90. 24 p.
Chapter

Plants under stress.
Quarrie, S.A., Davies, W.J. 1999 Kluwer. 133 p.
Book

Using the plant's stress signalling system to increase water use efficiency in irrigation.
Davies, W.J., Wilkinson, S., Thompson, D.S. 1999 In: Proceedings of the 14th Dalhlia Greidinger conference. p. 251-266. 16 p.
Chapter

Manipulation of growth of horticultural crops under environmental stress
Davies, B., Thompson, D., Taylor, J. 1998 In: Proceedings of the HRI Conference. p. 157-174. 18 p.
Conference contribution

Chemical regulation of gas exchange and growth of plants in drying soil in the field.
Dodd, I.C., Stikic, R., Davies, W.J. 10/1996 In: Journal of Experimental Botany. 47, 10, p. 1475-1490. 16 p.
Journal article

Stomatal closure in flooded tomato plants involves abscisic acid and a chemically unidentified anti-transpirant in xylem sap.
Else, M.A., Tiekstra, A.E., Croker, S.J., Davies, W.J., Jackson, M.B. 09/1996 In: Plant Physiology. 112, 1, p. 239-247. 9 p.
Journal article

The relationship between leaf growth and ABA accumulation in the grass leaf elongation zone.
Dodd, I.C., Davies, W.J. 09/1996 In: Plant, Cell and Environment. 19, 9, p. 1047-1056. 10 p.
Journal article

Pressure-flow relationships, xylem solutes and hydraulic conductivity in roots of flooded tomato plants.
Jackson, M.B., Davies, W.J., Else, M.A. 01/1996 In: Annals of Botany. 77, 1, p. 17-24. 8 p.
Journal article

An analysis of relative elemental growth rate, epidermal cell size and xyloglucan endotransglycosylase activity through the growing zone of ageing maize leaves.
Palmer, S.J., Davies, W.J. 1996 In: Journal of Experimental Botany. 47, 3, p. 339-347. 9 p.
Journal article

Control of crops leaf growth by chemical and hydraulic influences.
Puliga, S., Vazzana, C., Davies, W.J. 1996 In: Journal of Experimental Botany. 47, 4, p. 529-537. 9 p.
Journal article

Is the gaseous environment inside culture vessels responsible for the limited capacity of vitroplants to control water-loss?
Santamaria, J.M., Davies, W.J. 1996 In: Plant Physiology. 111, Supple, p. 89-89. 1 p.
Journal article

Keeping in touch - responses of the whole-plant to deficits in water and nitrogen supply.
MacDonald, A.J.S., Davies, W.J. 1996 In: Advances in Botanical Research. 22, p. 229-300. 72 p.
Journal article

Asymmetric responses of adaxial and abaxial stomata to elevated CO2: impacts on the control of gas exchange by leaves.
Pearson, M., Davies, W.J., Mansfield, T.A. 08/1995 In: Plant, Cell and Environment. 18, 8, p. 837-843. 7 p.
Journal article

Export of Abscisic Acid, 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylic Acid, Phosphate, and Nitrate from Roots to Shoots of Flooded Tomato Plants (Accounting for Effects of Xylem Sap Flow Rate on Concentration and Delivery).
Else, M.A., Hall, K.C., Arnold, G.M., Davies, W.J., Jackson, M.B. 02/1995 In: Plant Physiology. 107, 2, p. 377-384. 8 p.
Journal article

A Negative Hydraulic Message from Oxygen-Deficient Roots of Tomato Plants? (Influence of Soil Flooding on Leaf Water Potential, Leaf Expansion, and Synchrony between Stomatal Conductance and Root Hydraulic Conductivity).
Else, M.A., Davies, W.J., Malone, M., Jackson, M.B. 1995 In: Plant Physiology. 109, 3, p. 1017-1024. 8 p.
Journal article

How do stomata read abscisic-acid signals?
Trejo, C.L., Clephan, A.L., Davies, W.J. 1995 In: Plant Physiology. 109, 3, p. 803-811. 9 p.
Journal article

The use of epifluorescence microscopy as a method for observing aphid stylet tracks.
Cook, P.A., Davies, W.J. 07/1994 In: Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata. 72, 1, p. 91-95. 5 p.
Journal article

Concentrations of abscisic acid and other solutes in xylem sap from root systems of tomato and castor-oil plants are distorted by wounding and variable sap flow rates.
Else, M.A., Davies, W.J., Whitford, P.N., Hall, K.C., Jackson, M.B. 1994 In: Journal of Experimental Botany. 45, 3, p. 317-324. 8 p.
Journal article

Does abscisic acid play a stress physiological role in maize plants growing in heavily compacted soil ?
Hartung, W., Zhang, J.H., Davies, W.J. 1994 In: Journal of Experimental Botany. 45, 2, p. 221-226. 6 p.
Journal article

Genetic variation in abscisic acid accumulation in wheat roots and the possible implications of this for the response of root growth to drying soil.
Rigby, M., Davies, W.J., Quarrie, S.A. 1994 In: Aspects of Applied Biology. 38, p. 57-62. 6 p.
Journal article

How do chemical signals work in plants that grow in drying soil?
Davies, W.J., Tardieu, F., Trejo, C.L. 1994 In: Plant Physiology. 104, 2, p. 309-314. 6 p.
Journal article

What controls stomata in drying soil?
Trejo, C.L., Davies, W.J. 1994 In: Aspects of Applied Biology. 38, p. 93-100. 8 p.
Journal article

Xylem-transported chemical signals and the regulation of plant growth and physiology.
Gowing, D.J.G., Davies, W.J., Trejo, C.L., Jones, H.G. 29/07/1993 In: Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences. 341, 1295, p. 41-47. 7 p.
Journal article

Effects of elevated CO2 on productivity, carbon balance and community structure of upland vegetation.
Wolfenden, J., Davies, W.J., Mansfield, T.A. 1993 In: Journal of Experimental Botany. 44, Supple, p. P3.9.
Journal article

Integration of hydraulic and chemical signalling in the control of stomatal conductance and water status of droughted plants.
Tardieu, F., Davies, W.J. 1993 In: Plant, Cell and Environment. 16, 4, p. 341-349. 9 p.
Journal article

Sensitivity of Stomata to Abscisic Acid (An Effect of the Mesophyll).
Trejo, C.L., Davies, W.J., Ruiz, L.P. 1993 In: Plant Physiology. 102, 2, p. 497-502. 6 p.
Journal article

Stomata of micropropagated Delphinium plants respond to abscisic acid (ABA), CO2, light and water potential but fail to close fully.
Santamaria, J.M., Davies, W.J., Atkinson, C.J. 1993 In: Journal of Experimental Botany. 44, 1, p. 99-107. 9 p.
Journal article

Stomatal sensitivity to abscisic acid (ABA): an important variable?
Davies, W.J., Trejo, C.L. 1993 In: Journal of Experimental Botany. 44, Supple, p. P1.6.
Journal article

The transpiration stream: introduction.
Mansfield, T.A., Davies, W.J., Leigh, R.A. 1993 In: Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences. 341, 1295, p. 3-4. 2 p.
Journal article

Xylem-transported abscisic acid: the relative importance of its mass and its concentration in the control of stomatal aperture.
Gowing, D.J., Jones, H.G., Davies, W.J. 1993 In: Plant, Cell and Environment. 16, 4, p. 453-459. 7 p.
Journal article

Knowledge of xylem sap flow rate as a pre-requisite for accurate estimates of hormone transport from roots to shoots.
Else, M.A., Jackson, M.B., Davies, W.J. 1992 In: Journal of Experimental Botany. 43, Supple, p. P11.17.
Journal article

Stomatal Response to Abscisic Acid Is a Function of Current Plant Water Status.
Tardieu, F., Davies, W.J. 1992 In: Plant Physiology. 98, p. 540-545. 6 p.
Journal article

Water-deficit enhancement of proline, amino acid and ABA accumulation in barley and maize and the association with susceptibility to drought.
Al-Sulaiti, A., Lea, P.J., Davies, W.J. 1992 In: Journal of Experimental Botany. 43, Supple, p. P5.31.
Journal article

What information is conveyed by an ABA signal from maize roots in drying field soil?
Tardieu, F., Zhang, J., Davies, W.J. 1992 In: Plant, Cell and Environment. 15, 2, p. 185-192. 8 p.
Journal article

Xylem ABA controls the stomatal conductance of field-grown maize subjected to soil compaction and soil drying.
Tardieu, F., Zhang, J., Katerji, N., Bethenod, O., Palmer, S., Davies, W.J. 1992 In: Plant, Cell and Environment. 15, 2, p. 193-198. 6 p.
Journal article