Dr Ian Hartley

Senior Lecturer

Research Interests

Behavioural ecology - the study of how an animal's ecology and behaviour influence its ability to pass on its genes, either through its own offspring or via close relatives. More specifically I am interested in family interactions in birds with particular emphasis on mate choice and parental care. Birds provide excellent systems for studying these interactions because individuals are relatively easy to observe and the different components of the costs and benefits can be quantified. My earlier work focused mostly on sexual conflict between parents by trying to understand how parentage and parental care interact in polygynous and polyandrous matings. More recently, I have become interested in other within-family interactions, such as parent-offspring conflict and sibling competition.

Hatching asynchrony decreases the magnitude of parental care in domesticated Zebra Finches: empirical support for the peak load reduction hypothesis
Mainwaring, M.C., Lucy, D., Hartley, I.R. 06/2014 In: Ethology. 120, 6, p. 577-585. 9 p.
Journal article

Clutch-size variation in Western Palaearctic secondary hole-nesting passerine birds in relation to nest box design
Moller, A.P., Adriaensen, F., Artemyev, A., Banbura, J., Barba, E., Biard, C., Blondel, J., Bouslama, Z., Bouvier, J., Camprodon, J., Cecere, F., Chaine, A., Charmantier, A., Charter, M., Cichon, M., Cusimano, C., Czeszczewik, D., Doligez, B., Doutrelant, C., Dubiec, A., Eens, M., Eeva, T., Faivre, B., Ferns, P.N., Forsman, J.T., Garcia-del-Rey, E., Goldshtein, A., Goodenough, A.E., Gosler, A.G., Gozdz, I., Gregoire, A., Gustafsson, L., Hartley, I.R., Heeb, P., Hinsley, S.A., Isenmann, P., Jacob, S., Jarvinen, A., Juskaitis, R., Kania, W., Korpimaki, E., Krams, I., Laaksonen, T., Leclercq, B., Lehikoinen, E., Loukola, O., Lundberg, A., Mainwaring, M.C., Mand, R., Massa, B., Mazgajski, T.D., Merino, S., Mitrus, C., Monkkonen, M., Morales-Fernaz, J., Moreno, J., Morin, X., Nager, R.G., Nilsson, J., Nilsson, S.G., Norte, A.C., Orell, M., Perret, P., Perrins, C.M., Pimentel, C.S., Pinxten, R., Priedniece, I., Quidoz, M., Remes, V., Richner, H., Robles, H., Russell, A., Rytkonen, S., Carlos 04/2014 In: Methods in Ecology and Evolution. 5, 4, p. 353-362. 10 p.
Journal article

Adaptive latitudinal variation in Common Blackbird Turdus merula nest characteristics
Mainwaring, M.C., Deeming, D.C., Jones, C.I., Hartley, I.R. 03/2014 In: Ecology and Evolution. 4, 6, p. 841-851. 11 p.
Journal article

The energetic costs of nest building in birds
Mainwaring, M.C., Hartley, I.R. 1/03/2013 In: Avian Biology Research. 6, 1, p. 12-17. 6 p.
Journal article

Hatching asynchrony and offspring sex influence the subsequent exploratory behaviour of zebra finches
Mainwaring, M.C., Hartley, I.R. 01/2013 In: Animal Behaviour. 85, 1, p. 77-81. 5 p.
Journal article

Sexual dimorphism and offspring growth: smaller female Blue Tit nestlings develop relatively larger gapes
Mainwaring, M.C., Dickens, M., Hartley, I.R. 10/2012 In: Journal of Ornithology. 153, 4, p. 1011-1016. 6 p.
Journal article

Latitudinal variation in blue tit and great tit nest characteristics indicates environmental adjustment
Mainwaring, M.C., Hartley, I.R., Bearhop, S., Brulez, K., du Feu, C.R., Murphy, G., Plummer, K.E., Webber, S.L., Reynolds, S.J., Deeming, D.C. 09/2012 In: Journal of Biogeography. 39, 9, p. 1669-1677. 9 p.
Journal article

Hatching asynchrony can have long-term consequences for offspring fitness in zebra finches under captive conditions
Mainwaring, M.C., Blount, J.D., Hartley, I.R. 06/2012 In: Biological Journal of the Linnean Society. 106, 2, p. 430-438. 9 p.
Journal article

Causes and Consequences of Differential Growth in Birds: A Behavioral Perspective
Mainwaring, M.C., Hartley, I.R. 2012 In: Advances in the Study of Behavior. 44, p. 225-277. 53 p.
Journal article

Local temperature and not latitude determines the design of Blue Tit and Great Tit nests
Deeming, D.C., Mainwaring, M.C., Hartley, I.R., Reynolds, S.J. 2012 In: Avian Biology Research. 5, 4, p. 203-208. 6 p.
Journal article

Zebra finches are bolder in an asocial, rather than social, context
Mainwaring, M.C., Beal, J.L., Hartley, I.R. 06/2011 In: Behavioural Processes. 87, 2, p. 171-175.
Journal article

Sexual dimorphism and growth trade-offs in Blue Tit Cyanistes caeruleus nestlings.
Mainwaring, M.C., Dickens, M., Hartley, I.R. 01/2011 In: Ibis. 153, 1, p. 175-179. 5 p.
Journal article

Parentally biased favouritism in relation to offspring sex in zebra finches
Mainwaring, M.C., Lucy, D., Hartley, I.R. 2011 In: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology. 65, 12, p. 2261-2268. 8 p.
Journal article

Diversity and temporal stability of bacterial communities in a model passerine bird, the zebra finch.
Benskin, C., Rhodes, G., Pickup, R.W., Wilson, K., Hartley, I.R. 12/2010 In: Molecular Ecology. 19, 24, p. 5531-5544. 14 p.
Journal article

Environmental and not maternal effects determine variation in offspring phenotypes in a passerine bird
Mainwaring, M.C., Dickens, M., Hartley, I.R. 2010 In: Journal of Evolutionary Biology. 23, 6, p. 1302-1311. 10 p.
Journal article

Hatching asynchrony and growth trade-offs within domesticated and wild zebra finch Taeniopygia guttata broods.
Mainwaring, M.C., Hartley, I.R., Gilby, A.J., Griffith, S.C. 2010 In: Biological Journal of the Linnean Society. 100, 4, p. 763-773. 11 p.
Journal article

Passerine extra-pair mating dynamics: A model-based comparison of four species.
Brommer, J.E., Alho, J.S., Biard, C., Chapman, J.R., Charmantier, A., Dreiss, A., Hartley, I.R., Hjernquist, M.B., Kempenaers, B., Komdeur, J., Laaksonen, T., Lehtonen, P.K., Lubjuhn, T., Patrick, S.C., Rosivall, B., Tinbergen, J.M., van der Velde, M., van Oers, K., Wilk, T., Winkel, W. 2010 In: The American Naturalist. 176, 2, p. 178-187. 10 p.
Journal article

Bacterial pathogens in wild birds: a review of the frequency and effects of infection.
Benskin, C., Wilson, K., Jones, K.J., Hartley, I.R. 08/2009 In: Biological Reviews. 84, 3, p. 349-373. 25 p.
Journal article

Experimental evidence for state-dependent nest weight in the blue tit, Cyanistes caeruleus.
Mainwaring, M.C., Hartley, I.R. 2009 In: Behavioural Processes. 81, 1, p. 144-146. 3 p.
Journal article

Hatching asynchrony and growth trade-offs within Barn Swallow broods.
Mainwaring, M.C., Rowe, L.V., Kelly, D.J., Grey, J., Bearhop, S., Hartley, I.R. 2009 In: The Condor. 111, 4, p. 668-674. 7 p.
Journal article

Biparental care and offspring begging strategies : hungry nestling blue tits move towards the father.
Dickens, M., Berridge, D., Hartley, I.R. 01/2008 In: Animal Behaviour. 75, 1, p. 167-174. 8 p.
Journal article

Covering nest boxes with wire mesh reduces great spotted woodpecker Dendrocopos major predation of blue tit Cyanistes caeruleus nestlings, Lancashire, England.
Mainwaring, M.C., Hartley, I.R. 2008 In: Conservation Evidence. 5, p. 45-46. 2 p.
Journal article

Seasonal adjustments in nest cup lining in Blue Tits Cyanistes caeruleus.
Mainwaring, M.C., Hartley, I.R. 2008 In: Ardea. 96, 2, p. 278-282. 5 p.
Journal article

The weight of female-built nests correlates with female but not male quality in the Blue Tit Cyanistes caeruleus.
Mainwaring, M.C., Benskin, C., Hartley, I.R. 2008 In: Acta Ornithologica. 43, 1, p. 43-48. 6 p.
Journal article

Heterotrophic microbial communities use ancient carbon following glacial retreat.
Bardgett, R.D., Richter, A., Bol, R., Garnett, M.H., Bäumler, R., Xu, X., Lopez-Capel, E., Manning, D., Hobbs, P.J., Hartley, I.R., Wanek, W. 22/10/2007 In: Biology Letters. 3, 5, p. 487-490. 4 p.
Journal article

Differences in parental food allocation rules : evidence for sexual conflict in the blue tit?
Dickens, M., Hartley, I.R. 07/2007 In: Behavioral Ecology. 18, 4, p. 674-679. 6 p.
Journal article

Stimuli for nestling begging in blue tits : hungry nestlings are less discriminating.
Dickens, M., Hartley, I.R. 07/2007 In: Journal of Avian Biology. 38, 4, p. 421-426. 6 p.
Journal article

Changes in eye colour of juvenile Bearded Tits (Panurus biarmicus) and its use in determining breeding productivity.
Wilson, J., Hartley, I.R. 04/2007 In: Ibis. 149, 2, p. 407-411. 5 p.
Journal article

Sexual conflict and its implications for fitness.
Hartley, I.R., Royle, N.J. 2007 In: Reproductive biology and phylogeny of birds. Enfield : Science Publishers Inc. p. 239-269. 31 p.
Chapter

Sexual dimorphism.
Hartley, I.R. 2007 In: Reproductive biology and phylogeny of birds. Enfield : Science Publishers Inc. p. 121-141. 21 p.
Chapter

Experimental evidence for adjustment of parental investment in relation to brood sex ratio in the blue tit.
Leech, D.I., Rowe, L.V., Hartley, I.R. 12/2006 In: Animal Behaviour. 72, 6, p. 1301-1307. 7 p.
Journal article

Consequences of biparental care for begging and growth in zebra finches Taeniopygia guttata.
Royle, N.J., Hartley, I.R., Parker, G.A. 07/2006 In: Animal Behaviour. 72, 1, p. 123-130. 8 p.
Journal article

Parental investment and family dynamics : interactions between theory and empiriical tests.
Royle, N.J., Hartley, I.R., Parker, G.A. 12/2004 In: Population Ecology. 46, 3, p. 231-241. 11 p.
Journal article

The effect of variation in dietary intake on maternal deposition of antioxidants in zebra finch eggs.
Royle, N.J., Surai, P.F., Hartley, I.R. 08/2003 In: Functional Ecology. 17, 4, p. 472-481. 10 p.
Journal article

A milestone in migration studies : answering and raising questions.
Hartley, I.R. 1/03/2003 In: Bird Study. 50, 1, p. 94-94. 1 p.
Journal article

Begging for control : when are offspring solicitation behaviours honest?
Royle, N.J., Parker, G.A., Hartley, I.R. 09/2002 In: Trends in Ecology and Evolution. 17, 9, p. 434-440. 7 p.
Journal article

A Study into the Raptor Predation of Domestic Pigeons: By Colin Shawyer, Roger Clarke and Nicholas Dixon. (2000). Published (product code 99 WACD 0942) and distributed free by the Department of the Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, Species Branch, Temple Quay House, Bristol BS1 6EB. 154pp. Paperback.
Dixon, A., Hartley, I.R. 06/2002 In: Biological Conservation. 105, 3, p. 405-406. 2 p.
Journal article

Sexual conflict reduces offspring fitness in zebra finches.
Royle, N.J., Hartley, I.R., Parker, G.A. 18/04/2002 In: Nature. 416, 6882, p. 733-736. 4 p.
Journal article

Intrafamilial conflict and parental investment : a synthesis.
Parker, G.A., Royle, N.J., Hartley, I.R. 29/03/2002 In: Philosophical Transactions B: Biological Sciences. 357, 1419, p. 295-307. 13 p.
Journal article

Begging scrambles with unequal chicks : interactions between need and competitive ability.
Parker, G.A., Royle, N.J., Hartley, I.R. 03/2002 In: Ecology Letters. 5, 2, p. 206-215. 10 p.
Journal article

Linkages between soil biota, nitorgen availability, and plant nitrogen uptake in a mountain ecosystem in the Scottish Highlands.
Bardgett, R.D., Streeter, T.C., Cole, L., Hartley, I.R. 02/2002 In: Applied Soil Ecology. 19, 2, p. 121-134. 14 p.
Journal article

Dunnock.
Hartley, I.R. 2002 In: The migration atlas : movements of the birds of Britain and Ireland. London : Poyser p. 496-497. 2 p.
Chapter

No effect of parental quality or extra-pair paternity on brood sex ratio in the blue tit (Parus caeruleus).
Leech, D.I., Hartley, I.R., Stewart, I.R.K., Griffith, S.C., Burke, T. 11/2001 In: Behavioral Ecology. 12, 6, p. 674-680. 7 p.
Journal article

Maternally derived androgens and antioxidants in bird eggs : complementary but opposing effects?
Royle, N.J., Surai, P.F., Hartley, I.R. 07/2001 In: Behavioral Ecology. 12, 4, p. 381-385. 5 p.
Journal article

Growth rates of nestling corn buntings Miliaria calandra in relation to their sex.
Hartley, I.R., Royle, N.J., Shepherd, M. 10/2000 In: Ibis. 142, 4, p. 668-671. 4 p.
Journal article

Wing feather mite infestations on passerine birds : season and ambient air temperature influence the distribution of Proctophyllodes stylifer across the wings of blue tits (Parus caeruleus).
Wiles, R., Cameron, J., Behnke, J.M., Hartley, I.R., Gilbert, F.S., McGregor, P.K. 08/2000 In: Canadian Journal of Zoology. 78, 8, p. 1397-1407. 11 p.
Journal article

Semi-quantitative assessment of wing feather mite (Acarina) infestations on passerine birds from Portugal - evaluation of the criteria for accurate quantification of mite burdens.
Behnke, J., McGregor, P., Cameron, J., Hartley, I.R., Shepherd, M., Gilbert, F., Barnard, C., Hurst, J., Gray, S.M., Wiles, R. 07/1999 In: Journal of Zoology. 248, 3, p. 337-347. 11 p.
Journal article

Sibling competition and the evolution of growth rates in birds.
Royle, N.J., Hartley, I.R., Owens, I.P.F., Parker, G.A. 7/05/1999 In: Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 266, 1422, p. 923-932. 10 p.
Journal article

Nestling sex ratios in the polygynously breeding corn bunting, Miliaria calandra.
Hartley, I.R., Griffith, S., Wilson, K., Shepherd, M., Burke, T. 1999 In: Journal of Avian Biology. 30, 1, p. 7-14. 8 p.
Journal article

The red gape of the nestling cuckoo (Cuculus canorus) is not a supernormal stimulus for three common hosts.
Nobel, D.G., Davies, N.B., Hartley, I.R., McRae, S.B. 1999 In: Behaviour. 136, 6, p. 759-777. 19 p.
Journal article

Food patchiness, territory overlap and social systems: an experiment with dunnocks Prunella modularis.
Davies, N.B., Hartley, I.R. 11/1996 In: Journal of Animal Ecology. 65, 6, p. 837-846. 10 p.
Journal article

Female song attracts males in the alpine accentor Prunella collaris.
Langmore, N.E., Davies, N.B., Hatchwell, B.J., Hartley, I.R. 22/02/1996 In: Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 263, 1367, p. 141-146. 6 p.
Journal article

Female control of copulations to maximise male help: a comparison of polygynandrous alpine accentors Prunella collaris and dunnocks Prunella modularis.
Davies, N.B., Hartley, I.R., Hatchwell, B.J., Langmore, N.E. 01/1996 In: Animal Behaviour. 51, 1, p. 27-47. 21 p.
Journal article

Mate-guarding, territorial intrusions and paternity defence in the polygynous Corn Bunting Miliaria calandra.
Shepherd, M., Currie, D., Hartley, I.R. 1996 In: Journal of Avian Biology. 27, 3, p. 231-237. 7 p.
Journal article