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There have been some breakthroughs in the last decade in the long-standing problem of predicting the structure of materials at the atomic scale. This is a hard problem in global optimization. Methods such as genetic algorithms, random structure search, and particle-swarm optimization have been applied to clusters and crystals with some success. In this talk, I will discuss recent work within my group on lower dimensional structures, include surface reconstructions of bulk materials (e.g. Si(111), and edge reconstructions of nano ribbons (e.g. MoS2). I will also discuss a current project on predicting the magnetic structure of materials.
Event Time
3pm-4pm
Venue
C36 Physics
Speaker
Prof Matt Probert, University of York
Short gamma-ray bursts are believed to be produced by ultra-relativistic jets launched from the merger of neutron stars (NSNS) or a black-hole and a neutron star (BHNS). A short (<2s) flash of gamma-rays, from internal shocks, is followed by a multi-band afterglow from external shocks as the jet decelerates in the ambient medium. Observations of the afterglow are currently triggered by the prompt gamma-rays. For jets with a bulk Lorentz factor <30 the prompt gamma-rays would be suppressed, resulting in an orphan afterglow as the jet decelerates. If low-Lorentz factors dominate the distribution of merger jets, then gravitational wave triggers from NSNS(BHNS) mergers will reveal a hidden population of failed short gamma-ray bursts. The electromagnetic counterparts to gravitational wave detected NSNS(BHNS) mergers can be used to determine the Lorentz-factor distribution, opening-angle, and structure of such jets
Event Time
1500 - 1600hrs
Venue
C36 Physics
Speaker
Gavin Lamb (Liverpool John Moores University
Hear first hand about the experience of PhD students in Physics and talk to members of different research groups. Refreshments will be provided and everyone is welcome!
Event Time
13:00 - 14:00
Venue
LUMS LT10 (B floor)
Detector Development for the ATLAS Upgrade
Event Time
13:45 - 14:45
Venue
Physics C36
Speaker
Dr. Daniel Muenstermann, Lancaster University
Neutrino Telescopes
Event Time
13:45 - 15:00
Venue
Physics C36
Speaker
Joao Coelho, APC Paris
Solar cycle variations in solar radiation create notable density changes in the Martian ionosphere. In addition to this long-term variability, there are numerous short-term and non-recurrent solar events that hit Mars which need to be considered, such as Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections (ICMEs), Co-Rotating Interaction Regions (CIRs), solar flares, or solar wind high speed streams. The response of the Martian plasma system to each of these events is often unusual, especially at different phases of the solar cycle. Moreover, there are other phenomena such as comet flybys that can notably affect the ionosphere of Mars. An example is the recent Siding-Spring comet encounter with Mars. The work is based on multi-spacecraft measurements, such as Mars Express, MAVEN, Mars Odyssey and MSL and with the help of empirical and numerical models. It is also supported by simulations using the solar wind WSA-ENLIL+Cone model and data from Earth orbit.
Event Time
1400-1500
Venue
Bowland North Seminar Room 6
Speaker
Dr. Beatriz Sanchez-Cano, University of Leicester
Abstract: Silicon complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology has driven the success of the semiconductor industry in the last few decades. The classical computational power has increased exponentially but this progress is bound to reach its fundamental limits in the next years. We are now starting to see that CMOS technology itself can offer an alternative to overcome its classical fundamental limits, not in terms of continued miniaturization but in terms of a different computing paradigm: quantum computation. In this talk, I will present a series of results on fully depleted silicon-on- insulator (FD-SOI) transistors at mili-Kelvin temperatures that demonstrate this technology can provide a platform for high-integration qubit architectures.
Event Time
3pm-4pm
Venue
C36 Physics
Speaker
Dr Fernando Gonzalez-Zalba, Hitachi Cambridge Laboratory
Sterile Neutrinos
Event Time
13:45 - 14:45
Venue
Physics C36
Speaker
Pawel Guzowski, Manchester
NaChBac was the first discovered bacterial sodium voltage-dependent channel, yet computational studies are still limited due to the lack of a crystal structure. In this work a pore-only construct built using the NaVMs template was investigated using unbiased Molecular Dynamics and Metadynamics. The Potential of Mean Force (PMF) from the unbiased run features four minima, three of which correspond to sites IN, CEN and HFS discovered in NavAb. During the run the Selectivity Filter (SF) is spontaneously occupied by two ions and frequent access of a third one is often observed. Metadynamics simulations biasing one and two ions, show an energy barrier in the SF that prevents single-ion permeation. An analysis of the permeation mechanism was performed both computing minimum energy paths in the axial-axial PMF and through a combination of Markov State modeling and Transition Path Theory. Both approaches reveal a knock-on mechanism involving at least two, but possibly three ions. An intriguing feature of NaChBac is that, despite being a sodium channel, the sequence of its Selectivity Filter is similar to that of Calcium ions. The molecular basis of Na/Ca selectivity of this channel is thus not clear. In a long unbiased simulation, a single Calcium ion access the SF where it remains stuck until the end of the calculation. We identify two reasons for Ca2+ inability to cross the SF: its higher free energy of binding with respect to Na+ and the electrostatic repulsion that the internal Ca2+ exerts on a potentially incoming second calcium, thus preventing a knock-on mechanism. Finally, through metadynamics simulations we show that the resident calcium ion can not prevent a Na+ ion from crossing the filter so that there is no anomalous mole fraction effect (AMFE) in agreement with experimental data.
Event Time
3pm-4pm
Venue
C36 Physics
Speaker
Dr. Carlo Guardiani, University of Warwick
ATLAS Higgs Physics
Event Time
13:45 - 14:45
Venue
Physics C36
Speaker
Chris Hays, Oxford
Solid-state quantum emitters are required for quantum information protocols relying on the storage, manipulation, and transmission of the information encoded in single photons through optical cavities and waveguides. Semiconductor quantum dots are particularly promising quantum light sources that can allow both the investigation of fundamental physics phenomena on a chip and quantum technology applications [1]. I will discuss the implementation of quantum dot nanostructures to create simultaneously bright and pure, on-demand, single-photon sources in engineered nanophotonic devices in gallium arsenide [2] and hybrid silicon/III-V materials [3]. I will present different photonic geometries for controlling light propagation, brightness and spontaneous emission rate, based on circular grating and ring cavities. Finally, I will focus on the comparison between highly engineered structures and disordered photonic crystal waveguides, showing efficient light confinement and optical sensing on a silicon nitride platform in the visible range of wavelengths [4]. References: [1] O. Gozzano, G.S. Solomon, Toward optical quantum information processing with quantum dots coupled to microstructures, Journal of the Optical Society of America B 33, C160 (2016) [2] L. Sapienza, M. Davanco, A. Badolato, K. Srinivasan, Nanoscale optical positioning of single quantum dots for bright and pure single-photon emission, Nature Communications 6, 7833 (2015). [3] M. Davanco, J. Liu, L. Sapienza, C.-Z. Zhang, J.V. De Miranda Cardoso, V. Verma, R. Mirin, S. W. Nam, L. Liu, K. Srinivasan, A heterogeneous III-V/silicon integration platform for on-chip quantum photonic circuits with single quantum dot devices, arxiv.org/abs/1611.07654 (2016). [4] T. Crane, O.J. Trojak, L. Sapienza, Anderson localisation of visible light on a nanophotonic chip, arxiv.org/abs/1605.08614 (2016).
Event Time
3pm-4pm
Venue
C36 Physics
Speaker
Dr Luca Sapienza, University of Southampton
ATLAS BSM Physics
Event Time
13:45 - 14:45
Venue
Physics C36
Speaker
Andy Buckley, Glasgow
We have measured the mobility and limiting terminal velocity of electron bubbles sliding along vortex lines in superfluid 4He for a broad range of temperatures (0.1 - 1 K). This allows dissipative processes at small length scales to be probed, which can include drag exerted by an excess density of excitations in the vicinity of the vortex core; the scattering and generation of Kelvin waves and solitons; condensation of 3He impurity atoms onto vortex cores. We have also used this technique to probe the dynamics of agitated vortex arrays and the corresponding timescales for relaxation back towards a rectilinear array, providing new insight into the decay of quantum turbulence at short length scales.
Event Time
3pm-4pm
Venue
C36 Physics
Speaker
Dr Paul Walmsley, University of Manchester
Double-Chooz
Event Time
13:45 - 14:45
Venue
Physics C36
Speaker
Jaime Dawson, APC Paris
One of our members of academic staff will talk about their experience of working in science, and how they have carved a successful career. Refreshments will be provided and everyone is welcome!
Event Time
13:00 - 14:00
Venue
LUMS LT10 (B floor)
Electroweak production measurements at the LHCb experiment LHCb is able to make important contributions in areas of research beyond LHCb's original remit in beauty and charm physics. I will present the latest LHCb measurements of forward Electroweak Boson Production in proton-proton collisions. These results provide unique constraints on the parton distribution functions which describe the inner structure of the proton, probing a region of phase space at low Bjorken-x where the other LHC experiments have limited sensitivity. I will also present measurements of cross-section ratios, which can provide precision tests of the Standard Model. I shall also present a measurement of the forward-backward asymmetry (A_FB) in Z boson decays to two muons. This result allows for precision tests of the vector and axial-vector couplings of the Z boson, providing sensitivity to the effective weak mixing angle (sin^2(theta_W^eff)). The A_FB distribution visible in the LHCb acceptance is particularly sensitive to this angle, as the forward phase-space probed at LHCb means that the initial state quark direction is better known than in the central region probed by the other LHC detectors. This reduces uncertainties in extracting sin^2(theta_W^eff) from A_FB, and allows LHCb to make the most precise determination of sin^2(theta_W^eff) at the LHC. I shall also discuss (some of) the future potential of these and related measurements at LHCb.
Event Time
13:45 - 14:45
Venue
Physics C36
Speaker
Dr Will Barter, Manchester
I will review our recent progress in the generation of kHz relativistic electron beams driven by single-cycle laser pulses. This new source, providing 5 MeV electrons with few femtosecond duration has great potential for studying ultrafast structural dynamics via ultrafast electron diffraction (UED). I will also show recent UED results showing intriguing lattice dynamics in single crystal Silicon.
Event Time
3pm-4pm
Venue
C36 Physics
Speaker
Prof. Jérôme Faure, ENSTA ParisTech
Neutrinos with ANNIE & WATCHMAN
Event Time
13:45 - 14:45
Venue
Physics C36
Speaker
Matthew Malek, Sheffield
Join us to meet Physics researchers and talk about whatever you're working on or would like to work on in the future, including summer/undergraduate research projects. Refreshments will be provided and everyone is welcome!
Event Time
13:00 - 14:00
Venue
C36, Physics
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Day | Week | Month | Year | Upcoming