A Level Requirements
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Full time 3 Year(s)
Interested in developing practical legal knowledge and an understanding of how interplay between Law and Politics affects issues such as war and peace, poverty and inequality, order and justice, governance and power? This qualifying Law degree is taught by the world-leading, research-active academics based in our prestigious Law School and PPR Department. They will introduce you to core topics in Politics and Law and support you as you develop specialist and transferable skills.
You will benefit from our strong links to Chambers, Law firms and Institutes from across the UK, including magic circle firms from London. We host a judicial lecture series, alumni visits and lectures, and a Law Fair, which is your chance to meet lawyers (including trainees, associates and partners) and members of their recruitment teams. The Richardson Institute for peace and conflict research offers a wide variety of research projects, providing you with the opportunity to work alongside external clients such as the Ministry of Defence and Radicalisation Research. All of this helps you to make professional connections and get a head start on your chosen career.
Our student-run Law Society provides you with a wide range of extracurricular activities including mooting and negotiation competitions (judged by barristers and members of the judiciary), a Law Ball, sporting fixtures, and a careers dinner. Each event is designed to help you build your peer and potential employer networks.
Practical experience is integral to this degree and you can take part in initiatives such as our newly-launched Law Clinic which gives you real-world experience providing free legal advice to members of the local community. Our Miscarriages of Justice Project gives you the chance to work on real criminal cases alongside practising lawyers as they support prisoners who maintain their innocence and have exhausted their appeal rights. Through the Street Law project you can gain experience in schools and organisations, advising and supporting them on specific areas of law.
Your degree can be the first step towards a career as a solicitor or barrister but Law with Politics graduates are also in demand beyond these roles. Our graduates often choose to pursue careers in the Civil Service, local and national government or public affairs, or use their degree as a foundation for careers in commerce, industry, accountancy, law, teaching, academic work, journalism and the armed forces.
At Lancaster, you will develop the skills required to negotiate competently, work effectively in a team, speak in public and be confident when presenting information in variety of formats - all are highly prized by employers. Many of our graduates also choose further study (Legal Practice Course, Bar Professional Training Course, LLM and MSc programmes) or enrol in graduate training schemes with HMRC, the Civil Service, and the Crown Prosecution Service.
A Level AAB
IELTS 6.5 overall with at least 5.5 in each component. For other English language qualifications we accept, please see our English language requirements webpages.
International Baccalaureate 35 points overall with 16 points from the best 3 Higher Level subjects
BTEC Distinction, Distinction, Distinction
Access to HE Diploma 30 Level 3 credits at Distinction and 15 Level 3 credits at Merit
We welcome applications from students with a range of alternative UK and international qualifications, including combinations of qualification. Further guidance on admission to the University, including other qualifications that we accept, frequently asked questions and information on applying, can be found on our general admissions webpages.
Contact Admissions Team + 44 (0) 1524 592028 or via email@example.com
Many of Lancaster's degree programmes are flexible, offering students the opportunity to cover a wide selection of subject areas to complement their main specialism. You will be able to study a range of modules, some examples of which are listed below.
This engaging module immerses you in a broad investigation of criminal law, including legal rules, substantive crimes, the conditions of criminal responsibility, and law in practice. We will explore the scope of law and its enforcement in a political, economic, moral and social context.
You will develop an understanding of the principles of criminal liability, and the elements of major offences from homicide to theft, fraud to sexual offences, and offences against the person. You will also explore complicity, inchoate offences and defences.
We encourage lively discourse and debate through a combination of workshops and seminars, both of which are linked to a lecture programme. This helps you to consolidate knowledge, analyse and argue about criminal law.
Our teaching is research-led and you will be encouraged to read as widely as possible on the subject. Not only does this module provide the foundation for further study in Part Two, but it also establishes key skills in presentation, critical analysis, and intelligent debate.
This year-long compulsory module introduces you to the central tenants of the English Legal System and supports the development of the legal skills that will see you through your degree.
The module is your initiation into legal reasoning and the process of legal research. Within it we will also cover substantive topics including:
the structure of the courts and tribunals
international sources of law
the legal professions
the criminal trial process and civil litigation
A combination of lectures, workshops and seminars provides you with a sustained opportunity to: deepen your knowledge of the English Legal System; learn how to read legal cases and journal articles and critically analyse legal materials; write law essays; and problem solve.
Assessment starts with a bibliography ‘bootcamp’ in which you are taught how to reference and create a bibliography, as well as group debates, case notes, and (finally) an MCQ examination.
The module is taught by Dr Siobhan Weare who co-authors one of the leading textbooks in this area of Law.
Contract Law at Lancaster is studied from an interesting perspective – we begin by looking at resolution for breach of contract. This includes monetary compensation, injunctions and orders compelling parties to carry out their promises.
By starting at the end, you are constantly reminded of the purpose of Contract Law (to provide a remedy to an aggrieved party when the other party has broken its contractual obligations). It also means that you get to practise applying the law while studying this important but difficult topic, and, you will be able to competently address the main concern of clients when you begin practising law: resolution.
Of course, we also study the formation of contract, terms of contract, and their interpretation and enforceability. But heavy emphasis remains on remedy.
The course involves self-study of the historical and theoretical aspects of contracts and contract law. For this you will use ‘Contract in Context’ co-authored by Dr Richard Austen-Baker, the module convenor. The book includes cutting-edge research that is presented in wholly accessible way – ideal as you take your first steps in the study of Law.
This module introduces students to some of the key areas of Politics and International Relations. It will provide a basic introduction and a foundation for future study, as well as expand and develop knowledge into new areas.
The module tells a story about the 20th century that enables students to make sense of the 21st century world. Beginning with the consequences of the First World War, the module introduces students to the events and ideas that have transformed societies in complex ways: the evolution of the welfare state; the problems of democracy; increasingly global formations of governance; the transformation from Cold War geopolitics to the 21st century’s War on Terror; and the emergence of new issues such as global warming, amongst a wide range of other issues.
Students are introduced to the research concerns of members of the department, as well as setting the scene for modules offered at advanced stages in the degree structure.
This course is compulsory for second year students who have not taken Law 105 in their first year. The EU as a legal system operates differently to English law, as such; this module will give you a basic understanding of the European Union (EU). The institutions of the EU, the way law is created and developed, the principles governing relations between the EU and its Member States, and the substantive law of the EU will introduce you to new concepts. The course as a whole focuses most greatly on the constitutional aspects of the EU; however you will also be introduced to substantive law relating to the free movement of goods and persons.
This core module introduces students to torts. Students critically explore the key torts and tort principles including, trespass to the person, negligence, torts of strict liability and vicarious liability. Students also consider defences to torts and remedies for aggrevied parties.
This module aims to develop a critical understanding of Constitutional Law. The course seeks to problematise the legitimacy of the constitutional arrangements of the UK. A contextual approach is adopted which entails drawing upon historical, political, comparative and jurisprudential materials. The module will constantly question whether Constitutional Law functions as a 'real' regulator of legitimacy or as a symbolic one.
This module also provides an introduction to Administrative Law, and Human Rights/Civil Liberties in the UK.
This module examines the origins, workings and policies of the European Union. It begins by considering the treaties that led to the contemporary union and focuses on the key strains of thought that have given rise to contemporary debates about the form the European Union ought to take.
At a time of unprecedented financial crisis and the prospect of a British exit from the EU itself, the module offers a comprehensive focus on all key issues from European politics, government, and economics, to public policy. It includes an analysis of the process and dynamics of European integration, especially since the collapse of the Soviet Union; an account of the various European institutions which have developed (including the work of the Commission in Brussels), a discussion of key public policy areas (with an emphasis on the European Social Model) and finally a focus on European party politics, covering influential European ideologies such as Social Democracy, Christian Democracy and also Euro-scepticism.
The aim of this module is to offer students from a wide range of backgrounds the opportunity to engage with the most important debates and issues in the study of the politics of the Middle East and Asia, and to locate and contextualise them within wider debates and scholarship of global politics. The module aims to develop enhance critical understanding of a series of key issues in the politics of the contemporary Middle East and Asia, as well as familiarising students with a wide range of case studies.
The module will typically include the following topics:
How do political forces and legal practices intersect in industrial nations? How do courts function in North America as compared to Russia? How are legal systems and politics connected through the adjudication of criminal justice?
Courts, Law and Politics in Comparative Perspective compares and contrasts the intersections between courts, law and politics in several countries and offers an engaging insight into the different jurisdictions.
We pursue contemporary themes and begin by addressing developments in North America. We also study Soviet Law, post-dictatorial, and post-conflict states.
The teaching of each of these topic is informed by the cutting-edge research of the lecturers whose interests focus on the areas of maladministration of justice and transitional criminal justice.
The ability to evaluate legal frameworks in a comparative perspective is an invaluable skill. This course will strengthen your understanding of laws and their role in the construction and shaping of societies.
How does the law define familial relationships? And how do the law and family justice systems regulate those relationships – between adults, and between parents and children?
Our Family Law module focuses on these key questions, and more. We will delve into family life and intimate relationships, exploring issues such as marriage, divorce and custody. You will critically evaluate legal issues relating to family, and develop a sound legal understanding of how the law affects family relationships and resolves familial conflicts.
Topics covered in this module include:
Forming Legal Relationships
Ending Legal Relationships
Parents and Children
Child Arrangements Orders (Residence)
Child Arrangements Orders (Contact)
Abuse within the Family (Adults)
Abuse within the Family (Children)
Teaching is via weekly lectures and workshops. You will undertake group work in the workshops and engage in debates that are pertinent to the body of Family Law. Written feedback is given at the end of each workshop cycle.
The module is assessed via MCQ and written exam.
What are human rights? How are they implemented or contravened? What is the relationship between complex human rights issues and society today?
This module uses the context of the European human rights regime to investigate civil liberties and human rights protection. You will adopt a critical and comparative approach as you gain a comprehensive grounding in the law of human rights.
We will tackle some of the most complex and relevant issues such as the right to life, freedom from torture, freedom of expression, and capital punishment. Specific case studies allow you to engage with issues and questions regarding whistle-blowing and enforced disappearances.
Our teaching is research-led and combines seminars, tutorials and lectures. You will be encouraged to read as widely as possible on the subject and we will help you to develop your skills in critical analysis, discourse and debate.
This module can be taken in Years 2 or 3 and is taught in the Michaelmas term.
This course in International Human Rights is aimed at introducing the students to the content of human rights as protected by international human rights law and to the structures and procedures in place to monitor their implementation. The course will focus on the international context through the United Nations system, as well as regional human rights systems when relevant. The course takes an interdisciplinary approach and will look at the way in which political and social structures in contemporary society influence the enjoyment of human rights. Substantive topics of current human rights standards will be discussed. This will partly be through a study of international treaties, such as the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, and partly through the study of specific protection for vulnerable groups, such as minorities and children. Contemporary challenges to human rights will also be addressed such as conflict and development.
The principal objective of this module is to provide a relatively comprehensive and integrated foundation to the study of international relations by introducing students to its basic conceptual vocabulary and theoretical concerns and by applying this conceptual knowledge to an understanding of changes and developments in the international system.
The module covers the historical development of the discipline in the 20th century into the 21st century, moving from the orthodoxy that has come to dominate mainstream Anglo-American international relations (Realism and Liberalism) through to the various challenges that have emerged from critical schools of thought. The module examines how different theories of international relations illuminate and interrogate some of the central ethico-political problems of the 'international' in modern history.
This is a half module that introduces year two undergraduates to a wide range of commercial law issues and thereby enables them to specialise further in the third year. The course is foundational and seeks to enable students to place discrete commercial law options in the appropriate context. There will be an introduction to the substantive topics of commercial law such as the structures of companies and the law in relation to the Sale of Goods as well as a discussion of modern commerce.
The course provides an introduction to comparative law, and explores whether the traditional comparisons between the common law and civil law systems – and the traditional approaches to the study of comparative law – need to be re-thought and if so, how this could be approached. Students will be introduced to common law and civil law traditions, in order to assist the comparison, students will examine key features of a civil law system and its legal culture. Students should ensure that they possess a prior basic understanding of the English legal system. In addition, students will be encouraged to think about the reasons of policy and principle that lie behind specific legal institutions and practices.
This module provides amongst a range of other issues: a study of war, its causes and consequences; violence at personal and structural levels within society (especially racism); positive definitions of peace; and misperceptions and enemy images through the media.
The module investigates and examines theoretical and practical issues surrounding peace and violence within modern society. It also examines the conditions of peace and war, assessing the scope for conflict resolution, non-violence and reconciliation. The first term introduces the main approaches within Peace Studies, exploring the development of ideas in the field as they bear on the roots of violence and understandings of peace and peace-making. The second term applies this thinking to contemporary conflicts, focusing on policies of conflict prevention and conflict resolution.
The module is taught in a non-dogmatic and interdisciplinary manner, encouraging students to develop their own perspectives and conclusions following discussions and debates throughout the year.
Given the importance of this emerging key legal issue, the aim of this module is to introduce students to key legal issues in respect of cybercrime. The module will discuss key themes including: cybercrime, including; conceptions of cybercrime, jurisdictional issues in cyberspace, improper access to technology, offences relating to data, misuse of devices, fraud, virtual property, hateful and harmful material and cyber-harassment. Such a discussion will enable you to critically evaluate the effectiveness of the law as an instrument in responding to cybercrimes. International as well as domestic responses will be considered, and particular attention will be paid to the Council of Europe Convention on Cybercrime (CATS No 185) and how this impacts domestic law.
The theory of the law is very much the focus of this course. The module investigates such questions as "what is law?", "why is law obeyed?", and “what are the relationships between law and power and authority?" Theorists such as Dicey and Raz will be explored in further detail, as will some of the issues touched upon in the public law course. The module will begin by examining natural law and positivism before moving on to considering alternative approaches to “what is law” such as legal realism, post modernism, interpretivism and systems theory.
What are the challenges facing the legal profession? What place did, and do, lawyers hold in society? And how are they represented in fiction?
Lawyers and Society tackles key questions around the organisational and institutional structures of the legal profession, taking a close look at the contemporary challenges that it now faces.
While the module primarily focuses on the Anglo-Welsh system, we will also address other systems through literature on law in the USA, Australia and other commonwealth jurisdictions.
Topics covered in the module include:
an appreciation of the current status of the legal profession, including its globalised context
‘Tesco Law’ and law in an information/digital age
business, economic and ethical considerations in the legal profession, lawyering and access to justice
implications of key statues such as the Legal Services Act
issues of diversity within the legal profession
Throughout the module, you will develop a solid understanding of issues relating to lawyer/client interactions, such as ethics, confidentiality, legal professional privilege, conflict of interest. And, unique to this module, you will study representations of lawyers and lawyering in fictional settings, such as TV, film, literature and plays.
This module exposes you to a range of debates and encourages you to think creatively and critically, as well as from a socio-legal perspective.
The aim of this module is to provide a broad grounding in some important aspects of the discipline of politics that are conceived of as both an attempt to understand the nature of politics and to assess the worth of various political arrangements. It involves consideration of notions such as politics, citizenship, democracy, government, state, welfare, individualism, utilitarianism, conservatism, socialism and, social democracy, together with an examination of the various ways in which political studies have been understood as a disciplined investigation of things political. The module covers four broad topics: freedom, markets and the state; citizenship, nationalism and democracy; equality and welfare; and politics and political science.
The module is divided into two sections over two terms. In the first term students will read, examine and discuss thinkers who make a contribution to the understanding of the notions of liberty and the individual (Hobbes, Locke, J S Mill, and Hayek). In the second term students will explore the thought of thinkers who are associated with the ideas of equality and community (Rousseau, Marx, the Fabians, and Rawls).
This module introduces students to the main approaches to development. It provides students with an overview of the main theoretical approaches, especially modernisation theory, world systems analysis, feminist theories, and post-colonialism. It relates these theories to issues and case studies including the debt question, the impact of globalisation, global governance, corporate social responsibility, poverty and inequality, social movements and the activities of NGOs.
The module comprises two interrelated parts. The first term deals with the main theoretical approaches to development. Topics here include global integration, disengagement, democracy-autocracy, aid-trade, the case of drugs, Islam, southern organisations, and theories of modernisation and dependency.
The second term pursues links between the conceptual issues raised in term one and connects them to global- and national-focused perspectives on the politics of development. The instability of third world states will be examined in terms of competing legacies from the pre-colonial and colonial periods and high social expectations of development. Perspectives and examples will be drawn from Africa and Latin America.
This module aims to deepen students' understanding of the major ideas, arrangements, policies and controversies which have characterised post-war British politics.
The module examines the evolution of the politics of the United Kingdom from an era broadly characterised by consensus and stability (1945-70) to one which has proved much more turbulent in a variety of ways (1970 onwards). This examination is set within the context of rival political traditions and of competing theories of representative government. Topics covered in the first term include changes in electoral behaviour and developments in the political parties, as well as consideration of the problems of governing the component parts of the United Kingdom (Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland). In the second term the focus is on the key institutions of central government (parliament and the executive) and on the UK's changing relationship with Europe. The last part of the course examines the development of public policy in the areas of welfare and the economy.
This course covers the major types of trust and the key elements required for their validity and operation as well as relevant aspects of equitable remedies. The overarching imposition of Equity will be interwoven with the discussion of the substantive types of trust. As well as an in-depth exploration of the workings of each mode of trust, the emergence of each will also be examined before modern uses and policies are considered. Key current developments in relation to the law of trusts will also be drawn upon.
How does the law relate to land and property? And is the current law still fit for the 21st Century?
Our Land Law module immerses you in real life scenarios to promote an understanding of how the law actually works. You are given the opportunity to work through legal problems as though you are advising a client, and we discuss some of the documentation and protocols that are used by property lawyers.
We encourage lively debate and discussion - by the end of the module you will be able to think and reason logically and creatively, to challenge convention and to understand how land law has shaped our environment and society. You will also have a greater appreciation of the ways in which land law has developed and changed.
Topics covered include:
co-ownership of family homes and division of property between cohabitees
mortgage law, including undue influence and the rights of lenders and borrowers
landlord and tenant law, including the law on tenants’ rights and ‘sham licences’
adverse possession and squatters’ rights
rights of airspace and the three dimensions of land ownership
the law of easements and restrictive covenants
You will be taught by lecturers who are specialists in their field and active researchers. Current, cutting-edge research within the teaching team addresses the system of land registration for the protection of title or ownership of land, and, the history of property law and how well it works – with a focus on access to land and the different ways in which property can be valued.
This module examines a number of important theories of contract. You will learn to conceptualise contracts more effectively and discover approaches to gain a better understanding of both contract law and the phenomenon and process of contracting itself. Analyses covered include Fuller’s “interests” approach, Havighurst’s “uses” of contract, Macneil’s relational contract theory, and Adams and Brownsword’s ideological approach. The module involves reading original scholarly writings and developing responses to the material. You will then apply the ideas learned to major aspects of contract doctrine to gain a better and clearer understanding both of these doctrines and of the theories themselves.
African states are among the poorest, most artificial in the world. This means their relations with the global system have a critical impact on African politics from the global to the local level.
This module aims to:
This module provides a historical and thematic introduction to the issues facing Africa in the international system today. The module is divided into four sections. The first focuses on the impact of colonialism on shaping the economy, the state and perceptions of race. The second section examines the first four decades of independence. The third and fourth look at key contemporary issues such as HIV/AIDS and actors such as China and South Africa.
This module presents a detailed analysis of the major developments in British foreign policy since 1945. It explains these developments within a global context, offering rival interpretations of Britain's changing role and status. The major themes include: the consequences of Britain's participation in the Second World War; the retreat from Empire after 1945; the 'special relationship' with the United States; and the prolonged attempt to redefine Britain's global role in the context of perceived economic and geopolitical decline. Understand the major developments in Britain's role in the world since the Second World War.
The syllabus will include the following topics:
The company law course covers the key areas of company law from incorporation to insolvency including corporate personality and piercing the corporate veil, the company’s constitution, contracts and companies, directors’ duties and minority shareholder protection. These practical, substantive areas of company law are discussed in accordance with relevant theories relating to the corporation and its role in society generally.
The Competition Law module is designed to give students a good grounding in contemporary competition law and the economics and policy which underlie it. The main focus will be on EU and UK competition law, but reference will also be made to US and Australian law where it provides a useful counterpoint. The course will examine the way in which antitrust and behavioural economics interact and inform the development of competition law and policy. Substantive areas such as the main EU antitrust provisions, their UK counterparts, and the merger control regimes in the EU and UK will be covered. The module will cover the basic provisions but special focus will be given to areas of controversy or recent reform. The enforcement of the law will also be given special consideration.
This module introduces students to human rights as a political and legal concept. It provides a critical overview of contemporary debates in the field, without losing sight of key theoretical questions. What are human rights? What is their source? In what sense are they universal and inalienable? Following a discussion of philosophical and historical foundations the module will examine the post-World War II international legal regime for the protection of human rights. It will explore the political implications of enshrining human rights at the international level, and engage with questions of culture and diversity, development and globalization, poverty and health.
Students will have the opportunity to research and discuss such issues as gender-based violence, torture in the ‘war on terror’, treatment of refugees and asylum seekers and HIV/AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa. These empirical case studies of recent human rights struggles and controversies will shed light on the complexity of global human rights politics in the early 21st century.
This module introduces students to key issues in Middle East politics today. It explores the people, society and politics of the region and the role that religion, ethnicity, gender and class have played in shaping contemporary issues. It examines the major internal and external actors in the region; conflict and peace; the geo-strategic importance of the region; issues of political economy; political change and reform; the issue of identities in the Middle East and ideologies around this; the emergence of political Islam; rising anti-Americanism; 9/11 and the fall-out in the region from the 'war on terror', the 'Arab Spring' and the unfolding revolutions.
Through class discussions, completion of coursework and the exam, students should be able to understand the complexities of society in the Middle East, and show an in-depth understanding of key themes and issues in the contemporary Middle East.
This module explores the analysis of the corporation in the global political economy. It will help students develop their knowledge of the character and practices of corporations and place that analysis within the wider context of analyses of International Political Economy.
At the end of the module students will better understand the variance and multi-faceted character of the corporate (global) sector, be able to account for a range of (political) positions about corporations and have some experience of the interaction between political economic and legal analyses. The module overall is intended to demystify the corporation as a political economic actor and support students in developing a nuanced appreciation of their own analyses of the role and practices of (global) corporations.
The Criminal Justice System has been constantly discussed in recent years by politicians, journalists and academics and the subject is vast and constantly shifting. This course seeks to explore selected issues in the area of Crime and Criminal Justice using a large number of sources to reflect the depth and variety of ways in which the subject can be approached. Students will be asked to consider whether, despite the interdependency of many of the Criminal Justice Agencies and some central themes, there is any real system at all. Students will be encouraged, wherever possible, to create their own understanding of the Criminal Justice System through their own experiences. Even brief visits to courts, police stations, barristers’ chambers etc. can often open students’ eyes and provoke a more analytical and critical response to the subject than detailed study alone. The outline Syllabus includes key themes in Crime and Criminal Justice, women in the Criminal Justice System, sentencing policy and procedure and prisoners and the law.
This course focuses on the crimes that power makes possible. Criminological theory and research has traditionally prioritized the crimes of the powerless over and against the crimes of those that make laws, wield influence and capital or authorize State violence. As such, this course will introduce students to theory, research, and case-studies on corporate and white-collar crimes, as well as state crimes like genocide and torture, in order to provide an analysis of the commission and punishment of such crimes.
The dissertation is an independent, in-depth inquiry into a research topic of your choosing. The topic will relate to a key legal question or issue and may also directly relate to your professional/career interests.
Identify and define a discrete research topic in Law
Complete and submit a Dissertation Proposal Form, signed by your chosen supervisor
Carry out a literature review of the relevant field, incorporating a comprehensive range of relevant legal materials
Demonstrate in-depth knowledge of the selected legal issues through independent research
Construct and sustain a cohesive argument within your writing
Outline the implications of your findings and how they may inform further research, policy or practice
The module structure includes a seminar on Research, Methodology and Writing, workshop sessions and regular meetings with your supervisor to track your progress and help you to set work plans.
This is your opportunity to make a contribution to the legal and academic community with new and original research and writing on a legal issue.
Please note: This module is reserved for those who are interested in developing more sophisticated research and writing skills, and you are expected to arrange your own supervision.
This module provides an opportunity for students to choose a topic related to some aspect of Politics and International Relations, Philosophy and Religious Studies which particularly interests them, and to pursue it in depth. The topic may be related to work that is being done on a formally taught course, or it may be less directly linked to course work. The intention is that students will develop their research skills and their ability to work at length under their own direction.
Students are expected to start thinking seriously about the 9,000-10,000 word dissertation towards the end of the Lent term of their second year, and to submit a provisional topic by the end of that term. Work should be well advanced by Christmas in the third year. The completed dissertation must be submitted by the end of the Lent term in the third year.
This module focuses on the most fundamental component of democratic political systems – elections. In particular, it analyses key political behaviour issues related to models of voting, electoral system design, and party organisation. It adopts a broadly comparative approach, with an emphasis on advanced industrial democracies in the west – especially the UK, but also other parts of the EU and the US.
The module will examine the merits of different voting behaviour models; the politics of electoral system design and choice; the rise of anti-party / anti-politics sentiment; as well as the modern methods parties utilise as they attempt to market themselves to voters. There will also be classes on developments in party organisation; contemporary party ideologies; the nature of party system change and continuity; and finally the relevance of public opinion to modern government and public policy.
This course introduces students to the principles of the law of evidence in criminal cases. It also introduces students to the nature and theory of proof. These general issues are developed through the study of particular topics such as the burden and standard of proof; confessions and illegally obtained evidence; disputed identification evidence and other warnings to the jury; hearsay; the credibility of witnesses and bad character evidence.
The module aims to help students to gain an in-depth understanding of the main historical events, processes and actors that have shaped and continue to shape political dynamics in the Persian Gulf.
Specific focus will be upon the key challenges to peace and security within the region, but the module will also cover a range of other topics including:
Students on this module will form an academically informed, independent and critical knowledge of the Persian Gulf and the relations that states within the region have with ‘the West’.
This course introduces students to the underlying conceptual framework and basic principles of health care law and ethics. You will use your understanding of these foundational issues through exploring specific and complex areas of health care law and practice, from medico-legal and ethical perspectives. Substantive areas of healthcare and medical law will be discussed with reference to the moral and ethical considerations often inherent in this area of law. In addition to this, the topics of study will reflect current medical advances and the developing nature of medical and ethical practice.
How should we understand the role of punishment under democracy? How do the historical, cultural and ideological relationships that underpin and, to a certain extent, determine punishment inform our conceptions of Justice, Fairness, and Equality? This course examines both the historical and philosophical dimensions of modern democratic punishment. We will probe the punitive landscape charted by theorists like Michel Foucault, Norbert Elias, and Emile Durkheim. This module will also consider the “new punitiveness” and the “old” in search of an explanation for the rise of the incapacitative approach to punishment, its permanence and its implications for the legitimacy of the democratic project.
This course introduces students to the principles of UK immigration and asylum law. Asylum is a subject seldom out of the press and it has received unprecedented political attention in the last decade. Given that immigration is now such a wide subject, with seven major new statutes in the last decade, students will only be introduced to selected highlights and the course will focus mainly on the asylum process. Consideration of the general issues is developed through the study of particular topics such as the nature of an asylum claim and the link between human rights and asylum. Immigration detention and the foreign prisoner crisis and deportation issues will also be discussed. Students will be required independently to visit the Asylum and Immigration Tribunal prior to or in the first two weeks of the course and that the coursework essay is based on a title of the students own choosing.
The Intellectual Property Law and Policy module at Lancaster is at the forefront of teaching in this field.
Focusing on new technologies, it addresses the changes in the law that are necessary to accommodate the impact of the internet, developments in 3D printing, artificial intelligence, and advancements in bio-technology.
You will examine intellectual property law and the protection of intangible property, particularly copyright and patent law. And you will explore the theories that justify the legal protection of human creativity, whilst also studying its practical application.
You will consider copyright protection and its basic tenants alongside the defences and exceptions that allow society to benefit. Following this, you will look at the impact of the Internet and the ability to infringe upon copyright at an unprecedented level.
We will also cover the basics of patent law protection, along with issues relating to the ownership of patents by employers. And you will undertake an in-depth study of the current UK and international policies relating to bio-technology patents.
Intellectual Property Law is led by Dr Catherine Easton who is at the forefront of the field, having published and spoken on areas such as artificial intelligence, internet addresses and bio-technology. Dr Easton’s knowledge and expertise will ensure that you develop your own robust perspective on this fascinating legal area.
Information for this module is currently unavailable.
The aim of this module is to introduce students to the inner dynamics of political Islam and the attendant challenges that comes with it, particularly in contemporary international society.
The module will cover the working of Islam in the governing process; its position in contemporary international order; practical contemporary topics such as governance, violence, terrorism and such; and will deliver an understanding of key concepts and intellectual debates.
The module is designed as much for students with little or no background in Islamic Politics, as it is for students who already have some grounding. It is built around an examination of the principal debates, features, and manifestations of Islamic politics in the twentieth and twenty first centuries.
To what extent does English law accommodate religious belief and practice? How has the law interacted with religion historically? What is the current interplay between law and religion? And how does the UK model of religious accommodation compare with those adopted in European jurisdictions?
Religion in the 21st century continues to attract and engage the attention of the government, parliament and the courts - as it has done throughout English legal history. Law and Religion, an engaging, policy-significant and popular module, will tackle the central questions outlines above and introduce you to the laws that regulate religion and belief in the UK.
The module covers the following topics:
history of relationship between religion and English law
legal definition of religion
legal status of established and non-established religious groups
religion in schools
Our module is unique in its particular focus on two very pertinent topics in the area of religion and law: the application of Islamic law in the UK, and religious tribunals in the UK. The lead lecturer feeds cutting-edge research regarding the phenomenon of Shariah tribunals in the UK into this module, ensuring that your studies link to issues that are high on the agenda of policy makers and are part of current media discussion.
This module will introduce students to a series of understandings of culture. Culture is first outlined with regard to its shape, scope and purpose, before being examined in relation to debates regarding homogeneity, change and conflict. This problematizes popular understandings of culture as fixed and unchanging, enabling students to grapple with two contrasting accounts of the source of conflict: Samuel Huntington’s The Clash between Civilizations and Dieter Senghaas’ The Clash within Civilizations.
The module then examines normative approaches to culture, beginning with the debate between relativism and universalism, which leads into an approach – value pluralism – which appears, at first sight, to offer a middle ground between the positions. This involves introducing and examining the validity of a range of conceptions of wellbeing. The module then examines toleration and recognition as approaches to diversity, comparing and contrasting them and identifying internal contradictions through engagement with real world cases. The political implications of the module are then consolidated and drawn out in full.
The employment law course aims to give an understanding of how the law regulates employment relationships within the context of the British industrial relations system. Examples of potential topics of exploration in this module include, the development of Employment Law, incorporating sources and institutions of such. The relationship between employment law and other legal concepts will be discussed, notably in the discussion of the linkage between employment Law and human rights and the role of the ‘contract of employment’. Further substantive, practical areas of employment law will also be introduced, notably the law in respect of discipline and termination of employment, as well as redundancy and unfair dismissal.
Students will study the thought of two seminal thinkers in political theory. This module provides an opportunity to explore texts slowly, methodically and in depth, allowing students to link that thought to wider literature that has developed as a response to the thinkers' ideas, and see how those ideas link-up into a wider systematic and philosophic whole.
Topics include among many others:
Pre-requisites CRIM102, CRIM 204 and CRIM 205. The Police Service is able to provide only 8 placements for students, so we need to be selective, out of all the students who register for the module we will select the ten who have the highest average 2nd year marks, and they will be the students who undertake the placements. You will be quite intensively vetted before being accepted as suitable to be a volunteer with the police. The vetting will include a Criminal Records check, checks on your address and who else lives there, and a drugs test. The 8 students who are selected will be on placement in the Police Service. Utilising live data provided by the various Departments within Headquarters, students will undertake a piece of analysis/research. Students will be working alongside (and will receive training and supervision from) serving officers. They will also receive supervision from an academic member of staff.
Students who register for the module but are not in the 'top eight' will take the taught part of the module along with the others and then work on a research dissertation, but without the practical placement. All students will have the benefit of contact with serving police officers, since some of the teaching will be delivered by them.
This course will assess the legal and practical issues surrounding responses to massive violations of human rights, before the political and moral issues involved in using national and international courts will be discussed. The imposition of truth commissions as well as other techniques of ‘transitional justice’ to respond to massive human rights violations will be critically analysed in order to deduce the success of such responses.
This module will examine the politics of external intervention in violent political conflicts and the attempts made to manage, prevent and transform these wars into more peaceful situations.
The module aims to develop student understanding of how international organisations have attempted to intervene within conflict zones to prevent an escalation in conflict, to enforce UN resolutions or to assist externally mediated peace 'settlements'.
The module also aims to provide students with an in-depth knowledge of how violent conflict has changed since the end of the Cold War and how transnational organisations such as the EU, UN and NATO have attempted to deal with the new challenges and opportunities presented since the beginning of the 1990s until the present day.
Conceptually, the course will examine the principles of the liberal peace; state failure; international conflict prevention; peace keeping; and global governance. Empirically, the course will focus on post-Cold War conflicts such as Afghanistan, Pakistan, India and China.
Lancaster University offers a range of programmes, some of which follow a structured study programme, and others which offer the chance for you to devise a more flexible programme. We divide academic study into two sections - Part 1 (Year 1) and Part 2 (Year 2, 3 and sometimes 4). For most programmes Part 1 requires you to study 120 credits spread over at least three modules which, depending upon your programme, will be drawn from one, two or three different academic subjects. A higher degree of specialisation then develops in subsequent years. For more information about our teaching methods at Lancaster visit our Teaching and Learning section.
Information contained on the website with respect to modules is correct at the time of publication, but changes may be necessary, for example as a result of student feedback, Professional Statutory and Regulatory Bodies' (PSRB) requirements, staff changes, and new research.
Your law degree can open doors to a wide range of careers within, and beyond, the legal sector. We carefully devise, structure and support our degree programmes to ensure that you are prepared for the next step towards a career of your choosing.
Throughout your time at Lancaster University Law School you will:
All of this ensures that you have the best chance to stand out in a crowded employment marketplace.
Your Law degree can lead to a wide choice of rewarding jobs in the public, private and third sectors.
Roles in the legal profession include: Solicitor, Barrister, Paralegal, Legal Executive, Trademark or Patent Attorney, Legal Secretary.
Wider roles with an appreciation of, and a need for, legal understanding include: Legal Recruitment Consultant, Chartered Company Secretary, Compliance Officer, Investment Banker, and many more.
Many of our graduates also go on to Graduate Training Schemes or pursue opportunities with: Civil Service, Ministry of Justice, Probation Service, HM Courts and Tribunal Service, HMRC, Local Government and Trading Standards.
An undergraduate degree can also lead on to further study or academia.
We set our fees on an annual basis and the 2018/19 entry fees have not yet been set.
As a guide, our fees in 2017 were:
Some science and medicine courses have higher fees for students from
the Channel Islands and the Isle of Man. You can find more details here:
For full details of the University's financial support packages including eligibility criteria, please visit our fees and funding page
Students also need to consider further costs which may include books, stationery, printing, photocopying, binding and general subsistence on trips and visits. Following graduation it may be necessary to take out subscriptions to professional bodies and to buy business attire for job interviews.
Average time in lectures, seminars and similar
Average assessment by coursework