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 Theoretical Physics with Mathematics MSci Hons (F3G1)
Theoretical Physics with Mathematics MSci Hons  2018 Entry
UCAS Code
F3G1
Entry Year
2018
also available in 2017
A Level Requirements
AAA
see all requirements
see all requirements
Duration
Full time 4 Year(s)
Course Overview
Taught jointly with Lancaster’s Department of Mathematics and Statistics, our degree in Theoretical Physics with Mathematics combines core physics and specialised theoretical physics subjects with classes in pure mathematics. This equips you with an understanding of the mathematical foundations of physics, for example, you will learn how quantum mechanics is underpinned by the powerful mathematical concept of a Hilbert space.
In your first year you will cover the core of physics in modules such as Quantum Physics and Electromagnetism, and the core of mathematics including geometry and calculus, numbers and relations, and probability.
In years two and three, the core physics modules are complemented by courses from the Theoretical Physics scheme and mathematical topics such as group theory and differential equations. In the final year of your course you will take advanced options such as Quantum Information and Advanced Gravity and Relativity, and complete your extended research project on a topic such as Gravitational Waves, Quantum Computation, Physics of Graphene, Photonic Crystals, and Geometry and Electrodynamics.
We offer you a range of possible topics for your extended final year project. Recent project topics include adatoms on graphene, silicine, photonic crystals, topological insulators, fundamentals of radiation reaction and gravitational waves.
Entry Requirements
Grade Requirements
A Level AAA
Required Subjects A level Mathematics grade A and A level Physics grade A
IELTS 6.0 overall with at least 5.5 in each component. For other English language qualifications we accept, please see our English language requirements webpages.
Interviews Applicants may be interviewed before being made an offer.
Other Qualifications
International Baccalaureate 36 points overall with 16 points from the best 3 Higher Level subjects including 6 in Mathematics HL and Physics HL
BTEC May be considered alongside A level Mathematics and A level Physics.
Access to HE Diploma May occasionally be accepted.
We welcome applications from students with a range of alternative UK and international qualifications, including combinations of qualification. Further guidance on admission to the University, including other qualifications that we accept, frequently asked questions and information on applying, can be found on our general admissions webpages.
Contact Admissions Team + 44 (0) 1524 592028 or via ugadmissions@lancaster.ac.uk
Course Structure
Many of Lancaster's degree programmes are flexible, offering students the opportunity to cover a wide selection of subject areas to complement their main specialism. You will be able to study a range of modules, some examples of which are listed below.
Year 1

Calculus
This module provides the student with an understanding of functions, limits, and series, and knowledge of the basic techniques of differentiation and integration. We introduce examples of functions and their graphs, and techniques for building new functions from old. We then consider the notion of a limit and introduce the main tools of calculus and Taylor Series. Students will also learn how to add, multiply and divide polynomials, and be introduced to rational functions and their partial fractions.
The exponential function is defined by means of a power series which is subsequently extended to the complex exponential function of an imaginary variable, so that students understand the connection between analysis, trigonometry and geometry. The trigonometric and hyperbolic functions are introduced in parallel with analogous power series so that students understand the role of functional identities. Such functional identities are later used to simplify integrals and to parametrise geometrical curves.

Classical Mechanics
In Classical Mechanics you’ll apply the ideas of fundamental Newtonian mechanics to real largescale systems such as rotating bodies, planetary systems and classical fluids.
Our focus is on gravitation, and its central importance in determining the largescale behaviour of the Universe. You’ll look at concepts such as inertial and gravitational mass, Mach's principle, black holes and even dark matter.
We consider how to extend the principles of basic kinematics and dynamics to rotational situations, giving you an understanding of concepts of torque, moment of inertia, centre of mass, angular momentum and equilibrium.
Part of your time will also be spent looking at how to describe basic processes in the properties of materials including elasticity of solids and fluid dynamics.

Discrete Mathematics
Students are introduced to the basic ideas and notations involved in describing sets and their functions. The module helps students to formalise the idea of the size of a set and what it means to be finite, countably infinite or uncountably finite. For finite sets, we can say that one is bigger than another if it contains more elements. What about infinite sets? Are some infinite sets bigger than others? We develop the tools to answer these questions and other counting problems, such as those involving recurrence relations, e.g. the Fibonacci numbers.
Rather than counting objects, we might be interested in connections between them, leading to the study of graphs and networks – collections of nodes joined by edges. There are many applications of this theory in designing or understanding properties of systems, such as the infrastructure powering the internet, social networks, the London Underground and the global ecosystem.

Electric and Magnetic Fields
Covering the basic laws of electromagnetism, this module allows you to investigate the similarities and differences between electric and magnetic fields, and to explore the basic concepts of electromagnetic phenomena including charge, current, field, force and potential.
You’ll begin by studying electrostatics, describing forces and fields due to charge distributions using Coulomb's law and Gauss's law. You’ll also look at the concept of polarisation, and how this can be applied to capacitance and combinations of capacitors.
Later on you will be introduced to magnetostatics, and will learn how to describe it using the concepts of field, flux and force, and the motion of charged particles in a magnetic field. You’ll also look at the origins of magnetic fields and Ampere's law, and Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction.

Further Calculus
This module extends the theory of calculus from functions of a single real variable to functions of two real variables. Students will learn more about the notions of differentiation and integration and how they extend from functions defined on a line to functions defined on the plane. We see how partial derivatives help us to understand surfaces, while repeated integrals enable us to calculate volumes. Students will also investigate complex polynomials and use De Moivre’s theorem to calculate complex roots.
In mathematical models, it is common to use functions of several variables. For example, the speed of an airliner can depend upon the air pressure, temperature and wind direction. To study functions of several variables, we introduce rates of change with respect to several quantities. We learn how to find maxima and minima. Applications include the method of least squares.

Geometry and Calculus
A vast number of naturally occurring phenomena are modelled by differential equations, for which solutions are required to explain the behaviour of these phenomena. This module provides the student with techniques for solving a number of standard types of differential equation.
Students will apply these methods to naturally occurring phenomena, such as bacterialpopulation growth, tumour expansion and oscillating systems subject to forcing and friction, in order to explain their behaviour and seek solutions. The method of solution by Laplace transforms is also introduced.

Numbers and Relations
This module introduces the student to logic and mathematical proofs, with emphasis placed on proving general theorems than on performing calculations. This is because a result which can be applied to many different cases is clearly more powerful than a calculation that deals only with a single specific case.
We take a look at the language and structure of mathematical proofs in general, emphasising how logic can be used to express mathematical arguments in a concise and rigorous manner. These ideas are then applied to the study of number theory, establishing several fundamental results such as Bezout’s Theorem on highest common factors and the Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic on prime factorisations.
The concept of congruence of integers is introduced to students and they study the idea that a highest common factor can be generalised from the integers to polynomials.

Probability
Introducing the theory of matrices together with some basic applications, students will learn essential techniques such as arithmetic rules, row operations and computation of determinants by expansion about a row or a column.
The second part of the module covers a notable range of applications of matrices, such as solving systems of simultaneous linear equations, linear transformations, characteristic equation and eigenvectors and eigenvalues.

Quantum Physics
The ultimate description of the universe requires quantum and not classical mechanics.
In this module, we begin by investigating how specific experiments led to the breakdown of classical physics, before moving into the quantum world.
You’ll look at the basic ideas of wave mechanics, particularly wave particle duality, as well as considering the probabilistic nature of phenomena and the uncertainty principle through the Schrodinger equation and its solution for simple situations.

Statistics
Probability theory is the study of chance phenomena, the concepts of which are fundamental to the study of statistics. This module will introduce students to some simple combinatorics, set theory and the axioms of probability.
Students will become aware of the different probability models used to characterise the outcomes of experiments that involve a chance or random component. The module covers ideas associated with the axioms of probability, conditional probability, independence, discrete random variables and their distributions, expectation and probability models.

The Physical Universe
In this module you’ll have the opportunity to explore the nature and methods of physics by considering the different scales of the universe and the areas of physics which relate to them.
You’ll model real phenomena and situations, looking at the physical principles which are fundamental to mechanics, particularly Newton’s laws relating to forces and motion, and the principles of the conservation of energy and momentum.
Later on you’ll also focus on the Special Theory of Relativity, beginning with Einstein's postulates and moving on to inertial reference frames, the physics of simultaneity, length contraction and time dilation, and spacetime diagrams.

Thermal Properties of Matter
This module allows you to study the thermal properties of matter, and to gain an understanding of how to relate them to the fundamental mechanical properties of systems.
We begin with an introduction to the concepts of temperature and heat, thermal equilibrium and temperature scales. We then look at how to describe mechanisms of heat transfer, particularly in phase changes and equations of state, and the kinetic model of an ideal gas.
As part of the module you’ll also have the opportunity to explore the first and second laws of thermodynamics, including concepts of internal energy, heat and work done, heat engines and refrigerators, and entropy. You’ll then learn about the role of thermodynamics in describing macroscopic physical situations, looking in particular at temperature, entropy, work, heat, and internal energy.

Vector Calculus
This module is ideal for students looking to develop their understanding of vector algebra and coordinate geometry in a physical context, extending elementary ideas of functions and calculus to a threedimensional description based on vector fields and potentials.
You’ll begin by exploring the real functions of many variables and their partial derivatives, followed by implicit differentiation of the functions of many variables and the chain rule. You’ll then go on to study the gradient vector in three dimensions in relation to directional derivatives, and will investigate the divergence and curl of a vector field as well as Stokes' theorem and the divergence theorem.
Vector Calculus places a focus on calculus in higher dimensional space, allowing you to develop your knowledge of parametric representations of curves, surfaces and volumes, calculation of areas and volumes including the use of changes of variables and Jacobians, and the calculation of line and surface integrals.
Core
Year 2

Complex Analysis
Complex Analysis has its origins in differential calculus and the study of polynomial equations.
In this module you’ll consider the differential calculus of functions of a single complex variable and study power series and mappings by complex functions. You’ll use integral calculus of complex functions to find elegant and important results, including the fundamental theorem of algebra, and you’ll also use classical theorems to evaluate real integrals.
The module ends with basic discussion of harmonic functions, which play a significant role in physics.

Electromagnetism, Waves and Optics
This module provides students with a working knowledge of electromagnetion through Maxwell’s equations using the tools of vector calculus. Students will become familiar with the common connections between the many different phenomena in nature that share the mathematical model of a harmonic oscillator or of a wave. This module addresses the basic properties of wave propagation, diffraction and inference, and laser operation.
Students will develop an appreciation for the power of vector calculus and Maxwell’s equations for the description of electromagnetic phenomena, and will gain practical knowledge of Fresnel and Fraunhofer diffraction, as well as thinfilm interference fringes and antireflection coatings. Additionally, the module aims to enhance students’ understanding of the origin of polarisation, and the relevance of dichroism, along with an understanding of the basic elements of a laser, laser operation and important features of laser light.

Experimental Physics, Skills and Mechanics
The module expands students’ knowledge on topics such as Newton's laws, solution of onedimensional dynamical problems, and Lagrangian, its relation to Newton's equations and the least action principle. This module includes lectures on analytical methods used both in classical mechanics and in broader areas of theoretical and mathematical physics. Students are given the opportunity to perform experiments in optics, mechanics and electric circuits which illustrate and compliment the taught material, and are additionally required to write a scientific report on one of the experiments.
By the end of the module, students will understand methods of integration of equations of motion for dynamical problems in classical mechanics, be able to use variational calculus in application to functionals and exploit the generality of Lagrangian and Hamiltonian techniques by using appropriate generalised coordinates. They will also be acquainted with the concepts of phase space, stability of motion and chaos. Additionally, students will develop useful techniques for experimental data collection and analysis and understand how to assess the statistical validity of data and their interpretation.

Groups
In this module you'll take existing examples of binary operations, such as addition or multiplication of numbers and composition of functions, and will then select a small number of properties which these and other examples have in common, and use them to define a group.
You'll consider the elementary properties of groups, and the way in which you can prove several surprisingly elegant results fairly simply. You'll also look at maps between groups which 'preserve structure', giving a way of formalizing (and extending) the natural concept of what it means for two groups to be 'the same'.

Introductory Real Analysis
This module starts by considering the limits of sequences and convergence of series. You'll then investigate the notion of a limit, and extend your knowledge to functions and the analysis of differentiation, including proper proofs of techniques learned at Alevel and in the first year.
You'll spend time exploring the Intermediate Value Theorem, and will have the opportunity to prove it from the definitions, and discover its surprisingly wide range of applications. Finally, you'll turn to the Mean Value Theorem. Earlier results ensure that its proof is now easy, and you'll be able to show that it, too, has many applications of widely differing kinds.

Linear Algebra II
This module will give you the opportunity to study vector spaces, together with their structurepreserving maps and their relationship to matrices.
You’ll consider the effect of changing bases on the matrix representing one of these maps, and will examine how to choose bases so that this matrix is as simple as possible. Part of your study will also involve looking at the concepts of length and angle with regard to vector spaces.

Quantum Mechanics
Students will be introduced to various axioms for quantum mechanics, such as eigenvalues, diagonalisation, differential and matrix operators and commutation relations. They will also learn about rotations and angular momentum, the interaction of magnetic moment with static magnetic field and electron spin. Students can expect to investigate approximation methods, such as the timedependent RayleighSchrodinger perturbation theory, and time dependent interactions, including the Heisenberg picture and time dependent Hamiltonians.
Students will learn to apply quantum mechanics to problems in one and three dimensions, including the hydrogen atom, by solving the Schrödinger equation, and will develop the ability to find approximate solutions for not exactly solvable systems. The module will enhance students’ understanding of expectation values and probabilities in the context of experiments on quantum systems, along with an appreciation for the mathematical consistency of quantum mechanics.

Relativity, Nuclei and Particles
Students receive an introductory conceptsbased approach to the module, giving a basic understanding of nuclei and fundamental particles. The module covers the general properties of nuclei, such as composition, the forces within the nucleus, mass and binding energy. Students are then introduced to the standard model of particle physics, including the three generations of fundamental particles.
By the end of the module, students will gain a working knowledge of Einstein’s theory of special relativity, both conceptually and mathematically, and will understand why the theory has replaced Newton’s concepts of absolute space and time. Additionally, students will develop a broad understanding of the equivalence principle and its relevance for general relativity.
Core
Year 3

Atomic Physics
This module introduces oneelectron atoms and the spinorbit magnetic interaction, along with identical particles and the Helium atom. Students will investigate the Fermi gas model and the single particle shell model, and will compare predictions of the shell model for nuclear spins, parities and magnetic moments with experimental results. The module explores the nuclear beta decay process and the Fermi and Gamow  Teller selection rules, and students are provided with a description of the beta decay rate and the electron energy spectrum in terms of a nuclear matrix element and a statistical factor.
Students will develop their knowledge in atomic and nuclear physics to an advanced level, and will be able to use the results of basic quantum mechanics to explain the basic characteristics of atomic and nuclear structure, in addition to gaining the ability to describe the processes of atomic transitions and nuclear decays. The module will provide an explanation of the concept and importance of the parity of an atomic or nuclear state, and will provide students with the opportunity to study the nuclear beta decay process and in particular the neutrino and parity nonconservation.

Particle Physics
The module explores symmetries, the Quark model and gives an introduction to QCD. Students will explore leptons, as well as forces and their carrier particles and Feynman diagrams. The module aims to provide a general introduction to theoretical and experimental topics in elementary particle physics, essentially the Standard Model of particle physics.
Students will gain the ability to describe the main features of the Standard Model of particle physics and understand its place in physics as a whole, and will be able to identify major pieces of experimental evidence supporting the key theoretical ideas, including the experimental techniques used, such as accelerators and detectors. In addition, students will understand the role of symmetry and conservation laws in fundamental physics, and will develop the ability to perform calculations of physically observable quantities relevant to the subject, along with solving problems based on the application of the general principles of particle physics.

Solid State Physics
The module offers an introduction to reciprocal lattice and diffraction of waves, the electronic band structure in metals, and insulators and semiconductors. Students will explore electrons in semiconductors, effective mass and the heat capacity of solids. There will be a Summary of experimental phenomena, tunnelling, Josephson Junctions and an outline of BCS theory.
Students will be introduced to theoretical and experimental topics in solid state physics at an advanced level, and will develop an understanding of the main features of the physics of electrons in solids, along with knowledge of the main features of the optical properties of solids.
Students will gain an enhanced understanding of crystal lattices and phonons, along with the main features of the thermal properties of solids, and will be able to describe major pieces of experimental evidence supporting the key theoretical ideas, including the experimental techniques used.

Statistical Physics
This module explores the ideas, techniques and results of statistical physics. Students will examine gases and the density of states, along with the statistics of gases, fermions and bosons and the two distributions for gases. MaxwellBoltzmann gases, velocity distribution and fermiDirac gases are investigated as the module provides an uncomplicated and direct approach to the subject, using frequent illustrations from low temperature physics.
Students will provide a unified survey of the statistical physics of gases, including a full treatment of quantum statistics, gaining a fuller insight into the meaning of entropy. Students will gain knowledge in applications of statistics to various types of gas. Ultimately, students will develop the ability to apply expressions and distributions in order to form accurate deductions, for example using the Boltzmann distribution for the probability of finding a system in a particular quantum state. Additionally, students will learn the role of statistical concepts in understanding macroscopic systems, and will be able to describe superfluidity in liquid helium, BoseEinstein condensation and black body radiation.

Theoretical Physics Group Project
In the Theoretical Physics Group Project, students will work as part of a team and will receive guidance on project management, planning and meetings. The module will culminate in a writingup stage in which the groups will prepare a group report, and students will be presented an opportunity to give an individual talk at the physics miniconference.
The module equips students with the ability to develop a theoretical physics research project with formulation, literature searches, data gathering, analysis and presentation.

Theoretical Physics with Mathematics Independent Study
This module requires independent study in various aspects of theoretical physics is guided by a series of workshops. Students will solve problems, partake in intense reading, and prepare and deliver presentations. Students will be provided with an opportunity to extend their preliminary studies by undertaking openended investigations into various aspects and problems of theoretical physics, writing up their findings in an individual report.
The module will teach analytical recipes of theoretical physics used in quantum mechanics, with the focus on the variational functions method, operator techniques with applications in perturbation theory methods and coherent states of a quantum harmonic oscillator, whilst students will train in the use of the operator algebra of 'creation' and 'annihilation' operators in the harmonic oscillator problem, which will develop a basis for the introduction of second quantisation in manybody systems. Students will develop an understanding in the algebra of creation and annihilation operators for Bose and Fermi systems, along with exploring the secondquantised representation of Hamiltonians of interacting manybody systems.
Additionally, students will analyse BoseEinstein condensation in one, two, and threedimensional systems and will develop the ability to describe the condensate using the method of coherent states, as well as covering the GinzburgLandau theory of a superfluid phase transition and to describe vortices in a superfluid. They will learn to relate Bose and Fermi statistics to the symmetry of manybody systems with respect to permutations of identical particles and will receive computer programming skills, as well as gaining experience in individual project work. The module’s main aim is to prepare students to enable them to undertake fourth year theoretical physics projects.
Core

Differential Equations
This module considers questions relating to linear ordinary differential equations. While explicit solutions can only be found for special types of equations, some of the ideas of real analysis allow us to answer questions about the existence and uniqueness of solutions to more general equations as well as allowing us to study certain properties of these solutions.

Groups and Symmetry
In this module you’ll develop the knowledge of groups that you’ve gained in second year. You’ll study ‘direct products’ which are used to construct new groups, while any finite group is shown to ‘factor’ into ‘simple’ pieces. You’ll also consider situations in which a group ‘acts’ on a set by permuting its elements; this powerful idea is used to identify the symmetries of the Platonic solids, and to help study the structure of groups themselves.

Hilbert Space
In this module you’ll examine the notion of a norm, which introduces a generalized notion of ‘distance’ to the purely algebraic setting of vector spaces. You’ll learn several quite natural ways to do this, both for vectors of any dimension and for functions. You’ll then focus on the more special notion of an inner product which generalizes angles at the same time as distances.
Once we’ve established these concepts, you’ll have the opportunity to study geometrical ideas like orthogonality, which can be seen to apply to much more general spaces than Euclidean spaces of three (or even n) dimensions, notably to infinite dimensional spaces of functions. For example, Hilbert space theory shows how Fourier series are really another case of expressing an element in terms of a basis, and how you can use orthogonality to find best approximations to a given function by functions of a prescribed type. Finally, you’ll look at some of the main results of linear algebra, which generalize very nicely to linear operators between Hilbert spaces.

Representation Theory of Finite Groups
This module covers the basics of ordinary representation theory. You’ll learn the concepts of Rmodule and of group representations, the main results pertaining to group representations, and will handle basic applications in the study of finite groups. You’ll also learn to perform computations with representations and morphisms in a selection of finite groups.
Optional
Year 4

MPhys Literature Review
Information for this module is currently unavailable.

MPhys Project
MPhys projects vary from year to year and are tailored to suit the individual student and the available research facilities. This twomodule project commences with a dissertation or literature review. Students will write a report on the project work and will conduct a presentation for the miniconference in the summer term, along with gaining skills related to oral presentation of scientific research.
Project work gives students the opportunity to carry out research or a detailed investigation into a specific area of physics appropriate to their chosen degree theme. Students will develop and apply analytical and problemsolving skills in an open ended situation, involving use of the library, computer, and other resources as appropriate, working alone or in a small group.
By the end of this module, students will demonstrate the ability to plan, manage and execute an investigation an area of physics in a systematic way using appropriate techniques. They will formulate conclusions and critically compare with relevant theory, and may be required to generate and analyse data and critically assess experimental uncertainties.

Topology and Fractals
Fractals, roughly speaking, are strange and exotic sets in the plane (and in higher dimensions) which are often generated as limits of quite simple repeated procedures. The 'middle thirds Cantor set' in [0,1] is one such set. Another, the Sierpinski sieve, arises by repeated removal of diminishing internal triangles from a solid equilateral triangle.
This analysis module will explore a variety of fractals, partly for fun for their own sake but also to illustrate fundamental ideas of metric spaces, compactness, disconnectedness and fractal dimension. The discussion will be kept at a straightforward level and you’ll consider topological ideas of open and closed sets in the setting of R2.
Core

Advanced Electrodynamics and Gravity
This module introduces a range of geometry and exterior calculus, including scalar fields, vector fields and convector fields. Students will explore pforms, exterior derivative, metrics and Hodge dual, and will discover electrodynamics, more specifically Maxwell equations in terms of the Maxwell 2form, 4velocity fields and Lorentz force equation in terms of the Maxwell 2form. Gravity is also covered, and students will engage in topics such as Einstein 3forms, stressenergymomentum 3forms and Einstein equations. Additionally, students will gain knowledge of killing vectors, spacetimes with symmetry, conserved quantities and black holes.
Students will gain the knowledge required to display an understanding of the intrinsic, covariant nature of electrodynamic, along with a familiarity with handling the Einstein equations and field equations on curved spacetime. Students will also be able to formulate and tackle field theories on spacetime using tools from modern differential geometry.

Advanced Magnetism
Students will be offered a revision of elements of the theory of electromagnetism, before being introduced to the phenomenology of solid state magnetic phenomena. The module discusses Van Vleck's description of diamagnetism and diamagnetism as quantum phenomenon. Students will explore ferromagnetism and antiferromagnetism, ferromagnetic exchange and the Heisenberg model, which includes selfconsistent mean field theory. A description of ferromagnetic phase transitions and Curie temperature will be provided as part of the module, along with the elements of the GinzburgLandau theory of magnetic phase transitions.
By the end of the module, students will develop a knowledge and understanding of magnetic and electric phenomena in condensed matter physics, in addition to an enhanced awareness of recent advances and current problems in condensed matter physics.

Advanced Relativity and Gravity
The module offers a short review of special relativity, tensor calculus on Minkowski spacetime, differential calculus on Minkowski spacetime, and curved spacetimes. Students will explore general relativity, gravity as intrinsic curvature of spacetime, and the Einstein equations, along with predictions of the linearized Einstein equations, gravitational waves, and gravitomagnetic field equations. Students will investigate exact solutions of the Einstein equations, black holes and event horizons.
By the end of the module, students will have a basis knowledge and understanding of the theories of special and general relativity, and possess a conceptual understanding of the links between Newtonian mechanics and relativity. The module also provides a geometrical insight into the properties of spacetime and relativity.

Hilbert Space
In this module you’ll have the opportunity to learn about Hilbert space, consolidating your understanding of linear algebra and enabling you to study applications of Hilbert space such as quantum mechanics and stochastic processes.
You’ll learn how to use inner products in analytical calculations, to use the concept of an operator on an infinite dimensional Hilbert space, to recognise situations in which Hilbert space methods are applicable and to understand concepts of linear algebra and analysis that apply in infinite dimensional vector spaces.

Lasers and Applications
This module will address the necessary requirements for laser action, spontaneous and stimulated emission rates, Einstein coefficients, optical gain coefficient, and characteristics of the emitted light. Students will become aware of the different types of lasers, such as gas and solid state, semiconductor, dye, chemical and excimer lasers. Semiconductor lasers: homojunction, single and double heterojunction devices will be investigated, along with materials and operating requirements. The module explores fabrication methods, quantum well lasers, advantages and characteristics. There will be a focus on a range of applications including laser surgery, optical fibre communications, laser machining, pollution monitoring and remote sensing.
By the end of the module, students will be familiarised with lasers and their applications, including the operating principles of a variety of different lasers. Students will understand the many uses of lasers in industry, medicine and the environment.

Matter at low temperature
The module begins by discussing what physicists mean by high and low temperatures, and looks at the different types of ordering that may occur as systems cool. Students will explore cryogenic techniques used for accessing such low temperatures are described, including the design of useful cryostats. Students will observe the new phenomena that occur when systems are cooled below room temperature and will consider electron pairing leading to the zero resistance of superconducting materials, the effect of magnetic fields, and the role of macroscopic quantum mechanical wave functions. The module provides an overview of the practical uses in superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs).
The module seeks to explore a selection of fascinating phenomena that occurs when cooling matter to temperatures more than a million times colder than the familiar 290K of everyday life and observe the significance for both physics and technology. Additionally, students will appreciate the relation between temperature and order, will know how low temperatures are produced, including dilution refrigerators, and will also be able to describe the phenomena of superconductivity and superfluidity.

Operator Theory
Operator theory is a modern mathematical topic in analysis which provides powerful general methods for the analysis of linear problems, and possibly even infinite dimensional problems.
Early successes were in the solution of differential and integral equations. Now operator theory is also an extensive subject in its own right in the general area of functional analysis.
First you’ll review Hilbert spaces, before spending some time studying infinitedimensional operators, notably the unilateral shift and multiplication operators, as well as basic concepts. You’ll then consider the criteria for invertibility of self adjoint operators, leading to the spectral theory of such operators.

Quantum transport in Low Dimensional Nanostructures
Students can expect to explore twodimensional electron systems, quantum transport in disordered lowdimensional electron systems and semiconductor quantum wires. The LandauerButtiker conductance formula is investigated, focusing on impurities in quantum wires, electronic transport in a magnetic field and the Hall effect. The module considers metallic point contacts, the pointcontact spectroscopy of the electronphonon interaction, and atomic breakjunctions and the scanning tunnelling microscope. Students will receive examples of applications of scanning tunnelling microscopy as part of the module.
By the end of the module, students will have knowledge of the physics of nanoscale solid state devices and how these may be manufactured and utilised. They will enhance their awareness of the recent advancements and current problems in condensed matter physics.

Representation Theory of Finite Groups
In this module you’ll learn the basics of ordinary representation theory.
You’ll have the opportunity to explore the concepts of Rmodule and group representations, and the main results pertaining to group representations, as well as learning to handle basic applications in the study of finite groups. You’ll also develop your skills in performing computations with representations and morphisms in a selection of finite groups.

Semiconductor Device Physics
Students will familiarise themselves with crystal growth, including growth theory, faceting, impurity segregation and zone refining. The module presents students with a silicon case study, investigating semiconducting properties, silicon oxide, masking, surface pacification and photolithographic processing. Compound semiconductors will be discussed, covering band structure advantages over silicon, IIVI materials and effects of iconicity.
Additionally, students will explore thin film semiconductors, such as epitaxy, vapour phase growth, metalloorganic methods and liquid phase epitaxy, and the module provides a broad interdisciplinary overview of the linkage between the physics, chemistry and other materials sciences involved in the synthesis of semiconductors and the devices made from them.
By the end of the module, students will develop an understanding of the basic properties of crystals and crystal defects, and will be able to describe how crystals are grown and discuss the main semiconductor used for microelectronics as a detailed case study. Students will also demonstrate how physics continues to play a major role in enabling information technology.
Optional
Lancaster University offers a range of programmes, some of which follow a structured study programme, and others which offer the chance for you to devise a more flexible programme. We divide academic study into two sections  Part 1 (Year 1) and Part 2 (Year 2, 3 and sometimes 4). For most programmes Part 1 requires you to study 120 credits spread over at least three modules which, depending upon your programme, will be drawn from one, two or three different academic subjects. A higher degree of specialisation then develops in subsequent years. For more information about our teaching methods at Lancaster visit our Teaching and Learning section.
Information contained on the website with respect to modules is correct at the time of publication, but changes may be necessary, for example as a result of student feedback, Professional Statutory and Regulatory Bodies' (PSRB) requirements, staff changes, and new research.
Careers
Careers
Physics is an exciting subject that is fundamental to the developments in modern society. Applications of the subject range from the very pure to the very practical, and a physics degree opens up a wide range of rewarding careers in scientific research and technological development, as well as in a variety of other professions. A substantial number of our graduates continue on to postgraduate education, or enter employment that directly relies on their specialist skills. Our students also find employment in careers where they are valued because of general skills gained during the course such as logical thinking, problem solving, numeracy and computer literacy. Examples include consulting, finance, computer programming, and accountancy, as well as managerial and administrative positions.
Lancaster University is dedicated to ensuring you not only gain a highly reputable degree, you also graduate with the relevant life and work based skills. We are unique in that every student is eligible to participate in The Lancaster Award which offers you the opportunity to complete key activities such as work experience, employability/career development, campus community and social development. Visit our Employability section for full details.
Fees and Funding
Fees
We set our fees on an annual basis and the 2018/19 entry fees have not yet been set.
As a guide, our fees in 2017 were:
UK/EU  Overseas 

£9,250  £18,168 
Channel Islands and the Isle of Man
Some science and medicine courses have higher fees for students from the Channel Islands and the Isle of Man. You can find more details here: Island Students.
Funding
Lancaster University's priority is to support every student to make the most of their life and education and we have committed £3.7m in scholarships and bursaries. Our financial support depends on your circumstances and how well you do in your A levels (or equivalent academic qualifications) before starting study with us.
Scholarships recognising academic talent:
 An Academic Scholarship of £2,000 for the first year of study for fulltime UK, Channel Islands and Isle of Man students who achieve A*,A*,A in their A level examinations (or equivalent academic qualifications) and who place Lancaster as their firm choice. This is awarded regardless of household income.
 An Access Scholarship of £1,000 for each year of study for all UK students with household incomes of less than £42,600 who achieve A level grades of A*,A, A in their A level examinations (or the equivalent academic qualifications). In addition, students from household incomes of less than £42,600 who achieve higher entry grades of A*, A*, A (or equivalent academic qualifications), who place Lancaster as their firm choice will also be awarded our £2,000 Academic Scholarship in their first year of study.
Continuation of the Access Scholarship is subject to satisfactory academic progression.
Students may be eligible for both the Academic and Access Scholarship if they meet the requirements for both.
 An Excellence Scholarship which forms part of the Unconditional Offer Scheme for full time UK, Channel Islands and Isle of Man applicants with outstanding academic profiles within a number of academic departments.
Bursaries for life, living and learning:
 A Lancaster bursary of £1,000 for each year of study for all students from the UK with a household income of less than £42,600.
Students from the UK eligible for a bursary package will also be awarded our Academic Scholarship and/or Access Scholarship if they meet the criteria detailed above.
Any financial support that you receive from Lancaster University will be in addition to government support that might be available to you (eg fee loans) and will not affect your entitlement to these.
For full details of the University's financial support packages including eligibility criteria, please visit our fees and funding page
Please note that this information relates to the funding arrangements for 2017, which may change for 2018.
Students taking Part I of the course are charged £10 for a bound copy of the lab manual. There are a number of optional oneday visits to places of interest and students pay travel costs.
Students also need to consider further costs which may include books, stationery, printing, photocopying, binding and general subsistence on trips and visits. Following graduation it may be necessary to take out subscriptions to professional bodies and to buy business attire for job interviews.

Course Overview
Course Overview
Taught jointly with Lancaster’s Department of Mathematics and Statistics, our degree in Theoretical Physics with Mathematics combines core physics and specialised theoretical physics subjects with classes in pure mathematics. This equips you with an understanding of the mathematical foundations of physics, for example, you will learn how quantum mechanics is underpinned by the powerful mathematical concept of a Hilbert space.
In your first year you will cover the core of physics in modules such as Quantum Physics and Electromagnetism, and the core of mathematics including geometry and calculus, numbers and relations, and probability.
In years two and three, the core physics modules are complemented by courses from the Theoretical Physics scheme and mathematical topics such as group theory and differential equations. In the final year of your course you will take advanced options such as Quantum Information and Advanced Gravity and Relativity, and complete your extended research project on a topic such as Gravitational Waves, Quantum Computation, Physics of Graphene, Photonic Crystals, and Geometry and Electrodynamics.
We offer you a range of possible topics for your extended final year project. Recent project topics include adatoms on graphene, silicine, photonic crystals, topological insulators, fundamentals of radiation reaction and gravitational waves.

Entry Requirements
Entry Requirements
Grade Requirements
A Level AAA
Required Subjects A level Mathematics grade A and A level Physics grade A
IELTS 6.0 overall with at least 5.5 in each component. For other English language qualifications we accept, please see our English language requirements webpages.
Interviews Applicants may be interviewed before being made an offer.
Other Qualifications
International Baccalaureate 36 points overall with 16 points from the best 3 Higher Level subjects including 6 in Mathematics HL and Physics HL
BTEC May be considered alongside A level Mathematics and A level Physics.
Access to HE Diploma May occasionally be accepted.
We welcome applications from students with a range of alternative UK and international qualifications, including combinations of qualification. Further guidance on admission to the University, including other qualifications that we accept, frequently asked questions and information on applying, can be found on our general admissions webpages.
Contact Admissions Team + 44 (0) 1524 592028 or via ugadmissions@lancaster.ac.uk

Course Structure
Course Structure
Many of Lancaster's degree programmes are flexible, offering students the opportunity to cover a wide selection of subject areas to complement their main specialism. You will be able to study a range of modules, some examples of which are listed below.
Year 1

Calculus
This module provides the student with an understanding of functions, limits, and series, and knowledge of the basic techniques of differentiation and integration. We introduce examples of functions and their graphs, and techniques for building new functions from old. We then consider the notion of a limit and introduce the main tools of calculus and Taylor Series. Students will also learn how to add, multiply and divide polynomials, and be introduced to rational functions and their partial fractions.
The exponential function is defined by means of a power series which is subsequently extended to the complex exponential function of an imaginary variable, so that students understand the connection between analysis, trigonometry and geometry. The trigonometric and hyperbolic functions are introduced in parallel with analogous power series so that students understand the role of functional identities. Such functional identities are later used to simplify integrals and to parametrise geometrical curves.

Classical Mechanics
In Classical Mechanics you’ll apply the ideas of fundamental Newtonian mechanics to real largescale systems such as rotating bodies, planetary systems and classical fluids.
Our focus is on gravitation, and its central importance in determining the largescale behaviour of the Universe. You’ll look at concepts such as inertial and gravitational mass, Mach's principle, black holes and even dark matter.
We consider how to extend the principles of basic kinematics and dynamics to rotational situations, giving you an understanding of concepts of torque, moment of inertia, centre of mass, angular momentum and equilibrium.
Part of your time will also be spent looking at how to describe basic processes in the properties of materials including elasticity of solids and fluid dynamics.

Discrete Mathematics
Students are introduced to the basic ideas and notations involved in describing sets and their functions. The module helps students to formalise the idea of the size of a set and what it means to be finite, countably infinite or uncountably finite. For finite sets, we can say that one is bigger than another if it contains more elements. What about infinite sets? Are some infinite sets bigger than others? We develop the tools to answer these questions and other counting problems, such as those involving recurrence relations, e.g. the Fibonacci numbers.
Rather than counting objects, we might be interested in connections between them, leading to the study of graphs and networks – collections of nodes joined by edges. There are many applications of this theory in designing or understanding properties of systems, such as the infrastructure powering the internet, social networks, the London Underground and the global ecosystem.

Electric and Magnetic Fields
Covering the basic laws of electromagnetism, this module allows you to investigate the similarities and differences between electric and magnetic fields, and to explore the basic concepts of electromagnetic phenomena including charge, current, field, force and potential.
You’ll begin by studying electrostatics, describing forces and fields due to charge distributions using Coulomb's law and Gauss's law. You’ll also look at the concept of polarisation, and how this can be applied to capacitance and combinations of capacitors.
Later on you will be introduced to magnetostatics, and will learn how to describe it using the concepts of field, flux and force, and the motion of charged particles in a magnetic field. You’ll also look at the origins of magnetic fields and Ampere's law, and Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction.

Further Calculus
This module extends the theory of calculus from functions of a single real variable to functions of two real variables. Students will learn more about the notions of differentiation and integration and how they extend from functions defined on a line to functions defined on the plane. We see how partial derivatives help us to understand surfaces, while repeated integrals enable us to calculate volumes. Students will also investigate complex polynomials and use De Moivre’s theorem to calculate complex roots.
In mathematical models, it is common to use functions of several variables. For example, the speed of an airliner can depend upon the air pressure, temperature and wind direction. To study functions of several variables, we introduce rates of change with respect to several quantities. We learn how to find maxima and minima. Applications include the method of least squares.

Geometry and Calculus
A vast number of naturally occurring phenomena are modelled by differential equations, for which solutions are required to explain the behaviour of these phenomena. This module provides the student with techniques for solving a number of standard types of differential equation.
Students will apply these methods to naturally occurring phenomena, such as bacterialpopulation growth, tumour expansion and oscillating systems subject to forcing and friction, in order to explain their behaviour and seek solutions. The method of solution by Laplace transforms is also introduced.

Numbers and Relations
This module introduces the student to logic and mathematical proofs, with emphasis placed on proving general theorems than on performing calculations. This is because a result which can be applied to many different cases is clearly more powerful than a calculation that deals only with a single specific case.
We take a look at the language and structure of mathematical proofs in general, emphasising how logic can be used to express mathematical arguments in a concise and rigorous manner. These ideas are then applied to the study of number theory, establishing several fundamental results such as Bezout’s Theorem on highest common factors and the Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic on prime factorisations.
The concept of congruence of integers is introduced to students and they study the idea that a highest common factor can be generalised from the integers to polynomials.

Probability
Introducing the theory of matrices together with some basic applications, students will learn essential techniques such as arithmetic rules, row operations and computation of determinants by expansion about a row or a column.
The second part of the module covers a notable range of applications of matrices, such as solving systems of simultaneous linear equations, linear transformations, characteristic equation and eigenvectors and eigenvalues.

Quantum Physics
The ultimate description of the universe requires quantum and not classical mechanics.
In this module, we begin by investigating how specific experiments led to the breakdown of classical physics, before moving into the quantum world.
You’ll look at the basic ideas of wave mechanics, particularly wave particle duality, as well as considering the probabilistic nature of phenomena and the uncertainty principle through the Schrodinger equation and its solution for simple situations.

Statistics
Probability theory is the study of chance phenomena, the concepts of which are fundamental to the study of statistics. This module will introduce students to some simple combinatorics, set theory and the axioms of probability.
Students will become aware of the different probability models used to characterise the outcomes of experiments that involve a chance or random component. The module covers ideas associated with the axioms of probability, conditional probability, independence, discrete random variables and their distributions, expectation and probability models.

The Physical Universe
In this module you’ll have the opportunity to explore the nature and methods of physics by considering the different scales of the universe and the areas of physics which relate to them.
You’ll model real phenomena and situations, looking at the physical principles which are fundamental to mechanics, particularly Newton’s laws relating to forces and motion, and the principles of the conservation of energy and momentum.
Later on you’ll also focus on the Special Theory of Relativity, beginning with Einstein's postulates and moving on to inertial reference frames, the physics of simultaneity, length contraction and time dilation, and spacetime diagrams.

Thermal Properties of Matter
This module allows you to study the thermal properties of matter, and to gain an understanding of how to relate them to the fundamental mechanical properties of systems.
We begin with an introduction to the concepts of temperature and heat, thermal equilibrium and temperature scales. We then look at how to describe mechanisms of heat transfer, particularly in phase changes and equations of state, and the kinetic model of an ideal gas.
As part of the module you’ll also have the opportunity to explore the first and second laws of thermodynamics, including concepts of internal energy, heat and work done, heat engines and refrigerators, and entropy. You’ll then learn about the role of thermodynamics in describing macroscopic physical situations, looking in particular at temperature, entropy, work, heat, and internal energy.

Vector Calculus
This module is ideal for students looking to develop their understanding of vector algebra and coordinate geometry in a physical context, extending elementary ideas of functions and calculus to a threedimensional description based on vector fields and potentials.
You’ll begin by exploring the real functions of many variables and their partial derivatives, followed by implicit differentiation of the functions of many variables and the chain rule. You’ll then go on to study the gradient vector in three dimensions in relation to directional derivatives, and will investigate the divergence and curl of a vector field as well as Stokes' theorem and the divergence theorem.
Vector Calculus places a focus on calculus in higher dimensional space, allowing you to develop your knowledge of parametric representations of curves, surfaces and volumes, calculation of areas and volumes including the use of changes of variables and Jacobians, and the calculation of line and surface integrals.
Core
Year 2

Complex Analysis
Complex Analysis has its origins in differential calculus and the study of polynomial equations.
In this module you’ll consider the differential calculus of functions of a single complex variable and study power series and mappings by complex functions. You’ll use integral calculus of complex functions to find elegant and important results, including the fundamental theorem of algebra, and you’ll also use classical theorems to evaluate real integrals.
The module ends with basic discussion of harmonic functions, which play a significant role in physics.

Electromagnetism, Waves and Optics
This module provides students with a working knowledge of electromagnetion through Maxwell’s equations using the tools of vector calculus. Students will become familiar with the common connections between the many different phenomena in nature that share the mathematical model of a harmonic oscillator or of a wave. This module addresses the basic properties of wave propagation, diffraction and inference, and laser operation.
Students will develop an appreciation for the power of vector calculus and Maxwell’s equations for the description of electromagnetic phenomena, and will gain practical knowledge of Fresnel and Fraunhofer diffraction, as well as thinfilm interference fringes and antireflection coatings. Additionally, the module aims to enhance students’ understanding of the origin of polarisation, and the relevance of dichroism, along with an understanding of the basic elements of a laser, laser operation and important features of laser light.

Experimental Physics, Skills and Mechanics
The module expands students’ knowledge on topics such as Newton's laws, solution of onedimensional dynamical problems, and Lagrangian, its relation to Newton's equations and the least action principle. This module includes lectures on analytical methods used both in classical mechanics and in broader areas of theoretical and mathematical physics. Students are given the opportunity to perform experiments in optics, mechanics and electric circuits which illustrate and compliment the taught material, and are additionally required to write a scientific report on one of the experiments.
By the end of the module, students will understand methods of integration of equations of motion for dynamical problems in classical mechanics, be able to use variational calculus in application to functionals and exploit the generality of Lagrangian and Hamiltonian techniques by using appropriate generalised coordinates. They will also be acquainted with the concepts of phase space, stability of motion and chaos. Additionally, students will develop useful techniques for experimental data collection and analysis and understand how to assess the statistical validity of data and their interpretation.

Groups
In this module you'll take existing examples of binary operations, such as addition or multiplication of numbers and composition of functions, and will then select a small number of properties which these and other examples have in common, and use them to define a group.
You'll consider the elementary properties of groups, and the way in which you can prove several surprisingly elegant results fairly simply. You'll also look at maps between groups which 'preserve structure', giving a way of formalizing (and extending) the natural concept of what it means for two groups to be 'the same'.

Introductory Real Analysis
This module starts by considering the limits of sequences and convergence of series. You'll then investigate the notion of a limit, and extend your knowledge to functions and the analysis of differentiation, including proper proofs of techniques learned at Alevel and in the first year.
You'll spend time exploring the Intermediate Value Theorem, and will have the opportunity to prove it from the definitions, and discover its surprisingly wide range of applications. Finally, you'll turn to the Mean Value Theorem. Earlier results ensure that its proof is now easy, and you'll be able to show that it, too, has many applications of widely differing kinds.

Linear Algebra II
This module will give you the opportunity to study vector spaces, together with their structurepreserving maps and their relationship to matrices.
You’ll consider the effect of changing bases on the matrix representing one of these maps, and will examine how to choose bases so that this matrix is as simple as possible. Part of your study will also involve looking at the concepts of length and angle with regard to vector spaces.

Quantum Mechanics
Students will be introduced to various axioms for quantum mechanics, such as eigenvalues, diagonalisation, differential and matrix operators and commutation relations. They will also learn about rotations and angular momentum, the interaction of magnetic moment with static magnetic field and electron spin. Students can expect to investigate approximation methods, such as the timedependent RayleighSchrodinger perturbation theory, and time dependent interactions, including the Heisenberg picture and time dependent Hamiltonians.
Students will learn to apply quantum mechanics to problems in one and three dimensions, including the hydrogen atom, by solving the Schrödinger equation, and will develop the ability to find approximate solutions for not exactly solvable systems. The module will enhance students’ understanding of expectation values and probabilities in the context of experiments on quantum systems, along with an appreciation for the mathematical consistency of quantum mechanics.

Relativity, Nuclei and Particles
Students receive an introductory conceptsbased approach to the module, giving a basic understanding of nuclei and fundamental particles. The module covers the general properties of nuclei, such as composition, the forces within the nucleus, mass and binding energy. Students are then introduced to the standard model of particle physics, including the three generations of fundamental particles.
By the end of the module, students will gain a working knowledge of Einstein’s theory of special relativity, both conceptually and mathematically, and will understand why the theory has replaced Newton’s concepts of absolute space and time. Additionally, students will develop a broad understanding of the equivalence principle and its relevance for general relativity.
Core
Year 3

Atomic Physics
This module introduces oneelectron atoms and the spinorbit magnetic interaction, along with identical particles and the Helium atom. Students will investigate the Fermi gas model and the single particle shell model, and will compare predictions of the shell model for nuclear spins, parities and magnetic moments with experimental results. The module explores the nuclear beta decay process and the Fermi and Gamow  Teller selection rules, and students are provided with a description of the beta decay rate and the electron energy spectrum in terms of a nuclear matrix element and a statistical factor.
Students will develop their knowledge in atomic and nuclear physics to an advanced level, and will be able to use the results of basic quantum mechanics to explain the basic characteristics of atomic and nuclear structure, in addition to gaining the ability to describe the processes of atomic transitions and nuclear decays. The module will provide an explanation of the concept and importance of the parity of an atomic or nuclear state, and will provide students with the opportunity to study the nuclear beta decay process and in particular the neutrino and parity nonconservation.

Particle Physics
The module explores symmetries, the Quark model and gives an introduction to QCD. Students will explore leptons, as well as forces and their carrier particles and Feynman diagrams. The module aims to provide a general introduction to theoretical and experimental topics in elementary particle physics, essentially the Standard Model of particle physics.
Students will gain the ability to describe the main features of the Standard Model of particle physics and understand its place in physics as a whole, and will be able to identify major pieces of experimental evidence supporting the key theoretical ideas, including the experimental techniques used, such as accelerators and detectors. In addition, students will understand the role of symmetry and conservation laws in fundamental physics, and will develop the ability to perform calculations of physically observable quantities relevant to the subject, along with solving problems based on the application of the general principles of particle physics.

Solid State Physics
The module offers an introduction to reciprocal lattice and diffraction of waves, the electronic band structure in metals, and insulators and semiconductors. Students will explore electrons in semiconductors, effective mass and the heat capacity of solids. There will be a Summary of experimental phenomena, tunnelling, Josephson Junctions and an outline of BCS theory.
Students will be introduced to theoretical and experimental topics in solid state physics at an advanced level, and will develop an understanding of the main features of the physics of electrons in solids, along with knowledge of the main features of the optical properties of solids.
Students will gain an enhanced understanding of crystal lattices and phonons, along with the main features of the thermal properties of solids, and will be able to describe major pieces of experimental evidence supporting the key theoretical ideas, including the experimental techniques used.

Statistical Physics
This module explores the ideas, techniques and results of statistical physics. Students will examine gases and the density of states, along with the statistics of gases, fermions and bosons and the two distributions for gases. MaxwellBoltzmann gases, velocity distribution and fermiDirac gases are investigated as the module provides an uncomplicated and direct approach to the subject, using frequent illustrations from low temperature physics.
Students will provide a unified survey of the statistical physics of gases, including a full treatment of quantum statistics, gaining a fuller insight into the meaning of entropy. Students will gain knowledge in applications of statistics to various types of gas. Ultimately, students will develop the ability to apply expressions and distributions in order to form accurate deductions, for example using the Boltzmann distribution for the probability of finding a system in a particular quantum state. Additionally, students will learn the role of statistical concepts in understanding macroscopic systems, and will be able to describe superfluidity in liquid helium, BoseEinstein condensation and black body radiation.

Theoretical Physics Group Project
In the Theoretical Physics Group Project, students will work as part of a team and will receive guidance on project management, planning and meetings. The module will culminate in a writingup stage in which the groups will prepare a group report, and students will be presented an opportunity to give an individual talk at the physics miniconference.
The module equips students with the ability to develop a theoretical physics research project with formulation, literature searches, data gathering, analysis and presentation.

Theoretical Physics with Mathematics Independent Study
This module requires independent study in various aspects of theoretical physics is guided by a series of workshops. Students will solve problems, partake in intense reading, and prepare and deliver presentations. Students will be provided with an opportunity to extend their preliminary studies by undertaking openended investigations into various aspects and problems of theoretical physics, writing up their findings in an individual report.
The module will teach analytical recipes of theoretical physics used in quantum mechanics, with the focus on the variational functions method, operator techniques with applications in perturbation theory methods and coherent states of a quantum harmonic oscillator, whilst students will train in the use of the operator algebra of 'creation' and 'annihilation' operators in the harmonic oscillator problem, which will develop a basis for the introduction of second quantisation in manybody systems. Students will develop an understanding in the algebra of creation and annihilation operators for Bose and Fermi systems, along with exploring the secondquantised representation of Hamiltonians of interacting manybody systems.
Additionally, students will analyse BoseEinstein condensation in one, two, and threedimensional systems and will develop the ability to describe the condensate using the method of coherent states, as well as covering the GinzburgLandau theory of a superfluid phase transition and to describe vortices in a superfluid. They will learn to relate Bose and Fermi statistics to the symmetry of manybody systems with respect to permutations of identical particles and will receive computer programming skills, as well as gaining experience in individual project work. The module’s main aim is to prepare students to enable them to undertake fourth year theoretical physics projects.
Core

Differential Equations
This module considers questions relating to linear ordinary differential equations. While explicit solutions can only be found for special types of equations, some of the ideas of real analysis allow us to answer questions about the existence and uniqueness of solutions to more general equations as well as allowing us to study certain properties of these solutions.

Groups and Symmetry
In this module you’ll develop the knowledge of groups that you’ve gained in second year. You’ll study ‘direct products’ which are used to construct new groups, while any finite group is shown to ‘factor’ into ‘simple’ pieces. You’ll also consider situations in which a group ‘acts’ on a set by permuting its elements; this powerful idea is used to identify the symmetries of the Platonic solids, and to help study the structure of groups themselves.

Hilbert Space
In this module you’ll examine the notion of a norm, which introduces a generalized notion of ‘distance’ to the purely algebraic setting of vector spaces. You’ll learn several quite natural ways to do this, both for vectors of any dimension and for functions. You’ll then focus on the more special notion of an inner product which generalizes angles at the same time as distances.
Once we’ve established these concepts, you’ll have the opportunity to study geometrical ideas like orthogonality, which can be seen to apply to much more general spaces than Euclidean spaces of three (or even n) dimensions, notably to infinite dimensional spaces of functions. For example, Hilbert space theory shows how Fourier series are really another case of expressing an element in terms of a basis, and how you can use orthogonality to find best approximations to a given function by functions of a prescribed type. Finally, you’ll look at some of the main results of linear algebra, which generalize very nicely to linear operators between Hilbert spaces.

Representation Theory of Finite Groups
This module covers the basics of ordinary representation theory. You’ll learn the concepts of Rmodule and of group representations, the main results pertaining to group representations, and will handle basic applications in the study of finite groups. You’ll also learn to perform computations with representations and morphisms in a selection of finite groups.
Optional
Year 4

MPhys Literature Review
Information for this module is currently unavailable.

MPhys Project
MPhys projects vary from year to year and are tailored to suit the individual student and the available research facilities. This twomodule project commences with a dissertation or literature review. Students will write a report on the project work and will conduct a presentation for the miniconference in the summer term, along with gaining skills related to oral presentation of scientific research.
Project work gives students the opportunity to carry out research or a detailed investigation into a specific area of physics appropriate to their chosen degree theme. Students will develop and apply analytical and problemsolving skills in an open ended situation, involving use of the library, computer, and other resources as appropriate, working alone or in a small group.
By the end of this module, students will demonstrate the ability to plan, manage and execute an investigation an area of physics in a systematic way using appropriate techniques. They will formulate conclusions and critically compare with relevant theory, and may be required to generate and analyse data and critically assess experimental uncertainties.

Topology and Fractals
Fractals, roughly speaking, are strange and exotic sets in the plane (and in higher dimensions) which are often generated as limits of quite simple repeated procedures. The 'middle thirds Cantor set' in [0,1] is one such set. Another, the Sierpinski sieve, arises by repeated removal of diminishing internal triangles from a solid equilateral triangle.
This analysis module will explore a variety of fractals, partly for fun for their own sake but also to illustrate fundamental ideas of metric spaces, compactness, disconnectedness and fractal dimension. The discussion will be kept at a straightforward level and you’ll consider topological ideas of open and closed sets in the setting of R2.
Core

Advanced Electrodynamics and Gravity
This module introduces a range of geometry and exterior calculus, including scalar fields, vector fields and convector fields. Students will explore pforms, exterior derivative, metrics and Hodge dual, and will discover electrodynamics, more specifically Maxwell equations in terms of the Maxwell 2form, 4velocity fields and Lorentz force equation in terms of the Maxwell 2form. Gravity is also covered, and students will engage in topics such as Einstein 3forms, stressenergymomentum 3forms and Einstein equations. Additionally, students will gain knowledge of killing vectors, spacetimes with symmetry, conserved quantities and black holes.
Students will gain the knowledge required to display an understanding of the intrinsic, covariant nature of electrodynamic, along with a familiarity with handling the Einstein equations and field equations on curved spacetime. Students will also be able to formulate and tackle field theories on spacetime using tools from modern differential geometry.

Advanced Magnetism
Students will be offered a revision of elements of the theory of electromagnetism, before being introduced to the phenomenology of solid state magnetic phenomena. The module discusses Van Vleck's description of diamagnetism and diamagnetism as quantum phenomenon. Students will explore ferromagnetism and antiferromagnetism, ferromagnetic exchange and the Heisenberg model, which includes selfconsistent mean field theory. A description of ferromagnetic phase transitions and Curie temperature will be provided as part of the module, along with the elements of the GinzburgLandau theory of magnetic phase transitions.
By the end of the module, students will develop a knowledge and understanding of magnetic and electric phenomena in condensed matter physics, in addition to an enhanced awareness of recent advances and current problems in condensed matter physics.

Advanced Relativity and Gravity
The module offers a short review of special relativity, tensor calculus on Minkowski spacetime, differential calculus on Minkowski spacetime, and curved spacetimes. Students will explore general relativity, gravity as intrinsic curvature of spacetime, and the Einstein equations, along with predictions of the linearized Einstein equations, gravitational waves, and gravitomagnetic field equations. Students will investigate exact solutions of the Einstein equations, black holes and event horizons.
By the end of the module, students will have a basis knowledge and understanding of the theories of special and general relativity, and possess a conceptual understanding of the links between Newtonian mechanics and relativity. The module also provides a geometrical insight into the properties of spacetime and relativity.

Hilbert Space
In this module you’ll have the opportunity to learn about Hilbert space, consolidating your understanding of linear algebra and enabling you to study applications of Hilbert space such as quantum mechanics and stochastic processes.
You’ll learn how to use inner products in analytical calculations, to use the concept of an operator on an infinite dimensional Hilbert space, to recognise situations in which Hilbert space methods are applicable and to understand concepts of linear algebra and analysis that apply in infinite dimensional vector spaces.

Lasers and Applications
This module will address the necessary requirements for laser action, spontaneous and stimulated emission rates, Einstein coefficients, optical gain coefficient, and characteristics of the emitted light. Students will become aware of the different types of lasers, such as gas and solid state, semiconductor, dye, chemical and excimer lasers. Semiconductor lasers: homojunction, single and double heterojunction devices will be investigated, along with materials and operating requirements. The module explores fabrication methods, quantum well lasers, advantages and characteristics. There will be a focus on a range of applications including laser surgery, optical fibre communications, laser machining, pollution monitoring and remote sensing.
By the end of the module, students will be familiarised with lasers and their applications, including the operating principles of a variety of different lasers. Students will understand the many uses of lasers in industry, medicine and the environment.

Matter at low temperature
The module begins by discussing what physicists mean by high and low temperatures, and looks at the different types of ordering that may occur as systems cool. Students will explore cryogenic techniques used for accessing such low temperatures are described, including the design of useful cryostats. Students will observe the new phenomena that occur when systems are cooled below room temperature and will consider electron pairing leading to the zero resistance of superconducting materials, the effect of magnetic fields, and the role of macroscopic quantum mechanical wave functions. The module provides an overview of the practical uses in superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs).
The module seeks to explore a selection of fascinating phenomena that occurs when cooling matter to temperatures more than a million times colder than the familiar 290K of everyday life and observe the significance for both physics and technology. Additionally, students will appreciate the relation between temperature and order, will know how low temperatures are produced, including dilution refrigerators, and will also be able to describe the phenomena of superconductivity and superfluidity.

Operator Theory
Operator theory is a modern mathematical topic in analysis which provides powerful general methods for the analysis of linear problems, and possibly even infinite dimensional problems.
Early successes were in the solution of differential and integral equations. Now operator theory is also an extensive subject in its own right in the general area of functional analysis.
First you’ll review Hilbert spaces, before spending some time studying infinitedimensional operators, notably the unilateral shift and multiplication operators, as well as basic concepts. You’ll then consider the criteria for invertibility of self adjoint operators, leading to the spectral theory of such operators.

Quantum transport in Low Dimensional Nanostructures
Students can expect to explore twodimensional electron systems, quantum transport in disordered lowdimensional electron systems and semiconductor quantum wires. The LandauerButtiker conductance formula is investigated, focusing on impurities in quantum wires, electronic transport in a magnetic field and the Hall effect. The module considers metallic point contacts, the pointcontact spectroscopy of the electronphonon interaction, and atomic breakjunctions and the scanning tunnelling microscope. Students will receive examples of applications of scanning tunnelling microscopy as part of the module.
By the end of the module, students will have knowledge of the physics of nanoscale solid state devices and how these may be manufactured and utilised. They will enhance their awareness of the recent advancements and current problems in condensed matter physics.

Representation Theory of Finite Groups
In this module you’ll learn the basics of ordinary representation theory.
You’ll have the opportunity to explore the concepts of Rmodule and group representations, and the main results pertaining to group representations, as well as learning to handle basic applications in the study of finite groups. You’ll also develop your skills in performing computations with representations and morphisms in a selection of finite groups.

Semiconductor Device Physics
Students will familiarise themselves with crystal growth, including growth theory, faceting, impurity segregation and zone refining. The module presents students with a silicon case study, investigating semiconducting properties, silicon oxide, masking, surface pacification and photolithographic processing. Compound semiconductors will be discussed, covering band structure advantages over silicon, IIVI materials and effects of iconicity.
Additionally, students will explore thin film semiconductors, such as epitaxy, vapour phase growth, metalloorganic methods and liquid phase epitaxy, and the module provides a broad interdisciplinary overview of the linkage between the physics, chemistry and other materials sciences involved in the synthesis of semiconductors and the devices made from them.
By the end of the module, students will develop an understanding of the basic properties of crystals and crystal defects, and will be able to describe how crystals are grown and discuss the main semiconductor used for microelectronics as a detailed case study. Students will also demonstrate how physics continues to play a major role in enabling information technology.
Optional
Lancaster University offers a range of programmes, some of which follow a structured study programme, and others which offer the chance for you to devise a more flexible programme. We divide academic study into two sections  Part 1 (Year 1) and Part 2 (Year 2, 3 and sometimes 4). For most programmes Part 1 requires you to study 120 credits spread over at least three modules which, depending upon your programme, will be drawn from one, two or three different academic subjects. A higher degree of specialisation then develops in subsequent years. For more information about our teaching methods at Lancaster visit our Teaching and Learning section.
Information contained on the website with respect to modules is correct at the time of publication, but changes may be necessary, for example as a result of student feedback, Professional Statutory and Regulatory Bodies' (PSRB) requirements, staff changes, and new research.

Calculus

Careers
Careers
Physics is an exciting subject that is fundamental to the developments in modern society. Applications of the subject range from the very pure to the very practical, and a physics degree opens up a wide range of rewarding careers in scientific research and technological development, as well as in a variety of other professions. A substantial number of our graduates continue on to postgraduate education, or enter employment that directly relies on their specialist skills. Our students also find employment in careers where they are valued because of general skills gained during the course such as logical thinking, problem solving, numeracy and computer literacy. Examples include consulting, finance, computer programming, and accountancy, as well as managerial and administrative positions.
Lancaster University is dedicated to ensuring you not only gain a highly reputable degree, you also graduate with the relevant life and work based skills. We are unique in that every student is eligible to participate in The Lancaster Award which offers you the opportunity to complete key activities such as work experience, employability/career development, campus community and social development. Visit our Employability section for full details.

Fees and Funding
Fees and Funding
Fees
We set our fees on an annual basis and the 2018/19 entry fees have not yet been set.
As a guide, our fees in 2017 were:
UK/EU Overseas £9,250 £18,168 Channel Islands and the Isle of Man
Some science and medicine courses have higher fees for students from the Channel Islands and the Isle of Man. You can find more details here: Island Students.
Funding
Lancaster University's priority is to support every student to make the most of their life and education and we have committed £3.7m in scholarships and bursaries. Our financial support depends on your circumstances and how well you do in your A levels (or equivalent academic qualifications) before starting study with us.
Scholarships recognising academic talent:
 An Academic Scholarship of £2,000 for the first year of study for fulltime UK, Channel Islands and Isle of Man students who achieve A*,A*,A in their A level examinations (or equivalent academic qualifications) and who place Lancaster as their firm choice. This is awarded regardless of household income.
 An Access Scholarship of £1,000 for each year of study for all UK students with household incomes of less than £42,600 who achieve A level grades of A*,A, A in their A level examinations (or the equivalent academic qualifications). In addition, students from household incomes of less than £42,600 who achieve higher entry grades of A*, A*, A (or equivalent academic qualifications), who place Lancaster as their firm choice will also be awarded our £2,000 Academic Scholarship in their first year of study.
Continuation of the Access Scholarship is subject to satisfactory academic progression.
Students may be eligible for both the Academic and Access Scholarship if they meet the requirements for both.
 An Excellence Scholarship which forms part of the Unconditional Offer Scheme for full time UK, Channel Islands and Isle of Man applicants with outstanding academic profiles within a number of academic departments.
Bursaries for life, living and learning:
 A Lancaster bursary of £1,000 for each year of study for all students from the UK with a household income of less than £42,600.
Students from the UK eligible for a bursary package will also be awarded our Academic Scholarship and/or Access Scholarship if they meet the criteria detailed above.
Any financial support that you receive from Lancaster University will be in addition to government support that might be available to you (eg fee loans) and will not affect your entitlement to these.
For full details of the University's financial support packages including eligibility criteria, please visit our fees and funding page
Please note that this information relates to the funding arrangements for 2017, which may change for 2018.
Students taking Part I of the course are charged £10 for a bound copy of the lab manual. There are a number of optional oneday visits to places of interest and students pay travel costs.
Students also need to consider further costs which may include books, stationery, printing, photocopying, binding and general subsistence on trips and visits. Following graduation it may be necessary to take out subscriptions to professional bodies and to buy business attire for job interviews.