Manors and their Records
Using Manorial Records
Cumbrian Superior Lordships
§ Account
§ Admittance
§ Call book
§ Court books and court rolls
§ Custumal
§ Enfranchisement papers
§ Estreats
§ Fines (gressums)
§ Pain List
§ Perambulation
§ Petition
§ Rental
§ Signatures and marks
§ Stewards' papers
§ Survey
§ Terrier
§ Valor
§ Verdict Sheet
History Department
Faculty of Arts & Social Sciences
Cumbrian Manorial Records


Valor: valuation of the Estates of Philip, Lord Wharton, 1605

Source: Cumbria Record Office, Carlisle, D/Lons/L5/2/24/1, p.318,
with the kind permission of the Trustees of the Lowther Estate


Wharton xxvito A breife abstracte or estimate of the yearlie value
die Novembris of the Rentes or Tenauntes profittes of demaines parkes and Tythes
1605  of the righte honorable Philip lorde Wharton in West-
  merlande Cumberlande Yorkshire and Countie Pallentine
  of Durisme as followethe:
Westmerlande Wharton in rentes and Fines with vis paide for  
  Noltgelde by yeare
  Naitbie in Rentes and Fermes with Cs for Corne mylne  
xxvili viis vd
  Kirkbystephan with vili rente of the Gleblande 
xxiiili viiid ob
  Ravinstonedalle with iiiili for Corne Mylne and iiili for Tythe of Weelfeall by yeare  
Cxviiili viis ixd
  Langdall with Flackbrigge by yeare
xviiili vis viiid ob
  Teebay lordshipp with vs for Noltgelde
lili iiis iid ob
  Breetherdalle with vs for Noltgelde
xiili xs vid ob
  Preston patterigge with viiis iiiid bayliffe fee 
xili iis vid
  Shapp gravshipp with iiili for boones & wastes 
lixli xvs ixd
  Shapp demaines by yeare
xxiiiili iiiis xs

Quick Glossary:

ob obolus = halfpenny
noltgelde literally 'cattle tax', the vernacular term for cornage, an ancient cattle render paid by many communities to the baronial lord
boones labour services
grav[e]shipp the manorial rent-collecting unit; 'grave' was the northern English equivalent to reeve
demaine demesne: land retained in hand by the lord. On these manors by this date the demesnes had been let to tenants


A 'valor' is a summary valuation of a manor, laying out the income and expenses with a view to showing how much profit a manor could be expected to provide.  Valors were based on information in manorial accounts.

The Wharton family’s extensive landholdings in northern England had been built up by Thomas, first Lord Wharton (d. 1568) in the mid-16th century. This extract is the first part of a full valuation of the Wharton estates in 1605.  It gives a global figure for the income from each manor, followed by a statement of allowances and outgoings against this income.  The grand total value of the estates was put at £2,107 11s 43/4d, against which were set allowances totalling £723 6s 5d, giving a clear annual value of £1,384 4s 113/4d.  The Westmorland estates were valued at over £440, the most valuable manors being Ravenstonedale (£118 7s 9d), Shap (over £84 if the leased demesnes are included) and Tebay (£51 3s 21/2d).  The sums for each manor represent the total rental income from the tenants, together with other sources of income (‘noltgeld’ or cornage, rent from mills, etc) as noted.


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