A Level Requirements
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see all requirements
Full time 3 Year(s)
Lancaster's degree in Theatre and Creative Writing is taught jointly by the Lancaster Institute for the Contemporary Arts (LICA) and the Department of English and Creative Writing. It combines the study of Theatre with the writing of original and imaginative fiction, poetry or plays. These two different focuses reinforce and complement each other. Studying Theatre at Lancaster gives you the opportunity to learn about innovative twentieth and twenty-first century theatre and performance through an exciting and varied mix of practical and academic approaches. You will be taught by internationally esteemed, award winning theatre practitioners and scholars and will gain critical and creative skills that open up possibilities for working in theatre, while making you attractive to a wide range of other employers. Your Creative Writing courses are taught by a team of widely published authors through a combination of lectures, readings, practice and discussion in regular tutor-led workshops. Your degree includes an Introduction to Creative Writing in your first year, and in your second and third years of study you will choose additional genre-specific units such as Short Fiction, Poetry Writing or Creative Non-fiction. You will begin your degree with core courses including, an Introduction to Theatre Studies and Creative Writing. In your second year you’ll move on to subjects such as Theatre Techniques, Performance Composition, Work Placement, Intermediate Creative Writing and Critical Reflections. You will then complete your degree by choosing from a selection of Theatre and Creative Writing modules on offer including a final year theatre production module.
You also have the opportunity to spend your second year abroad at one of our partner universities in North America or Australia. The year abroad counts fully towards your Lancaster degree.
A Level AAB-ABB
Required Subjects A level in one of the following subjects: Creative Writing, English language, English Literature or A level English Language and Literature.
IELTS 6.5 overall with at least 5.5 in each component. For other English language qualifications we accept, please see our English language requirements webpages.
International Baccalaureate 35-32 points overall with 16 points from the best 3 Higher Level subjects including a HL Literature or HL Language and Literature subject
BTEC Distinction, Distinction, Distinction to Distinction, Distinction, Merit considered alongside A level Creative Writing, English language, English Literature or A level English Language and Literature
Access to HE Diploma in a relevant subject with 30 Level 3 credits at Distinction and 15 Level 3 credits at Merit, to 24 Level 3 credits at Distinction and 21 Level 3 credits at Merit
We welcome applications from students with a range of alternative UK and international qualifications, including combinations of qualification. Further guidance on admission to the University, including other qualifications that we accept, frequently asked questions and information on applying, can be found on our general admissions webpages.
Contact Admissions Team + 44 (0) 1524 592028 or via email@example.com
Many of Lancaster's degree programmes are flexible, offering students the opportunity to cover a wide selection of subject areas to complement their main specialism. You will be able to study a range of modules, some examples of which are listed below.
This module develops the skills, knowledge and confidence of apprentice writers and their command and enjoyment of the craft. It approaches literature as something made by individuals out of their experience, imagination and knowledge, rather than as finished artefacts encountered as commodities. The module encourages you to experiment with different forms and approaches, to discover your individual strengths as a writer, whether of poetry, prose or drama.
Lectures provide insight into a syllabus of key skills, techniques and approaches to writing poetry, prose fiction and drama. Workshops are tailored to reflect on the content of the weekly lectures and put these skills, techniques and approaches into practice. You will discuss in detail each others’ works-in-progress, developing critical and editorial skills and insight into the writing process. These skills and insight are then applied to your own, as well as peers' work. The 'Reading for Technique' element of the module allows you to develop skills to read as a writer, rather than as a critic or general reader.
This module offers students a theoretical and practical foundation for study in years two and three. Students are introduced to a variety of forms and genres of drama, theatre and performance. These range from Shakespearean tragedy, Naturalist theatre, Epic theatre and Artaudian theatre up to and including contemporary works drawn from physical theatre, dance and postdramatic performance. Approaches to these works include the analysis of different modes of acting/performing, uses of space and sites and the creative processes and forms of dance and physical theatre, as well as considerations of historical, social and cultural context. Teaching is by lecture, seminar and practical workshops and the module culminates in a practical project in which students present performances inspired by the practitioners studied during the year.
LICA100 examines the ideas and events underlying the revolutions in the arts which began about the end of the nineteenth century and continued throughout the twentieth. These are still the focus of frequent debate, and have a powerful influence on the arts today. Seminal works and thinkers in art, design, film and theatre will be examined, with particular emphasis on ideas of cross-over and integration between different art forms. Consideration is given to both 'high art' and the popular. You will acquire an understanding of modernism in the arts, enabling a richer appreciation of recent art works and of the context for contemporary arts practices.
For LICA students, this course will sit alongside a module in your particular discipline as a general introduction to study of the contemporary arts. It will emphasise the common background for the developments in Art, Design, Film and Theatre through the 20th century which so profoundly affect our culture today, enabling you both to better understand your particular discipline, and to take certain courses in other disciplines within LICA in your second and third years to broaden your studies, if you wish.
This course provides an introduction to critical theory in the arts and its application to aesthetics and art. The first term concentrates on 'structures' in artworks and the second on 'identities'. The structure of the course is six three-week blocks: (1) Form and Structure, (2) Semiotics and Authorship, (3) Phenomenology and Spectatorship, (4) Sex/uality and Gender, (5) Race and Ethnicity, and (6) Class and Society. Weekly plenary lectures make connections across the arts, and weekly two hour seminar/workshops allow students to work in their subject groups (art, film, theatre, design) on ideas and examples specifically tailored towards these disciplines.
Students will develop the key skills introduced at Part I level with an emphasis on writing as process, exploring creative voice, identifying point of view, the implied author and authorial guises and considering the creative and interactive nature of reading. A proactive workshop environment in the first term will enable the development of specific aesthetic and technical skills through lively participation in constructive criticism relating to fellow students’ work-in-progress. Through this process, you will gain a deeper understanding of many important concepts such as structure, linguistic texture and resonance, point-of-view, form, pace, characterisation, the mediation of tone, and reader awareness. While the learning environment will usually be in the form of workshops, certain weeks will be designated for focused and practical set tasks. You will be expected to read widely from modern and contemporary creative works and to explore the work of ‘writers on writing’. The aim of the course is to develop a closely edited creative and peer-critiqued body of work that displays your own form of expression alongside skills and insights developed through the course.
This module focuses on the shifting landscape of British theatre in the twentieth century, approached through the conceptualising lens of the state of the nation. It aims to: introduce a decade-by-decade overview of British theatre from 1945 to 2000 by presenting key playwrights and plays; introduce readings of the works which embrace an understanding of both dramatic form and content; situate the works socially and politically. Assessment is by group presentation and written examination.
This module will explore the writing of creative non-fiction through the development, in a workshop environment, of the student’s own work, combined with the directed reading of a selection of contemporary work and secondary texts. Over the course of ten weeks, you are expected to read and discuss each key text, and to submit your own work for workshopping on a regular basis. Students are also expected to familiarise themselves with books listed as ‘supplementary’ and ‘background’ reading: the books are selected to offer different perspectives on the key issues raised. The course should be considered to have a cumulative effect, in that the books discussed early on may be drawn upon in later weeks to illustrate different aspects of writing. During the course you are also expected to keep a journal, in which you reflect upon your writing and reading. This journal will form the basis of the reflective element of your final portfolio. This journal will be discussed in an end-of-term personal tutorial with your tutor.
This module will enable students to develop a range of graphic skills to allow them to approach and represent ideas, issues and experiences in a documentary manner. The module is designed to be relevant to creative practice in Theatre, Film and Fine Art. It will enable students with a specific interest in drawing to expand their knowledge and experience of observational and on-site drawing, and develop their learning and experience by engaging in further technical training and by introduction to drawing beyond the studio and 'in the field'. On completion of this module it is expected students will have significantly developed their drawing skills and ability to select a meaningful topic, demonstrate ability to engage in independent study and develop a substantial personal project for assessment.
This core module has two main objectives. Firstly, it is designed to develop further your analytical skills in order to examine individual films in greater detail. Secondly, it is intended to encourage you to understand world cinema in relation to a variety of social, cultural, political and industrial contexts. The module will explore such issues as the relationship between film form and modes of production (from industrial film-making through to low-budget art film), theories of film style and aesthetics, and the political function of cinema. In the first term, we focus wholly on various modes of American film production, and in the second term we explore some broader theoretical questions through an analysis of films from a number of different national traditions. Across the whole module, you will gain a thorough grasp not only of the historical factors shaping various national and international cinemas, but also of some key critical and theoretical concepts within the field of film studies.
The module will enable you to understand how a work environment functions and how you can contribute to this. It will enable you to develop a range of transferable skills and apply your knowledge and understanding to a project linked to your placement organisation.
You will work with an external organisation for between 45 – 60 hours and attend lectures and seminars which will provide you with guidance and support. The placement will take place in a cultural organisation (such as a Gallery, Theatre or Studio) or a schools-based placement in Primary, Secondary or Special Needs dedicated school. The module will provide you with the opportunity to combine practical work and develop your interest in relation to a specific subject related issue. The module will prepare you for placement by providing you with the academic skills that will enable you to reflect upon your experiences.
This module aims to introduce key issues and practical skills in the production of video for media, performance, new media art and documentary film. The module will introduce the historical and practical applications of media technologies in art, theatre and performance by presenting the key practitioners in the areas of installation, multimedia performance, video, and new media art.
A group practical project will introduce the use of video cameras, filming and editing, project planning, team work and the practical use of installation technologies. The module offers students the opportunity to work in interdisciplinary teams to produce a short film, performance, installation or documentary, including video and other media where appropriate.
This module combines theoretical and practical approaches to provide an introduction to some of the greatest American and German modern dance pioneers of the twentieth century. It compares their systems of technical training, choreographic methods, signature dance works, and considers the relationship of those systems, methods and works to the social context and philosophical ideas of their time. Assessment is through the choreography and performance of a short trio, and an essay. The module prepares students for more advanced dance and physical theatre projects in later modules.
This practical module provides a comprehensive understanding of compositional strategies and methodologies used in making theatre and performance, whether as a performer or as a director, writer or designer. Particular emphasis will be placed on investigating notions of form and structure and on how performance material can be generated through creative strategies of sourcing, developing and editing material towards a completed work. Assessment is through the production of a performance score and a group practical project.
This module combines theoretical and practical approaches to explore the historical avant-garde. Key examples from each of the selected movements (e.g. Futurism, Dada, Surrealism) allow for an examination of the ways in which the avant-garde engaged with the disciplines of performance, fine art, film, design and sound in creating its diverse practices. Assessment is through practical workshop and essay.
The emphasis in this module is on reading as well as writing poetry. There is a decent collection of verse in the Library and students will be expected and encouraged to seek out work as a result of seminar and discussion. The writing of poetry is largely dependent on your abilities and adventurousness as a reader. However, technical aspects should not be neglected, and it is strongly recommended that every student buys or borrows a copy of Rhyme’s Reason by John Hollander and The Poet’s Manual and Rhyming Dictionary by Frances Stillman (more for the use of this book’s former element than its latter!) You are expected to keep a journal throughout the course, the contents of which will be used to create your reflective piece for your portfolio.
The aims of this course are to provide an opportunity for second year students to develop a knowledge of the short story form, and to develop their experience of writing the form. They will gain experience in reading, writing, workshopping and reflecting on short fiction, and will develop a knowledge of the history and development of the form, current theoretical approaches to reading and practice in this form, and an awareness of their own literary context. The course will offer students the opportunity to develop their oral and written communication skills, enhance awareness of their approach to the creative process, and enhance their skills in the critical analysis of texts. This course is then developed by the third year specialization in short fiction.
This module will explore the writing of short stories in a workshop environment through the development of the student’s own work, combined with the directed reading of selected texts. Over the course of ten weeks, you are expected to read and discuss each key text, and to submit your own work for workshopping on a regular basis. Students are also expected to explore some of the books and essays listed as ‘supplementary’ reading: the books are selected to offer different perspectives on the key issues raised. The course should be considered as having a cumulative effect, in that books discussed early on may be drawn upon in later weeks to illustrate different aspects of writing. During the course, you are also expected to keep a journal, in which you reflect upon your writing and reading. The journal will form the basis of the reflective element of your final portfolio.
This practical module is designed to allow students to work collectively to produce an original performance piece informed by material studied in the second year as a whole. Students are supported by a supervisor who will provide feedback on progress throughout the module.
This practical module provides training in two key areas of technique essential to theatre and performance: firstly, movement and voice, and secondly, lighting and sound. Students begin the module by receiving a short three-week introduction to skills in movement and voice and then spend a further three weeks studying basic concepts and techniques in lighting and sound design (or vice versa), before choosing to focus on one of those two areas for the remaining four weeks of the module. Assessment takes the form of a short practical exercise and then a more substantial practical project in the chosen area of study.
This module is designed for those students interested in writing imaginatively about places and/or landscapes, providing a grounding for writers of poetry, prose fiction and non-fiction in the broad field of nature, environmental and place writing (which has been undergoing something of a renaissance in recent years). Students will study key texts that engage with different kinds of place and landscape – from fields and forests to rivers and urban edgelands – and explore their own emergent interests in place writing. Students will be encouraged to consider their own work as part of a larger, ongoing literary conversation about place, and to explore those places and landscapes that interest and excite them. The course also contains an element of fieldwork, linking the act of physically walking through a landscape to the practice of reading and writing about it.
Students will develop the key skills introduced at Part I level and in the first year of Part II with an emphasis on writing as process, exploring creative voice, identifying point of view, the implied author and authorial guises and considering the creative and interactive nature of reading. A proactive workshop environment will enable the development of specific aesthetic and technical skills through lively participation in constructive criticism relating to fellow students’ work-in-progress. Through this process, you will gain a deeper understanding of many important concepts such as structure, linguistic texture and resonance, point-of-view, form, pace, characterisation, the mediation of tone, and reader awareness. While the learning environment will usually be in the form of workshops, certain weeks will be designated for focused and practical set tasks. You will be expected to read widely from modern and contemporary creative works and to explore the work of ‘writers on writing’. The aim of the course is to develop a closely edited creative and peer-critiqued body of work that displays your own form of expression alongside skills and insights developed through the course.
This core module is directed towards completion of an independent research project on a topic of the student’s choice, presented in the form of a dissertation. The course is taught through lecture/seminars focused on research skills and one-to-one supervision.
This unit will provide an opportunity for students to develop their knowledge and skills of the short story form, history and practice with a more advanced course. Each week you will have the opportunity to discuss, in detail, one or two specimen short stories and workshop their own creative work. Topics covered will include:
Topics studied will normally include:
Introduction – Hollywood breakdown (Easy Rider, Medium Cool)
The future of allusion: New Hollywood’s nostalgic mode (The Godfather)
Popular feminism (Klute, Woman Under the Influence)
Politics and conspiracy (The Parallax View, All The President’s Men)
Disaster movies (The Poseidon Adventure)
Comedy (Annie Hall)
Exploitation cinema I: blaxploitation (Coffy, Foxy Brown)
Exploitation cinema II: horror/body genres (The Texas Chainsaw Massacre)
Blockbuster cinema and the franchise film (Star Wars)
The end of the New (Apocalypse Now)
This module is designed to provide you with a chance to explore one of America's most significant cultural contributions to the twentieth century - the motion picture. You are introduced to the American cinema through a genre approach to a series of selected films. This entails that you frame the formal and aesthetic aspects of Hollywood filmmaking in an appropriate social, historical, cultural, and industrial context. In considering why certain popular narrative formulas (such as the Western and the Gangster) are so deeply associated with American commercial screen art, lectures and seminars will attend to movie production as a dynamic process of exchange between the film industry and its mass audience.
This module combines theoretical and practical approaches to explore important European writers, directors and companies by studying their innovative dramaturgies, scenographies, uses of ‘no longer dramatic’ text, and new acting/performing styles. These aesthetic forms are also discussed in relation to the performances’ thematic and political concerns with developments such as globalization and late capitalism, increasing mediatisation, (anti-)immigration, terrorism and the war on terror and ecological concerns, as well as with the enduring memories of the Second World War and a European history of colonialism. Teaching is through lecture, seminar and practical workshop and assessment is by practical presentation and by seen examination.
This module provides an opportunity for students to develop an understanding of the innovative ways in which creative practitioners produce and deliver their work. It will provide an overview of the challenges faced by freelance practitioners, producers and small cultural companies within the creative industries. You will also develop a working understanding of the key management and enterprise skills involved in delivering creative projects. Working in groups you will put your learning into practice through the delivery of your own live creative arts project. This will enable you to understand the skills, knowledge, attributes and behaviours relevant for employment in the arts and creative industries.
This module will explore the writing of creative non-fiction through the development, in a workshop environment, of the student’s own work, combined with the directed reading of a selection of contemporary work and secondary texts. This module builds both thematically and technically on CREW 206, which was introductory and primarily concerned with biography and memoir; CREW 305 concentrates on reviews, essays, and cultural reflection. Over the course of ten weeks, you are expected to read and discuss each key text, and to submit your own work for workshopping on a regular basis. Students are also expected to familiarise themselves with the books listed as ‘supplementary’ reading below and ‘background’ reading (available on Moodle): the books are selected to offer different perspectives on the key issues raised. The course should be considered to have a cumulative effect, in that the books discussed earlier in the term (as well as those discussed in CREW 206) may be drawn upon in later weeks to illustrate different aspects of writing. During the course you are also expected to keep a journal, in which you reflect upon your writing and reading. This journal will form the basis of the reflective element of your final portfolio. This journal will be discussed in an end-of-term personal tutorial with your tutor.
This third-year core course will add to the theoretical, historical and cultural aspects of film investigated in Years 1 and 2, while focusing more closely on the challenging aesthetic and critical debates surrounding the concept of modernity. It will look at films made in the silent era, in post-war Europe and in Britain and the US. Key writings on film will be considered in conjunction with viewings of particular films, close analysis of specific filmic techniques and methods, and historical and theoretical approaches to film. The course will also pay attention to the debates of classical and contemporary film theory, feminist approaches and other critical traditions (semiotics, structuralism, formalism, cognitivism). Building on the approach to film taken in LICA251 (Film Cultures), this course focuses on film theory as students are introduced to key debates in classical and contemporary film theory, with topics exploring the relations between film and art, cinema and politics, cinema and psychoanalysis, and, above all, the question of how films produce meaning(s).
This module will explore the process of writing an extended piece of fiction. The primary focus is the development of the student’s own creative work; this is facilitated through the study of a selection of contemporary novels and secondary texts, and the workshop critique of the student’s ongoing project. Over the course of ten weeks, students are required to read each key text for discussion, and to submit extracts of their creative work for critique on a regular basis. Further reading, tailored to the students’ individual needs, will be suggested by the tutor as the course progresses. The course should be considered to have a cumulative effect, in that books discussed early on may be drawn upon in later weeks to illustrate different aspects of writing. During the course you are also expected to keep a journal, which will form the basis of the reflective element of your final portfolio. Towards the end of the half unit, you are expected to submit a short piece of reflective writing based on this journal, in which you consider your progress and detail plans for your final portfolio submission. This will be discussed in an end-of-term personal tutorial with your tutor.
This course will provide the space for you to work on a creative project that utilises opportunities afforded by new media. New media narratives (please see the list of set ‘texts’ for examples) are often interactive, participatory, immersive and cross-platform and you will be encouraged to design and provide writing samples from a project that engages with these features. During the course we will examine a variety of new media narratives, compare them to non-linear ‘old media’ narratives (books!) and you will work towards placing your own creative work in a literary and critical context.
The topics we will cover will respond to your own project ideas and interests, but may include:
Interactivity and immersion,
Space, place, mapping and journeying,
The problem of character,
Who is the author? Collaboration and crowd-sourced fictions.
Note: while we will talk about the ways these narratives can resemble games, this is not a course where you will be designing a computer game. You do not need to have any special computer skills – only an interest in the opportunities afforded to writers by new media forms.
This course aims to challenge the received structures of language in the students' own poetry through a close reading of poets who opened up new frontiers of 20th/21st century literature through their experimental approaches to language. Every seminar will be split in two halves; the first hour will be devoted to a close reading of experimental work by a published poet, from Alice Oswald to Ezra Pound, looking at how they stretch or break the lyric formula; the second hour will a workshop based on critiquing the students' own poetic experiments. In week two, students will receive a basic introduction to Wittgenstein's theory of language games, with each subsequent poet examined in the light of how they try to break the rules of the game. The students' own experiments are encouraged as either continuations of the radical departures first implemented by the poets in question, or the students' own attempts to break from comfortable notions of confessional or lyric poetry.
This course offers an introduction to the broad area of silent cinema and to a range of critical approaches to this rich area of study. You will have the opportunity to view and analyse a number of important films. We will also explore a number of critical questions raised by this material with regard to the writing and study of histories of cinema (and popular culture in general), the relationships between technology and form, the economics of film production, distribution and reception, the relationship between cinema and national identity, the social and cultural impact of new (entertainment) media, the study of cinema audiences.
This module introduces students to a selection of genres of contemporary popular performance and explores the implications of the aesthetic overlap and cross fertilisation between these forms and modes of performance usually defined as political, ‘avant-garde’ or experimental. Exemplary case studies may include Stand-up, Musical Theatre, New Burlesque, New Circus, Immersive Theatre and Fairground attractions. These case studies will be explored with reference to the historical development of these forms, their contemporary elaborations and in relation to issues such as gender, sexuality, ethnicity, class and globalisation. Teaching is through lectures, seminars and practical exercises and assessment is by group presentation and exam.
This module will build on CREW 205 (Writing Poetry), deepening student engagement with both the writing and the reading process. Both closed and open forms will be explored through a wide-ranging selection of poems (all of which will be found in the set text for the course: The Making of a Poem (ed Boland and Strand). There will be particular emphasis on those forms regularly employed in a twentieth century and a contemporary context.
A portion of each seminar will be spent discussing the set poems for the week. Students will submit their own poems on a fortnightly basis. The dual assessment (a portfolio of students’ own poems plus a close reading of two of the syllabus poems) reflects the course emphasis on the inter-relationship between reading and writing.
Lancaster University offers a range of programmes, some of which follow a structured study programme, and others which offer the chance for you to devise a more flexible programme. We divide academic study into two sections - Part 1 (Year 1) and Part 2 (Year 2, 3 and sometimes 4). For most programmes Part 1 requires you to study 120 credits spread over at least three modules which, depending upon your programme, will be drawn from one, two or three different academic subjects. A higher degree of specialisation then develops in subsequent years. For more information about our teaching methods at Lancaster visit our Teaching and Learning section.
Information contained on the website with respect to modules is correct at the time of publication, but changes may be necessary, for example as a result of student feedback, Professional Statutory and Regulatory Bodies' (PSRB) requirements, staff changes, and new research.
A Theatre and Creative Writing degree gives graduates the capability to work independently and collaboratively in a wide range of professions. Our graduates have become professional performers, choreographers, dramaturgs, technicians, directors and published novelists, poets and playwrights; community artists; administrators and producers of arts events; and therapists, teachers, lecturers and researchers. You will also be able to develop key transferable skills, such as creative thinking, communication, project design and group management, as well as research, analysis, and critical writing. These skills will make you extremely attractive to a wide range of employers, including those within the different creative and cultural industries which now forms a large part of the UK’s economy. In addition, you will gain invaluable qualities such as a sharp kinaesthetic and literary intelligence, honed through constant creative practice and academic analysis, which will enable you to respond to any situation with far greater clarity and confidence that would otherwise have been possible.
Many of our Theatre and Creative Writing graduates progress to postgraduate degrees, to become academics, lecturers and teachers, whilst others train further in performance or creative writing.
Lancaster University is dedicated to ensuring you not only gain a highly reputable degree, but that you also graduate with relevant life and work based skills. We are unique in that every student is eligible to participate in The Lancaster Award which offers you the opportunity to complete key activities such as work experience, employability/career development, campus community and social development. Visit our Employability section for full details.
We set our fees on an annual basis and the 2018/19 entry fees have not yet been set.
As a guide, our fees in 2017 were:
Some science and medicine courses have higher fees for students from
the Channel Islands and the Isle of Man. You can find more details here:
Lancaster University's priority is to support every student to make the most of their life and education and we have committed £3.7m in scholarships and bursaries. Our financial support depends on your circumstances and how well you do in your A levels (or equivalent academic qualifications) before starting study with us.
Scholarships recognising academic talent:
For full details of the University's financial support packages including eligibility criteria, please visit our fees and funding page
Students will require clothing for practical classes, especially dance classes such as track suit trousers, sweatshirts etc. and will be required to buy or hire costumes and props for their performances. Students will also need to purchase tickets to see professional performances at Lancaster Arts and, very occasionally venues further afield. The purchase of DVDs may also be required if unable to borrow them from the library during vacations. Criminal record Bureau checks may also be necessary if students undertake projects with school groups.
Students also need to consider further costs which may include books, stationery, printing, photocopying, binding and general subsistence on trips and visits. Following graduation it may be necessary to take out subscriptions to professional bodies and to buy business attire for job interviews.
Average time in lectures, seminars and similar
Average assessment by coursework