A Level Requirements
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see all requirements
Full time 3 Year(s)
Combine the two popular disciplines of Criminology and Sociology as you study some of the most contentious issues in contemporary life. This stimulating combined degree is jointly taught by the world-leading, research-active academics based in our prestigious Law School and Sociology Department. They will encourage you to look beyond traditional views and consider how ideas about crime, justice, society and culture are shaped by history, economics, politics and ideology.
Our unique approach to your first year allows you to select modules in Law, Sociology and Criminology, tackling topics such as youth justice, sex offending, drugs, crime and the media, stigma and deviance, sociologies of help and illness and marginalised groups.
You will benefit from our excellent connections with NGOs, charities, and local criminal justice agencies such as Lancashire Police and HMP Lancashire Farm. You will be able to visit the prison and engage in collaborative learning, and analyse data from Lancashire Police; this data is then often used by the force. All of this helps you to make professional connections, learn more about criminal justice agencies, and get a head start on your career.
You will gain vital skills for a career within, and beyond, the criminal justice system as you develop your abilities to think critically, communicate, speak in public, work in teams, write for academia and carry out research and data analysis. The duality of this course also means you will be practiced at looking at issues from a multi-disciplinary perspective.
If you would like to take a global perspective on Criminology and Sociology, you can opt for Study Abroad - extending your degree to four years and spending your third year with one of our highly-regarded partner universities in the US and Canada.
Throughout your degree, you will gain vital skills for a career within or beyond the criminal justice system. You will develop your ability to think critically, communicate, speak in public, work in teams, write for academia, carry out your own research and competently analyse data. Assessment is through coursework, presentations and exams with options to produce media portfolios, posters and dissertations.
A dedicated careers officer is available to you, and you can access professional bodies and organisations through our links with them.
Your degree can open doors to jobs in the private, public and voluntary sectors. Our graduates have gone on to roles with Criminal Justice Agencies (the Police, the National Probation Service, GSL UK), the Home Office, the Department for Health, Social Services, NHS Trusts, Charities and the Youth Offending Service. Undergraduate study can also lead to further study options, including: LLM/MA Criminology and Criminal Justice; MSc Criminology and Social Research Methods; MSc Criminal Justice and Social Research Methods; or PhD-level study.
A Level ABB
IELTS 6.5 overall with at least 5.5 in each component. For other English language qualifications we accept, please see our English language requirements webpages.
International Baccalaureate 32 points overall with 16 points from the best 3 Higher Level subjects
BTEC Distinction, Distinction, Merit
Access to HE Diploma 24 Level 3 credits at Distinction and 21 Level 3 credits at Merit
We welcome applications from students with a range of alternative UK and international qualifications, including combinations of qualification. Further guidance on admission to the University, including other qualifications that we accept, frequently asked questions and information on applying, can be found on our general admissions webpages.
Contact Admissions Team + 44 (0) 1524 592028 or via firstname.lastname@example.org
Many of Lancaster's degree programmes are flexible, offering students the opportunity to cover a wide selection of subject areas to complement their main specialism. You will be able to study a range of modules, some examples of which are listed below.
This module provides an introduction to criminology and criminal justice. You will benefit from a multi-disciplinary approach, which allows you to focus on the social, political, cultural and economic contexts of crime, deviance and criminal justice.
The module has a three-part structure and begins with criminological perspectives. This is your chance to delve into a range of key perspectives in criminology including biological, psychological, sociological and feminist. You’ll also consider the ways in which the media influences representations of crime.
In part two we will move on to contemporary criminological issues such as domestic violence, green criminology, serial killing, revenge porn, drugs, sex offending and hate crime. Part three then provides a critical overview of the key criminal justice agencies in the UK (such as prison, police and probation) – at this point we also explore approaches to punishment.
You will be taught by expert lecturers who will introduce you to cutting-edge research. Due to our unique approach to first year, you will study alongside students from across the University, which brings real diversity to the discussions within our small group teaching and workshops, enriching your learning experience.
The Sociology 101 Course introduces you to sociological issues, ideas, concepts, evidence and argument by examining some key aspects of living in the contemporary world. By the end of the course, you should have a basic capacity for conceptual analysis and for applying sociological reasoning to empirical examples. This will allow you to evaluate what you see around you with new critical skills. The lectures are designed to provide you with a basic background in the topics being reviewed.
You will be introduced to debates and issues related to various aspects of contemporary societies and encouraged to explore ideas and undertake analysis. In this respect, it is perhaps better to think of sociology as an interpretative scientific endeavour rather than producing definitive findings or laws, although it may do this too. Sociology is an exciting subject. It can seem confusing, especially to those of you who are coming to it for the first time. Sociology will seem to cover every topic in society, there are different kinds of sociology, and many different areas where sociological research matters, from politics to design.
We will help you develop new skills in thinking sociologically. The course will stimulate interest for students who have not done an Advanced Level course in Sociology, whilst providing a challenge to those who have.
More specifically, the course's aims are threefold. First, you will learn about various aspects of contemporary societies and key concepts (e.g. society, identity, modernity, globalization). Each block introduces a key area of sociological inquiry and long-standing as well as newly emerging research questions. Many sociologists at Lancaster are renowned for their creative and groundbreaking research and each module relates to one or more of the Department's research areas, so you will experience major figures in international Sociology and get a taste of the department's current teaching and research portfolio.
Second, you will learn basic study and research skills. These include: taking notes, using the library, conducting sociological research, analysing written and spoken arguments and empirical evidence, writing, using the internet as a research tool, working and discussing in groups, preparing and making oral presentations.
Third, you will learn to think sociologically. That is to say that you will be able to identify social dimensions of contemporary life, summarise sociological ideas and arguments, and analyse social phenomena from a sociological perspective. In short, you will begin to think differently about how we lead our lives in the present day world.
Criminological theory and philosophy is a key theme of this course. The module aims to introduce to the main theoretical approaches in criminology from its origins to the present day. The module introduces and examines the main types of theory that have sought to explain crime, criminality and social control. The critical philosophical approach adopted in this module encourages students to see social order and crime as theoretical problems rather than social facts available for straightforward empirical investigation.
This module is organised around a range of cross-cutting methodological issues that are addressed in relation to established methods (such as interviewing and quantitative surveys). Discussions and activities incorporate a range of methodological approaches using visual, qualitative, and quantitative data. Students are provided with a clear outline of the module structure and topics at the outset, and in-class activities will be designed to engage students in active learning with ample opportunities for formative feedback.
The aim of this module is to provide an introduction to the theoretical foundations and processes of different forms of social research used within criminology focusing in particular on criminological fieldwork. Social research is at the heart of social science perspectives on criminology; as such research provides an important means of producing evidence within criminology and in the planning and evaluation of policies and provision within the criminal justice system.
This course introduces the development of social theory from the Enlightenment in the eighteenth century to contemporary debates about the character of knowing.
This course offers the opportunity to learn skills in reading, analysing, comparing, and critically evaluating major social theories of the rise of modern societies.
Social and cultural theories of the body have transformed thinking in the last two decades. Indeed, accounts of the body and embodiment have moved from being a marginal aspect of social and theory to a central feature of how we understand and experience media culture and society. Through a series of case-studies, this module explores some of the key developments in sociological accounts of the body and the body politic (or the nation state). Throughout this module we will focus on issues of inequality, stigma, power, in/visibility, surveillance, disability, 'race' and ethnicity. Examining the body as a site of social control, and as a repository of shifting classifications, we will consider bodies which do not easily fit prevailing social and cultural norms, bodies which are perceived to be ‘out of place’, abject or deviant and bodies imagined and employed as sites of resistance and protest.
As well as gaining an understanding of some key social, cultural and political issues you will develop critical thinking, reading, writing skills and practical skills. We will go on course field-trips (for example to Lancaster Castle in order to think about the history of punishment) and you will participate in lively and challenging workshops. As part of the assessment for this course you will make a short film in response to themes and issues examined or provoked by lectures, screenings, reading and seminar discussions. This course is interdisciplinary and is open to students from any discipline, but has been particularly designed for Sociology, Media and Cultural Studies and Gender & Women’s Studies students.
This half-unit module will introduce students to sociological thinking on climate change. Debates about climate change are shifting, and beginning to make much stronger links between a vast and complex planetary perspective (a globe in crisis) and the private sphere (the home, low-carbon lifestyles, urban living, consumer demand, etc.). In this context, social theorists have been considering what sociological thinking can offer to contemporary debates on climate change issues. The module aims to introduce students to a range of new and emerging sociological analyses which examine: climate change and social change; new subjectivities, institutions and collectives under climate change; climate activism; dynamics of crisis and denial; the contested politics of climate change science; the global political economy of climate change; utopias and dystopias of climate change.
This module explores how consumption, advertising, branding and promotion shape society. In the module we will ask questions such as:
This option can be taken alongside half-unit modules in Criminology taught in the second year. Students can therefore take one of the Criminology option modules and be assessed in the usual way (one essay plus exam) for a half-unit, and can also undertake this half-unit extended essay on a topic related to that particular module. However, the topic does not have to relate directly to a taught module and students can talk to staff about a small piece of documentary or other research in relevant areas of Criminology.
Before enrolling for this option, students should think in broad terms about the topic they might like to address. Look on the web or ask administrative staff for a copy of the staff list which shows the research interests of teaching staff, and a copy of the enrolment form for this option. The next step is to identify the most appropriate member(s) of staff, talk to them and have the enrolment form completed and signed. There are no formal tutorials for this option but once a supervisor has been agreed, individual supervision sessions should be arranged.
This module explores the role of friendship in society. Classical and contemporary sociological accounts often claim that social bonds have been eroded or that personal relationships and community have become less stable and more fluid. Sociology has focused most attention on family ties and kinship in exploring these questions. But a focus on friendship can offer new perspectives on society.
This module will ask: What does friendship mean today? What form of social bond is friendship? Has social change impacted on friendship and vice versa?
Do we need to take Rachel Dolezal’s claim to ‘identify as black’ seriously? How does the visibility of figures like Caitlyn Jenner help ordinary trans* people? Does Rihanna’s video for Bitch Better Have My Money glamorise violence against women? Is Beyonce, as bell hooks argues, a ‘terrorist’ for her affect on young women of colour, or does her argument disempower Beyoncé’s huge female audience? Is fan culture reshaping the media landscape, or are fans just dupes of consumer capitalist media corporations?
The relationship between gender and representation has never been more contentious or more contested than it is today, as a new generation of feminists take on media images of gender. This course does not attempt to give answers, but instead focuses on asking questions. Our focus will be on engaging closely and critically with media through feminist scholarship and activism.
Media studied include TV dramas ( Orange is the New Black, Game of Thrones, Cucumber), reality TV and (RuPaul Drag Race,America’s Next Top Model), images of masculinity from the camp gay stereotype of the 20th century to lad culture, and the changing nature of celebrity from Marilyn Monroe to Beyoncé.
Contemporary women’s and men’s lives are vastly different from previous generations, yet there are certain patterns of inequality, gender difference, and normative sexuality that continue to be reproduced. This course explores and interrogates the workings of gender and sexuality in contemporary society by considering a range of sociological and feminist explanations. The focus is on multiple formations of gender, sexuality, identity and embodiment. The course will analyse power relations among women (differentiated by class, ‘race’, ethnicity, sexuality and nationality) as well as between men and women. The course is taught in workshop format and involves lively debate and lectures and analysis of readings, films, images and news and popular media. In term 2 you complete and present a group project based on independent research.
The course is divided into 4 thematic sections.
You will have the opportunity to: 1) learn skills in reading, analysing, and critically evaluating theories of gender difference and inequality; 2) to practice formulating your own sociological questions about gender and sexuality; 3) develop your skills in group work and oral presentation.
How does society respond to environmental harms? What is the legal response to such issues? Which social and/or economic factors cause environmental risk? What influence or impact does media coverage have on ‘green’ issues?
Lancaster University is one of only a handful of UK universities to offer a dedicated module on green criminology, or crimes against the environment, as part of an undergraduate programme.
This fascinating and highly relevant module considers the above questions and journeys through the following topics:
Anthropocentric environmental harms (human beings’ ethical relationship with the natural environment)
Environmental victimisation (those harmed by changes in their environment)
Media coverage of ‘green ‘issues
Protest, movements and environmental activism
Zemiology (social harms)
Green Criminology is taught by research-active academics who will introduce you to their cutting-edge research into the Illegal Wildlife Trade and ongoing projects in Uganda and Nepal. Throughout the module, they will encourage you to consider the overlap between environmental harm and other areas of criminology.
What are human rights? How are they implemented or contravened? What is the relationship between complex human rights issues and society today?
This module uses the context of the European human rights regime to investigate civil liberties and human rights protection. You will adopt a critical and comparative approach as you gain a comprehensive grounding in the law of human rights.
We will tackle some of the most complex and relevant issues such as the right to life, freedom from torture, freedom of expression, and capital punishment. Specific case studies allow you to engage with issues and questions regarding whistle-blowing and enforced disappearances.
Our teaching is research-led and combines seminars, tutorials and lectures. You will be encouraged to read as widely as possible on the subject and we will help you to develop your skills in critical analysis, discourse and debate.
This module can be taken in Years 2 or 3 and is taught in the Michaelmas term.
Information for this module is currently unavailable.
Our Measuring Crime module will help you to develop highly valuable skills in data-handling and analysis. It is a course about crime data, particularly data from sources that influence criminal justice policy and practice. The data we use also informs government and the general public about the nature (and the extent) of crime.
Focusing on the Crime Survey for England and Wales, Police Recorded Crime, and criminal justice statistics from the courts, our lectures explore issues around data generation, reliability, validity and the ways it can be presented.
In the accompanying computer-based workshops, you will learn how to analyse and present data using Excel and SPSS. In these workshops we also consider data that has been used in previously published research, this data is based on the official criminal histories of offenders.
Our learning approach gives you an extremely well-rounded understanding of some of the most influential information about crime. You will be taught by research-active academics who have published material on crime trends, predictions of future offending, and the evaluation of crime reduction programmes.
Everyday life is often described as bombarding us with images, and contemporary culture is therefore frequently understood as a visual culture.
This course will introduce theories and practices that have addressed these questions. It will cover topics including:
On this module you will gain a critical understanding of recent and ongoing themes in Media and Cultural Studies and Sociology on the topic of vision and visuality, media and culture, develop different reading and writing skills and participate in lively discussions and analytical exercises.
Want to "go viral"? In this module you will make stuff: tweets, blogs, videos, GIFs, wikis, music mash-ups, photo essays, machinima, memes. We will hang out in social media worlds like Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, Pirate Bay, 4chan, Second Life, World of Warcraft, Know Your Meme, tumblr. You will learn to tie all of these media and platforms together into a viral video and social media campaign. You will become digitally literate while at the same time exploring the most cutting edge new media theory. When you complete this module you will know how to make most types of simple digital media, you will develop a portfolio of content that may assist you in entrepreneurial work in the new media industries, and most importantly you will understand how new media are challenging existing forms of culture, politics, law, and business.
This course explores the question of how information and communications technologies, in their multiple forms, figure in our everyday lives. The aim of the course is to develop an appreciation for the range of experiences affected by digital media, including the progressive expansion of life online, and the increasingly intimate relations between life online and off. We’ll explore global divisions of digital labour; hactivism. The course will consider the new possibilities that the changing social infrastructure of digital technologies afford, while also learning to look at the rhetorics and practices of the virtual with a questioning and critical eye. Throughout the course we’ll be attentive to issues of gender, race and other marks of sameness and difference as they operate among humans, and between humans and machines.
Our Youth Justice module is an opportunity to consider the tension between perceptions of children as ‘troubled’ and ‘troublesome’. We will also explore the criminal justice response to children who are in conflict with the law.
The competing themes of welfare and justice are closely examined, along with the recent history of youth justice policy. Following these thematic explorations, we take a more in-depth look into specific topics, including:
comparative youth justice
children in care
This module is led by a research-active lecturer with an interest in children in the care and criminal justice systems; the lecture on children in care draws specifically on their cutting-edge research. The combination of lectures and small group teaching helps you to develop your understanding, deepen your criminological knowledge, and develop your critical evaluation skills.
All sociologists are supposed to know their classics but most only know them from second or third hand summaries. In this course we offer the opportunity for advanced students to have an intimate encounter with one of the core texts by one of the classics, texts that are referred to all the time in the social sciences. The text will change on an annual basis and in 2014/15 the module studied Zygmunt Bauman’s prize-winning book Modernity and the Holocaust (1989). In this collection of closely interlinked essays, Bauman makes the disturbing claim that, far from being some momentary regression to barbarism by a brain-washed population, the Holocaust was very much a ‘creature’ of modern society. Indeed, he argues that the social and personality structures that enabled the Holocaust to occur are very much a part of systems, processes and logics which continue into the present. In provocatively challenging our comfortable, complacent ‘civilised’ existence today, Bauman poses fascinating and vital questions about responsibility, ethics, co-operation and conformity, and our individual and collective courage to confront authority and violence. We will use Bauman’s book as a point of departure for exploring some central debates and key writings in Holocaust studies.
The Criminal Justice System has been constantly discussed in recent years by politicians, journalists and academics and the subject is vast and constantly shifting. This course seeks to explore selected issues in the area of Crime and Criminal Justice using a large number of sources to reflect the depth and variety of ways in which the subject can be approached. Students will be asked to consider whether, despite the interdependency of many of the Criminal Justice Agencies and some central themes, there is any real system at all. Students will be encouraged, wherever possible, to create their own understanding of the Criminal Justice System through their own experiences. Even brief visits to courts, police stations, barristers’ chambers etc. can often open students’ eyes and provoke a more analytical and critical response to the subject than detailed study alone. The outline Syllabus includes key themes in Crime and Criminal Justice, women in the Criminal Justice System, sentencing policy and procedure and prisoners and the law.
This full-unit option aims to offer students the opportunity of developing and using research skills by undertaking a piece of documentary or field research in some area of criminology. The project aims to give students the opportunity to develop their research skills through the preparation of a dissertation based on empirical research on a topic within the field of criminology agreed with an identified supervisor. The dissertation will be individually tutored and the availability of this option will be subject to the department’s ability to provide appropriate supervisors.
This course focuses on the crimes that power makes possible. Criminological theory and research has traditionally prioritized the crimes of the powerless over and against the crimes of those that make laws, wield influence and capital or authorize State violence. As such, this course will introduce students to theory, research, and case-studies on corporate and white-collar crimes, as well as state crimes like genocide and torture, in order to provide an analysis of the commission and punishment of such crimes.
Is there a criminal justice preoccupation with risk and prediction? If so, how helpful has this been to date?
This engaging module will tackle these fundamental questions and deepen your understanding of why some criminals appear to choose a life of crime: ‘criminal careers’ being the criminological term.
You will be taught by research-active academics who are experts in the field and you will explore some of the key contributions of research in this area, including work published by our teaching staff. For instance, staff research will inform your lectures on the criminalisation of children in care and the issue of ‘onset’ in criminal careers. Departmental research will also feed into your study of perceptions of ‘risk’ and ‘risky’ populations. A co-authored book (Soothill, Fitzpatrick & Francis, 2009 – ‘Understanding Criminal Careers’) is also used to support this course.
Topics covered include onset, persistence and desistance. You will also critically analyse some of the unintended consequences of research into this area – as well as considering the future implications on criminology of those consequential findings.
Criminal Justice Research provides you with a unique opportunity to access and analyse classified data from the Criminal Justice System, including data from police logging and information management systems. It provides you with invaluable research experience.
You will carry out your own research dissertation, mentored by someone from one of our partnering Criminal Justice Agencies, addressing a real-life, real-time priority for them. For instance, you may work with classified data from the Lancashire Constabulary, helping them look at the effective use of police resources. Your findings will contribute to the knowledge base of the participating agencies.
The module is delivered through interactive lectures, focusing on quantitative analysis; workshops in which you carry out your own analysis (supported by peers and the course convenor); and one-to-one supervision sessions.
Representatives from the criminal justice agencies providing the data will also support you on a one-to-one basis. They will also provide feedback on your progress and attend your dissertation presentation, which ensures that you have experience of presenting to interested professionals/practitioners.
The course convenor is a research-active academic with two main areas of interest: policing and the demand for resources, and, violence and society. You will benefit from their research and they will support you as you hone your own skills.
This module examines the ways in which criminologists have understood violence and aggression in individuals and groups, and what remedies criminology can offer for problems of violence. Violent crime is a major cause of pain and distress to individuals, and of social dislocation and division. The module introduces students to the main sociological and psychological perspectives on violence and explores their impact on criminology. The course connects theories of violence with broader theories of social change, and examines evidence linking high rates of violence with increases in social and economic inequality. The connections between violence and culturally dominant concepts of masculinity are examined, and particular problems of violence in relation to urban youth gangs, male violence in the private sphere, and racist violence and harassment are explored. Finally, the module explores possible solutions to problems of violence and the potential of non-violent forms of conflict resolution.
This module enables Criminology students to develop skills and knowledge that are highly valued by employers by solving problems for stakeholders to services relating to criminal justice, crime prevention or dealing with the effects of crime. Students will gain an understanding of the process of developing and practicing enterprise and innovation skills via a series of interactive lectures and the delivery and evaluation of a live project. Examples of projects could include (but are not limited to), engaging the public in crime prevention and supporting rehabilitation services through advocacy campaigns. Stakeholders students work with could include organisations such as the police, probation services, and those within the voluntary sector supporting ex-offenders and victims of crime.
This module uses case studies of disasters (technical and social) to explore these questions and what sociology can teach us about them.
An engaging and highly relevant module, Drugs, Crime and Society examines the nature and extent of drug taking in the UK and beyond. This module is co-taught by an English and a Dutch expert, which enables us to place a particular focus on comparisons between the UK and the Netherlands.
In the course of our study we will:
explore the difficulties of researching hidden populations, like drug users
engage with theories of drug use from a sociological, psychological and cultural perspective
consider global and national drug markets
investigate the links between drugs and crime
evaluate policing responses to drugs
You will be taught by research-active lecturers who will introduce you to cutting-edge research and contemporary debate. For instance, they will link to current research and publications concerning cannabis cultivation, world markets, and drug distribution among friends (also known as ‘social supply’).
This course introduces students to the principles of the law of evidence in criminal cases. It also introduces students to the nature and theory of proof. These general issues are developed through the study of particular topics such as the burden and standard of proof; confessions and illegally obtained evidence; disputed identification evidence and other warnings to the jury; hearsay; the credibility of witnesses and bad character evidence.
This challenging course investigates gender inequalities within society through a focus on historical and contemporary debates in feminist theory and activism. The course has an `intersectional` focus that means we will consider gender inequalities as bound up with other forms of discrimination and marginalisation, particularly racial and ethnic inequalities, disability and social class.
The first term will challenge you to think about `what feminism means today` through a consideration of key aspects of feminist thought and activism from the late 1960s onwards. We will consider the continued relevance of the idea of ‘The Personal is Political’ and ‘consciousness raising’. We will overview feminist approaches to social research and explore feminist interventions in practices of gender inequality, for example inequalities in paid and unpaid work, childcare and women’s health. You will complete an intergenerational interview research project on ‘women, work and social change’ through which you will analyse and present your findings in a group presentation and reflect upon your experience of the research process.
During the second term we will take the feminist manifesto as a central document which expresses lived experiences of gender inequalities and collective desire for social change. Through some practices of inequalities, such as art, beauty contests, capitalism and patriarchy we will explore the contemporary resonance of ideas such as black feminisms, art activism, the occupy movement and backlash.
By the end of the course you will be familiar with some of the key debates within feminism today and be able to make connections between feminist theory and forms of feminist practice. The course engages you in lively debate, original research and feminist activism through analysis of varied media including academic texts, advertising, art, film, news media and social media.
This extended essay will be individually tutored and the availability of the option is subject to the department's ability to provide a suitable supervisor. This option can be taken alongside third year taught half-unit modules in the Criminology. Students can therefore take one of the third year Criminology option modules and be assessed in the usual way (one essay plus exam) for a half-unit, and can also undertake this half-unit extended essay on a topic related to that particular module. However, the topic does not have to relate directly to a taught module and students can talk to staff about a small piece of documentary or other research in relevant areas of Criminology. Before enrolling for this option, students should think in broad terms about the topic they might like to address. Look on the web or ask administrative staff for a copy of the staff list which shows the research interests of teaching staff, and a copy of the enrolment form for this option. The next step is to identify the most appropriate member(s) of staff, talk to them and have the enrolment form completed and signed. There are no formal tutorials for this option but once a supervisor has been agreed, individual supervision sessions should be arranged.
This module seeks to explain, analyse and evaluate some of the legal rules, concepts and values governing and regulating gender and the law. It will take law as an object of study and seek to examine the relationship between gender and law. It will explore the notion that law is a representation of a world that has very distinctive and idiosyncratic characteristics (such as bigotry and discrimination). You will be introduced to some of the theoretical basis regarding the socio-legal construction of gender (as distinct from the socio-legal construction of sex).
The syllabus is likely to include; Introduction to Gender Studies; Feminist Jurisprudence; Introduction to Michael Foucault; Introduction to Judith Butler; Introduction to Queer Theory; Exploring the difference(s) between ‘sex’ and ‘gender’; Pornography; Gendered War Crimes; Constructions of gender in popular discourse; Body Modification; Discrimination in the work place.
This syllabus may change according to the guest lecturers on the course.
This module will focus on hate crime, but will draw on notions from a range of international sources and jurisdictions. Issues covered will focus on the question of what is ‘hate crime’, before ensuring that students gain an understanding of the harms of ‘hate crime’. There will be a discussion of the perpetrators of ‘hate crime’ as well as the policing of such. The international perspective to this course will be gained from a discussion of ‘hate crime’ as a human rights problem, with a particular focus on freedom of speech. Substantive issues will also be explored, notably, the notion of criminalising collective memory, with a focus on outlawing Holocaust denial and other crimes against humanity.
How should we understand the role of punishment under democracy? How do the historical, cultural and ideological relationships that underpin and, to a certain extent, determine punishment inform our conceptions of Justice, Fairness, and Equality? This course examines both the historical and philosophical dimensions of modern democratic punishment. We will probe the punitive landscape charted by theorists like Michel Foucault, Norbert Elias, and Emile Durkheim. This module will also consider the “new punitiveness” and the “old” in search of an explanation for the rise of the incapacitative approach to punishment, its permanence and its implications for the legitimacy of the democratic project.
This module comprises a 10,000 word dissertation that students complete in their final year. It offers students the opportunity to undertake an independent piece of research (under supervision) and to apply their general understanding of the research process to real world examples that will inform their choice of dissertation topic.
Students will plan, present and design a dissertation proposal in tutorial groups, with a detailed, step-by-step web-based guide available for extra support. They will develop an idea for a research project, work out what is possible, which methods to use, and begin to plan it. They will then communicate their dissertation proposal to other students and then write it up in a way that clearly states their research topic, aims and methods, and where it situates within wider sociological debates. Students will carry out data collection and analysis, and write it up as a dissertation. They will meet regularly with their supervisors to discuss their progress.
The module will be 8 weeks and will be taught in 2 and half hour sessions at HMP Lancaster Farm. The teaching sessions will be a combination of lecture and seminars (LecSem), to encourage group discussion and collaboration. At least half an hour at the end of each teaching session will focus on assessment preparation and support. The sessions will be team taught and where appropriate, external speakers from institutions who also run/ teach on other Learning Together programmes will be invited to deliver sessions. The module leader will attend all sessions to ensure consistency.
1. Welcome by Governor, study skills refresher and introduction to the module.
2. Justifications for imprisonment
3. Impacts and effects of imprisonment (and module review)
4. Values and legitimacy of imprisonment
5. Desisting from crime
7. Alternatives to imprisonment (plus additional assessment tutorials at each site, i.e. Lancaster Farm and Lancaster University
8. Assessment week (group presentation and module review)
Following examination board, all students will be invited to a module graduation, based at HMP Lancaster Farm.
Economic inequalities have widened in advanced capitalist countries and yet many people are reluctant to acknowledge the existence of class. This module analyses how inequalities of class and status are generated, how they relate to other kinds of inequality, and how they are experienced. It explores how the mechanisms of capitalist economic organisation interact with other sources of inequality, not only producing an unequal distribution of resources and opportunities but affecting the way in which people value themselves and others.
Linking social structure to personal experience, the module will apply social theory, particularly that of Pierre Bourdieu, to the interpretation of everyday life, and to what people think about class.
Belonging to a nation is widely seen to be as natural as belonging to a family or a home. This module will explore how such assumptions about national belonging come about by introducing students to a range of theoretical approaches and debates.
Students will explore how notions belonging are socially constructed, how the nation is defined, who belongs and who doesn’t. The module addresses these notions by examining what everyday practices, discourses and representations reveal about the ways people think about, and inhabit, the nation. The module also pays particular attention to nation formation in relation to debates about multiculturalism, diversity and migration and asks: What are the impacts of migration and multiculturalism on definitions of the nation? How is multiculturalism defined and perceived?
Although focus will be on the example of Britain, issues raised will apply to many countries of the contemporary world.
Many commentators claim that organised crime is one of the greatest problems facing contemporary societies. Law enforcement officials around the world have reported a significant increase in the range and scope of international criminal activity since the early 1990s. Worldwide shifts in social, political and economic arrangements- often described as ‘globalisation’ - have opened up opportunities for organised crime groups. The extent of groups involved in transnational organised crime (TOC) and the profits made means TOC has become a priority area for governments around the world.
Pre-requisites CRIM102, CRIM 204 and CRIM 205. The Police Service is able to provide only 8 placements for students, so we need to be selective, out of all the students who register for the module we will select the ten who have the highest average 2nd year marks, and they will be the students who undertake the placements. You will be quite intensively vetted before being accepted as suitable to be a volunteer with the police. The vetting will include a Criminal Records check, checks on your address and who else lives there, and a drugs test. The 8 students who are selected will be on placement in the Police Service. Utilising live data provided by the various Departments within Headquarters, students will undertake a piece of analysis/research. Students will be working alongside (and will receive training and supervision from) serving officers. They will also receive supervision from an academic member of staff.
Students who register for the module but are not in the 'top eight' will take the taught part of the module along with the others and then work on a research dissertation, but without the practical placement. All students will have the benefit of contact with serving police officers, since some of the teaching will be delivered by them.
This course will assess the legal and practical issues surrounding responses to massive violations of human rights, before the political and moral issues involved in using national and international courts will be discussed. The imposition of truth commissions as well as other techniques of ‘transitional justice’ to respond to massive human rights violations will be critically analysed in order to deduce the success of such responses.
The module Sex Crimes and Sexual Offending introduces students to a range of sexual crimes and forms of sexual offending as defined by UK and international law. The module will cover a number of key areas a) the types of sexual crimes governed by UK and international law – what constitutes a particular sexual crime, how it is sometimes committed, and the extent of such crimes b) the ways in which sex crimes and offending behaviour is explained – considering who the perpetrators are and why they commit crimes of a sexual nature, as well as the wider social context which may help explain why some sexual crimes are defined by law and how new crimes emerge as the social context changes c) critically examine how the crimes are dealt with by the criminal justice system such as the laws and policies which surround these crimes, their implementation and how well they operate in practice in terms of treatments, support and punishments given to sexual offenders and their victims.
This module considers ‘what a drug is’, alongside how and why we take drugs, by exploring the relationship between society, culture and intoxication. Together we will examine classic and contemporary literature on 'drugs' and the 'drug experience', including drug ethnographies, critical drug studies, and narcocultural studies (eg. literary works and media on drugs). We will also analyse how certain forms of drug use are produced as ‘social problems’ to develop a critical understanding of the aims, efficacies and inadequacies of societal responses to drug use, including drug education programmes, public health policies, treatment regimes, recovery work, and criminal sanctions. Other topics covered include club drugs in post-rave dance cultures; continuity and change in drug markets/distribution systems; drug prohibition, its consequences, and its alternatives; illicit drugs, globalisation and securitisation; gender, sexuality and drugs; researching drugs/drug use (theoretical concepts, research methods and ethics); risks, harms and pleasure; and mapping drug futures in the digital age.
This module addresses contemporary debates in sociology and cinema together by focusing on a single film each week. Its overall aim is to employ cinema for the purpose of social diagnosis.
The module engages with cinema as a social fact, before linking together cinema (producing images of the social) and sociality (socialisation of the image) for analysis. Against this background, the module seeks to broaden the range of topics for study within Sociology.
We live in societies in which forecasting and planning for the future is an important activity for governments, institutions, businesses and individuals. We live in societies in which imaginings of the future as a better time or as a more fearful one circulate in the here and now, calling us into action or invoking threats or desires. This module considers how we should understand the future from sociological and cultural perspectives. The module will address both how we can look into the future through various techniques in order to gain a foresight into what might happen, and we will look at the future – how images of the future circulate in the present through the work of scientists, artists, filmmakers, writers, academics, politicians and others.
The module explores varying sociological approaches to the analysis of violence and society. It covers key concepts, theories and empirical material before encouraging students to evaluate and contrast the varying perspectives on the issue.
Topics will include: violence and social change; violence from below and from above; violent crime and socio-economic inequality; gender-based violence against women; hate crime and genocide; criminal justice system; war, democracy and power; old and new wars; militarism and gender; peace processes; terrorism; securitisation; increases and decreases in violence over time.
Lancaster University offers a range of programmes, some of which follow a structured study programme, and others which offer the chance for you to devise a more flexible programme. We divide academic study into two sections - Part 1 (Year 1) and Part 2 (Year 2, 3 and sometimes 4). For most programmes Part 1 requires you to study 120 credits spread over at least three modules which, depending upon your programme, will be drawn from one, two or three different academic subjects. A higher degree of specialisation then develops in subsequent years. For more information about our teaching methods at Lancaster visit our Teaching and Learning section.
Information contained on the website with respect to modules is correct at the time of publication, but changes may be necessary, for example as a result of student feedback, Professional Statutory and Regulatory Bodies' (PSRB) requirements, staff changes, and new research.
Your degree can lead to a wide choice of rewarding jobs in the public, private and third sectors.
Our criminology graduates are welcomed by the Police, the National Probation Service, the National Offender Management Service, and private providers within the Criminal Justice System (such as G4S). Your degree can also open doors to roles in the Home Office, Ministry of Justice, Department for Health, or with a charity linked to the Criminal Justice System, such as WomenMATTA (supporting women in prison).
Graduate training scheme opportunities include: Police Now; Frontline (social work); Think Ahead (mental health social work); National Graduate Development Programme (local government); Civil Service Fast Stream; NHS Graduate Management Training Scheme; Charity Works (the UK non-profit sector’s graduate programme); Ambitious Futures (for leadership careers in the university sector).
Transferable skills are an integral part of all Lancaster University degrees and employers will value your skills in listening, critical reading and writing, public speaking, time management, team work, empathy and tolerance.
During your degree, we will help you to secure experience with criminal justice agencies, volunteering opportunities, work experience, or internships - all of which provide invaluable insight into your future career options and set you apart when you enter the employment marketplace.
Your degree can also act as a launch pad to a Masters degree or PhD in areas such as criminology, criminal justice or social research methods.
Lancaster University is dedicated to ensuring you not only gain a highly reputable degree, but that you also graduate with relevant life and work based skills. We are unique in that every student is eligible to participate in The Lancaster Award which offers you the opportunity to complete key activities such as work experience, employability/career development, campus community and social development. Visit our Employability section for full details.
We set our fees on an annual basis and the 2018/19 entry fees have not yet been set.
As a guide, our fees in 2017 were:
Some science and medicine courses have higher fees for students from
the Channel Islands and the Isle of Man. You can find more details here:
For full details of the University's financial support packages including eligibility criteria, please visit our fees and funding page
Students also need to consider further costs which may include books, stationery, printing, photocopying, binding and general subsistence on trips and visits. Following graduation it may be necessary to take out subscriptions to professional bodies and to buy business attire for job interviews.
Average time in lectures, seminars and similar
Average assessment by coursework