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Overview
Top reasons to study with us

4
4th for Physics
The Guardian University Guide (2024)

6
6th for Physics and Astronomy
The Times and Sunday Times Good University Guide (2024)

8
8th for Physics
The Complete University Guide (2025)
Develop your understanding of the relationship between the physical laws of the universe and the astrophysical and cosmological domains. We conduct worldleading investigations in space and planetary science, observational astrophysics, and observational and theoretical cosmology  and this directly informs what you learn!
In Year 1 you will study core modules that provide you with a solid grounding in the fundamentals of physics and you will also perform laboratory experiments with our stateoftheart equipment and associated software.
In Year 2 your core modules start to delve deeper into astrophysics with fascinating lectures in cosmology, astronomy and solar system science.
In Year 3, you study a wide variety of optional modules and core modules.
In your final year, you specialise further by selecting more optional modules, alongside undertaking an independent MPhys Project within your area of interest.
How do I choose my optional modules in Year 3 and 4?
There are two ways you can do this:
Option 1
Keep your horizons open and explore your interests by selecting any optional modules from across our broad spectrum of topics, subject to prerequisites.
Option 2
We have grouped together a selection of modules to create ‘pathways’ that help guide your choices so that you can focus on your specific area of interest. These pathways are:
 Cosmology
 Space Physics
We’ll ask you to indicate your preference for one of our pathways from Option 2 near the end of Year 1. The modules recommended for each pathway can be found in our subject brochure.
In Year 3 you will also complete a research project. If you’ve selected the Cosmology Pathway, you will take the Cosmology or Astrophysics Group Project module, otherwise you will take the Astrophysics Group Project module.
In Year 4 you will spend much of your final year working on your independent research project. Our academics are experts in their fields so your project topic will be exciting and explore new research frontiers. In addition, you will take 6 Master’slevel modules, three of which are core, and three optional to reflect your interests. If you’ve chosen a pathway, then you’ll study modules associated with that choice.
What if I want to change my choices?
That’s fine! We can guide you to optional modules that suit your interests. Also, did you know that you can switch to one of our other degrees at the end of Year 1 if you feel that would suit you better? This is because all of our Physics degrees offer a common set of core modules in Year 1.
Careers
Physics with Astrophysics is a field of study that is truly at the forefront of scientific discovery, innovating what we know about our universe in addition to helping the development of vital technologies such as satellites and solar panels. As a student on this degree programme, you will develop advanced problemsolving skills, programming knowledge, critical thinking abilities and project management experience over the course of your degree. These skills open a wealth of career options from the very pure, such as expanding knowledge through scientific research or very practical like exploring the world of data science and software development. Many of our graduates continue their studies to PhD level and embark on a career in academia. A wealth of additional opportunities exists, such as teaching or careers within the business and finance sectors. Our graduates are wellpaid, with the median starting salary of our Physics degrees being £28,000 (HESA Graduate Outcomes Survey 2023).
Here are just some of the roles that our BSc and MPhys Physics with Astrophysics students have progressed into upon graduating:
 Finance Graduate – Close Brothers
 Data Engineering Consultant – SAS UK
 Systems Engineer – Perkin Elmer
 PhD Researcher – University of Warwick
 Associate Consultant – Opal Wave Solutions
 Documents Developer – Acturis
 Software Engineer – CERN
 Intrinsic Safety Engineer – Element Materials Technology
 Graduate (Future Leader)  United Utilities
 Project Coordinator – Institute of Physics
 Graduate Data Analyst – Virgin Media
 PhD Researcher – University of Sheffield
Lancaster University is dedicated to ensuring you not only gain a highly reputable degree, you also graduate with the relevant life and work based skills. We are unique in that every student is eligible to participate in The Lancaster Award which offers you the opportunity to complete key activities such as work experience, employability/career development, campus community and social development. Visit our Employability section for full details.
Entry requirements
Grade Requirements
A Level AAA
Required Subjects A level Mathematics grade A and A level Physics grade A
IELTS 6.0 overall with at least 5.5 in each component. For other English language qualifications we accept, please see our English language requirements webpages.
Interviews Applicants may be interviewed before being made an offer.
Other Qualifications
International Baccalaureate 36 points overall with 16 points from the best 3 Higher Level subjects including 6 in Mathematics HL and Physics HL
BTEC May be considered alongside A level Mathematics and A level Physics.
We welcome applications from students with a range of alternative UK and international qualifications, including combinations of qualification. Further guidance on admission to the University, including other qualifications that we accept, frequently asked questions and information on applying, can be found on our general admissions webpages.
Contact Admissions Team + 44 (0) 1524 592028 or via ugadmissions@lancaster.ac.uk
Contextual Offers
Our Contextual Offer Scheme recognises the potential of applicants whose personal circumstances may have impacted their exam results.
Contextual offersCourse structure
Lancaster University offers a range of programmes, some of which follow a structured study programme, and some which offer the chance for you to devise a more flexible programme to complement your main specialism.
Information contained on the website with respect to modules is correct at the time of publication, and the University will make every reasonable effort to offer modules as advertised. In some cases changes may be necessary and may result in some combinations being unavailable, for example as a result of student feedback, timetabling, Professional Statutory and Regulatory Bodies' (PSRB) requirements, staff changes and new research. Not all optional modules are available every year.
Core

Classical Mechanics
In Classical Mechanics students will apply the fundamental ideas of Newtonian mechanics to important systems such as rotating bodies, planetary systems and classical fluids. The focus is on gravitation and its central importance in determining the largescale behaviour of the Universe. Concepts such as inertial and gravitational mass, black holes and dark matter will be explored.
This module will also consider how to extend the principles of basic kinematics and dynamics to rotational situations, giving students an understanding of torque, moment of inertia, centre of mass, angular momentum and equilibrium. The fundamental mechanical principles will then be applied to understand basic properties of materials including elasticity of solids and fluid dynamics.

Complex methods
This module provides an introduction to the concept of complex numbers and how they relate to applications in modelling physical ideas.
The module begins by investigating the principle of complex representation, looking at real and imaginary numbers, the complex conjugate, Argand diagrams and different representations of complex numbers, such as Cartesian, polar, and exponential.
Students will develop skills in the manipulation of complex functions and the determination of the complex roots of equations. Students will also consider physical applications, such as the use of complex methods in AC circuit analysis and the solution of differential equations describing damped oscillatory motion.

Electric and Magnetic Fields
Covering the basic laws of electromagnetism, this module allows students to investigate the similarities and differences between electric and magnetic fields, and to explore the basic concepts of electromagnetic phenomena including charge, current, field, force and potential.
The module will begin by studying electrostatics, describing forces and fields due to charge distributions using Coulomb's law and Gauss's law. Students will also look at the concept of polarisation, and how this can be applied to capacitance and combinations of capacitors.
Later on, the module will introduce magnetostatics, and students will learn how to describe it using the concepts of field, flux and force, and the motion of charged particles in a magnetic field. They will also look at the origins of magnetic fields, Ampere's law and Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction.

Electrical Circuits / Practical Physics IV
This module builds on and reinforces key physics knowledge of electric and magnetic fields through exploration of DC and AC circuits. By quantitatively analysing the effects of simple electrical components, students will build an understanding of the basic principles of voltage, current, resistance, capacitance and inductance. This will also facilitate the application of other key skills involving oscillatory behaviour and complex number theory.
The module will also introduce the crucial skill of computer programming and scripting in a scientific context. The Python programming language will be used to demonstrate the fundamental concepts underlying many computer languages and their application to numerical problems and data analysis. This will form the basis for further scientific programming and modelling activities throughout the degree. Students will also enhance their communication and report writing skills.

Functions and differentiation
Mathematical functions are used to describe physical phenomena and their graphical representation.
This module is ideal for students wanting to gain a sound understanding of algebra, vectors and differentiation, and provides the tools needed for solving elementary equations involved in mathematical modelling, while strengthening problemsolving skills.
During the course, you’ll consider the fundamental principle of differentiation, and its relation to the slope of a graph. You’ll also learn how to differentiate basic functions directly, and how to use systematic techniques for combinations of functions.

Integration
This module is ideal for students looking for a firm grounding in integration techniques and their application in physics.
The module opens with an exploration of the fundamental principle of singlevariable integration and its relation to the area under a graph. This allows us to directly integrate a variety of basic functions of one variable. Students will then consider systematic techniques to tackle more complicated integrals of one variable including integration by parts and by substitution. Finally students will study the important basic integrals over lines, areas and volumes.

Introduction to Degree Streams / Practical Physics V
This module provides an introduction to some of the key research topics for which our department is internationally renowned, such as Astrophysics, Cosmology, Space Physics, Particle Physics, Theoretical Physics and Quantum Technology. It will demonstrate the links between the fundamental physics studied in a Physics degree and cuttingedge research. It will also provide advice and experience in tackling problems related to physics research. Ultimately it will also help students to make an informed decision about which degree stream and thematic pathway they wish to follow.
The module will further introduce the experimental side of the research areas in the department. It will enable students to visualise key concepts they have been taught in the context of real systems, which can help in understanding them. It will provide opportunities to demonstrate the physics behind simple electrical circuits by applying the theory introduced in PHYS134 to develop expertise with electric circuit design.

Oscillations & Waves / Practical Physics III
This module introduces the important concepts of oscillations and waves. These arise in many different areas of physics, yet can be described in a very similar way. Beginning with the widely applicable model of simple harmonic motion, students will explore the wave equation and develop the ability to solve it for a general situation, to calculate appropriate physical parameters describing a wave, and to understand universal wave phenomena such as interference, beats and wave packets.
The module also covers formal scientific writing in further depth. Students will learn the structure of a formal scientific report, as well as how to prepare a report in LaTeX or a similar markup language. The module will also provide practical experience of preparing and delivering a presentation using a package such as MS Powerpoint to present results to a scientific audience.

Physics Skills I / Practical Physics I
This module will introduce common problem solving strategies, such as order of magnitude approximations and techniques for presenting working and solutions. It will cover basic concepts in data analysis, such as the estimation and propagation of uncertainties, types of experimental errors, and simple fitting techniques. Students will also be introduced to record keeping, such as how to keep a good laboratory log book.
The module will also provide students with experience of laboratory physics, which will develop skills of measurement and use of common instrumentation. Students will perform simple analyses and produce graphical presentations of data using appropriate computer software. By the end of the module, students will have an appreciation for basic experimental techniques and the importance of understanding the underlying uncertainties in experimental measurements.

Physics Skills II / Practical Physics II
The aim of this module is to impress the importance of effective scientific communication for knowledge exchange. It will develop students’ scientific literacy skills and instil an appreciation of the methods by which scientific knowledge is disseminated, including literature searching and referencing. The module will also discuss the ethical framework in which a professional scientist must operate, including issues of intellectual property and environmental sustainability. There will also be consideration of careers in physics and the skills required to pursue them, such as CV writing.
The practical element will include a more advanced set of experiments which will further the development of data taking, analysis and deductive reasoning skills, building on the introduction provided by PHYS131. There will be more emphasis on full error analysis, including assessment of measurement uncertainties and their propagation. Students will also gain experience working with peers in a laboratory environment.

Quantum Physics
The ultimate description of the Universe requires quantum and not classical mechanics. This module begins by investigating how specific experiments led to the breakdown of classical physics before moving into the quantum world.
Students will look at the basic ideas of wave mechanics, particularly waveparticle duality. They will consider the probabilistic nature of phenomena and the uncertainty principle through the Schrodinger equation and its solution for simple situations.
Other topics that will be studied include the photoelectric effect, the nuclear atom and single slit diffraction. Ultimately, the students will be able to apply their knowledge to modelling real phenomena and situations.

Series and Differential Equations
This module develops knowledge of series and functions as well as introducing ordinary differential equations and some key methods of solving them.
Students will gain a good grounding in series and their formal representation, including determining the behaviour of infinite series. Students will then learn to describe the representation of functions as power series using the Taylor expansion.
Differential equations and their role in physics are explored, including first order differential equations and second order linear differential equations.
Lastly, students will learn the useful technique of Lagrange multipliers to find the extrema of functions subject to constraints. Throughout the module students will encounter examples that illustrate the uses of these techniques in physics.

The Physical Universe
In this module students will explore the nature and methods of physics by considering the different scales of the Universe and the areas of physics which relate to them.
They will model real phenomena and situations, looking at the physical principles which are fundamental to mechanics, particularly Newton's laws relating to forces and motion, and the principles of the conservation of energy and momentum.
The Special Theory of Relativity will be introduced, beginning with Einstein's postulates and moving on to inertial reference frames, the physics of simultaneity, length contraction, time dilation, relativistic energy and momentum, and spacetime diagrams.

Thermal Properties of Matter
This module focuses on the study of the thermal properties of matter, during which students will gain an understanding of how to relate them to the fundamental mechanical properties of systems.
It will begin with an introduction to the concepts of temperature and heat, thermal equilibrium and temperature scales. Then students will look at how to describe mechanisms of heat transfer, particularly in phase changes, equations of state and the kinetic model of an ideal gas.
As part of the module students will also have the opportunity to explore the first and second laws of thermodynamics, including concepts of internal energy, heat and work done, heat engines and refrigerators, and entropy. They will then learn about the role of thermodynamics in describing macroscopic physical situations, looking in particular at temperature, entropy, work, heat, and internal energy.

Vector Calculus
This module is ideal for students looking to develop their understanding of vector algebra and coordinate geometry in a physical context, extending elementary ideas of functions and calculus to a threedimensional description based on vector fields and potentials.
You’ll begin by exploring the real functions of many variables and their partial derivatives, followed by implicit differentiation of the functions of many variables and the chain rule. You’ll then go on to study the gradient vector in three dimensions in relation to directional derivatives, and will investigate the divergence and curl of a vector field as well as Stokes' theorem and the divergence theorem.
Vector Calculus places a focus on calculus in higher dimensional space, allowing you to develop your knowledge of parametric representations of curves, surfaces and volumes, calculation of areas and volumes including the use of changes of variables and Jacobians, and the calculation of line and surface integrals.
Core

Electromagnetism, Waves and Optics
This module provides students with a working knowledge and understanding of electromagnetism through Maxwell’s equations using the tools of vector calculus. Students will become familiar with the common connections between the many different phenomena in nature that share the mathematical model of a harmonic oscillator or of a wave. The module addresses the basic properties of wave propagation, diffraction and inference, and laser operation.
Students will develop their skills in vector calculus and will learn to apply Maxwell’s equations in the analysis of common electromagnetic phenomena, including motors and generators, and in the fundamental connection between electricity and magnetism. Students will gain practical knowledge of Fresnel and Fraunhofer diffraction, as well as thinfilm interference fringes and antireflection coatings. Additionally, the module aims to enhance students’ understanding of the origin of polarisation, and the relevance of dichroism, along with an understanding of the basic elements of a laser, laser operation and important features of laser light.

Introduction to Astronomy & Astrophysics
The module is compulsory in the Astrophysics, Astrophysics with Cosmology and Astrophysics with Space Pathways.
This module provides students with a modern perspective on the Universe, including its size, structure and evolution over roughly 14 billion years. Students will be introduced to orbits, Kepler’s laws, electromagnetic radiation, telescopes and detectors and learn all the major key astronomical tools that allow us to explore the Universe from the smallest to the largest scales.
Once all the physical tools are introduced, the module explores what we know about stars, their formation and evolution, our solar system, and extrasolar planets. It then moves out to our Galaxy and our local group, and travels back in time to explore the Universe and the major events over the last 13 billion years, including with computer simulations.

Maths I
Designed to provide students with a working knowledge of the basic mathematical techniques that are required when studying physics at degree level and beyond, this module’s range of topics include a look at linear algebra, where students will discover coupled linear equations, linear transformations and normal modes of coupled oscillators. A section on Hilbert space will address wave equation, bases of functions and Kronekker deltasymbol, and angular harmonics will be covered in detail.
Over the duration of the module, students will become familiar with Pauli matrices, eigenvalues, eigenvectors and commutation relations, and will develop a range of skills and techniques required for solving various common types of linear equations. Additionally, a workshop led by postgraduate teaching assistants will be held every two weeks to provide extra onetoone tuition and support with coursework assignments as required.

Maths II
This module introduces the Fourier series and transforms, and addresses their application to examples in physics. Students will learn how to express a periodic function as a Fourier series, and find the Fourier transform of a function.
Additionally, students will solve linear ODEs and PDEs using Fourier techniques, as well as developing the ability to solve problems with initial conditions and/or spatial boundary conditions.

Quantum Mechanics
This module covers quantum mechanics in all its generality, from its central postulates and mathematical language to concrete phenomena and applications. Students will learn how the main postulates give precise meaning to the states, observables, dynamics, and measurable properties of quantum systems, and how this translates into general features of the theory, such as its inherent probabilistic nature on the one hand, and precise quantisation of observable properties on the other. This material is introduced and developed by a series of model systems and applications, such as the particle in a box, tunneling through a barrier, the harmonic oscillator, the hydrogen atom, angular momentum and spin, driven systems displaying radiative transitions, and manybody systems exhibiting entanglement and obeying the Pauli exclusion principle. Students will also become familiar with the mathematical language of the theory, including the Dirac notation, differential and matrix operators, commutation relations, and the role of eigenvalue problems. They will also gain practice with solution techniques such as separation of variables, stationary and timedependent perturbation theory, the Ehrenfest and Heisenberg picture. Through further applications and examples, students will acquire prerequisite knowledge for advanced courses in atomic and molecular physics, condensed matter physics, particle physics, astrophysics, and quantum information processing.

Relativity, Nuclei and Particles
Students will receive an introductory conceptsbased approach to the physics of special relativity, nuclei and fundamental particles. The module covers the general properties of nuclei, such as composition, the forces within the nucleus, mass, binding energy and nuclear decay. Students are then introduced to the standard model of particle physics, including the three generations of fundamental particles and their interactions.
Students will gain an understanding of the basis of Einstein’s theory of special relativity in electromagnetism, both conceptually and mathematically, and why the theory has replaced Newton’s concepts of absolute space and time. Additionally, students will develop a broad understanding of the equivalence principle and its relevance for general relativity.

Scientific Programming and Modelling Project
Introducing programming basics, this module engages students with the writing and running of computer programs in Python for numerical simulation and data analysis. This will involve learning about variable types, flow control and logical expressions, functions, and classes. They will gain knowledge of software libraries for numerical computations, including the handling of array data formats. They will be introduced to good coding practices, such as documenting and testing their code, and become familiar with methods to debug their programs.
Students will gain the necessary knowledge to model simple physical systems using appropriate programming techniques, and will develop an understanding of numerical precision and accuracy. By learning Object Orientated programming, students will use objects and methods to represent physical systems in order to independently complete an openended project to model a physicsbased problem.

Solar System Physics
This module introduces students to the physics of solar system formation and planetary bodies, including their surfaces and atmospheres, and their interaction with the space environment. The module will provide students with experience in applying core physics and to understand observations of the solar system in solving solar system physics problems. Students will develop skills in collating and understanding complicated information from a range of sources, and to formulate problems, identify key issues, and solve problems with welldefined solutions.
On successful completion of this module, students will be able to describe the characteristics of different solar system bodies, demonstrate their understanding of the physics governing solar system dynamics, and be able to apply their knowledge and understanding to solve solar system physics problems.

The Dynamics and Content of the Universe
The module covers the structure and evolution of the Universe from the modern perspective, examining its size and structure, galaxies and galaxy clusters, dark matter and cosmic length and mass scales. Students will learn methods of measuring astronomical and cosmological distances and HubbleLemaitre's Law of expansion.
Students will additionally learn the equations that describe the dynamics and evolution of the Universe as well as encounter topics such as dark energy and cosmic inflation, which takes place in the very early Universe, near the Big Bang, through a mixture of lectures and seminars. Finally, the module will discuss the Universe's ultimate fate.

Thermal Properties of Matter
This module provides a review of thermodynamic equilibrium, temperature, zeroth law, reversible and irreversible processes, as well as heat, work and internal energy. Students will be introduced to the Boltzmann distribution and apply the Boltzmann distribution to solids, paramagnetism, heat capacity, defects in solids. The module offers students the opportunity to explore crystal structure and symmetry, lattices, symmetry operations and unit cells. Students will investigate the quantum mechanical free electron model and basic band structure ideas in nearly free electron and tight binding pictures as part of the module.
Students will develop an appreciation for the connections between the microscopic and macroscopic pictures of the thermal properties of solids, and will gain the skillset required to account for some fundamental properties of solids in statistical terms. Additionally, students will become familiar with the use of thermodynamic potentials and associated thermodynamic relations, and will gain an awareness of the different kinds of phase transition and how they are classified. Finally, students will gain the necessary knowledge required to understand the evidence for the third law of thermodynamics and how it relates to the unattainability of absolute zero.
Core

Advanced Stellar Astrophysics
The module is compulsory on the Astrophysics, Astrophysics with Cosmology and Astrophysics with Space Pathways and an option on the Particle and Particle with Cosmology Pathways.
Providing an expansion to topics covered in the degree so far, this module teaches students about stellar structure and stability, before moving on to thermonuclear fusion and stellar collapse. Students will discover degenerate objects, such as white dwarfs and neutron stars, and will investigate Xray astrophysics and black holes.
By the end of the module, students will understand the contributions of modern physics, notably quantum mechanics, nuclear and particle physics, and relativity, to current understanding of stars and astrophysical phenomena. Students will also be able to describe recent astrophysical discoveries and review phenomena observed through the latest technological advances.

Astrophysics Group Project
The Astrophysics Group Project is compulsory in the Astrophysics and Astrophysics with Space Pathways and an option in the Astrophysics with Cosmology pathway.
Students work as part of a team (typically 45 members) and submit a group report. This module enables students to develop firsthand experience of working on an openended research project using astrophysics data collected with some of the best telescopes in the world. There is no set syllabus; problems will be set by academic leads and updated so the topics and data are always at the forefront of Astrophysics research and are also closely linked with topics covered in other Astrophysics modules.
Assessment consists of a group mark for the report 50% and individual marks for contemporary record keeping 15%, peer assessment 20% and student conference 15%. Each group should submit a single report, and every group member will receive the same mark for the report. Reports will be unseen double marked. During the project, each individual will complete a log book to give a contemporaneous account of their own work within the group, and at the end of the project, the log book which will be marked giving an individual contribution to the overall mark. Peer assessment will account for relative contributions of the members of the group. To further enhance and develop communication skills, a lay summary is written and a short talk on the work is to be presented at the summer student conference. All marks are moderated.

Astrophysics Laboratory
This module will familiarise students with astronomical experimentation and instrumentation. It may include aspects of computerbased simulation of astronomical measurements such as binary stars and galactic rotation, practical experience of the basic optical principles of telescopes such as magnification and aberration, astronomical data processing activities involving the use of real observations of, for example, variable stars, and analysis of insitu measurements from solar system spacecraft to probe solar activity, interplanetary space and solarplanetary interactions.
The laboratory is structured around a series of experiments which are intended to each last one working day. Students take a selection of these throughout the five weeks of the module, and keep a record of their methods, results and conclusions as they progress. At the end of the module, students are required to write an indepth report on one of the weekly activities, supported not only by the results they obtained but also additional reading into the physics and astronomy to which the work relates.
On completion, students will be able to demonstrate how knowledge of basic astronomical phenomena can be derived through such experiments, deduce astrophysical laws or causal relationships via the analysis of experimental data, and draw comparisons between their results and those published in the scientific literature.

Atomic Physics
This module introduces oneelectron atoms and the spinorbit magnetic interaction, along with identical particles and the Helium atom. Students will investigate the Fermi gas model and the single particle shell model, and will compare predictions of the shell model for nuclear spins, parities and magnetic moments with experimental results. The module explores the nuclear beta decay process and the Fermi and Gamow  Teller selection rules, and students are provided with a description of the beta decay rate and the electron energy spectrum in terms of a nuclear matrix element and a statistical factor.
Students will develop their knowledge in atomic and nuclear physics to an advanced level, and will be able to use the results of basic quantum mechanics to explain the basic characteristics of atomic and nuclear structure, in addition to gaining the ability to describe the processes of atomic transitions and nuclear decays. The module will provide an explanation of the concept and importance of the parity of an atomic or nuclear state, and will provide students with the opportunity to study the nuclear beta decay process and in particular the neutrino and parity nonconservation.

General Physics Examination Paper
Students will be examined on material in core physics modules from year one, two and three. There will be a series of workshops prior to the final examination, for discussion about the types of question set on the examination paper and the revision of problem solving and modelling techniques.
The module examines basic physics principles by applying them in situations that use ideas from multiple core physics modules. This module will allow students to demonstrate a broad grasp of physics principles. Ultimately, they will be well practised in the application of physics methodology and general problem solving techniques to a wide range of problems.

Particle Physics
The module explores symmetries, the Quark model and gives an introduction to QCD. Students will explore leptons, as well as forces and their carrier particles and Feynman diagrams. The module aims to provide a general introduction to theoretical and experimental topics in elementary particle physics, essentially the Standard Model of particle physics.
Students will gain the ability to describe the main features of the Standard Model of particle physics and understand its place in physics as a whole, and will be able to identify major pieces of experimental evidence supporting the key theoretical ideas, including the experimental techniques used, such as accelerators and detectors. In addition, students will understand the role of symmetry and conservation laws in fundamental physics, and will develop the ability to perform calculations of physically observable quantities relevant to the subject, along with solving problems based on the application of the general principles of particle physics.

Solid State Physics
The module offers an introduction to electronic, thermal, optical and magnetic properties of solids.
Students will be introduced to theoretical and experimental topics in solid state physics at an advanced level, and will develop an understanding of the main features of the physics of electrons in solids, crystal lattices and phonons, reciprocal lattice and diffraction of waves, the electronic band structure in metals, insulators and semiconductors. Students will explore electronic properties of semiconductors, including the physics of pn junctions and their optical properties. Students will be introduced to the basics of magnetism in solids.
Students will gain an enhanced understanding of solid state physics, and will be able to describe major pieces of experimental evidence supporting the key theoretical ideas, including the experimental techniques used.

Statistical Physics
This module explores the ideas, techniques and results of statistical physics. Students will examine gases and the density of states, along with the statistics of gases, fermions and bosons and the two distributions for gases. MaxwellBoltzmann gases, velocity distribution and fermiDirac gases are investigated as the module provides an uncomplicated and direct approach to the subject, using frequent illustrations from low temperature physics.
Students will provide a unified survey of the statistical physics of gases, including a full treatment of quantum statistics, gaining a fuller insight into the meaning of entropy. Students will gain knowledge in applications of statistics to various types of gas. Ultimately, students will develop the ability to apply expressions and distributions in order to form accurate deductions, for example using the Boltzmann distribution for the probability of finding a system in a particular quantum state. Additionally, students will learn the role of statistical concepts in understanding macroscopic systems, and will be able to describe superfluidity in liquid helium, BoseEinstein condensation and black body radiation.

Stellar Structure and the Interstellar Medium
The module is compulsory on the Astrophysics, Astrophysics with Cosmology and Astrophysics with Space Pathways and an option on the Particle Physics and Particle Physics with Cosmology Pathways.
Following an overview of directly measurable physical characteristics of stars and the HertzsprungRussell diagram, students will learn about the physics of stellar stability, energy generation in stars, energy transport in stellar interiors, the physics of interstellar nebulae, and star birth in the Interstellar Medium. Students will develop the ability to demonstrate how classical physics is successful in modelling many properties of main sequence stars and in explaining their formation and evolution.
Additionally, more complex stellar behaviour that cannot be understood on the basis of classical physics will be introduced. Students will gain the skillset required to perform calculations relating to gravitational collapse, stability, lifetime and energy generation in wellbehaved main sequence stars and in nebulae.
Optional

Computer Modelling
Building on the skills developed in the Scientific Programming and Modelling project, this module will introduce students to new elements of Python, and will involve more sophisticated modelling of physical systems, such as calculating the range of a cannon ball, and simulating the motion of the moon around the earth.
Students will develop a more thorough knowledge of the Python language, including the use of inheritance, and will be able to write a physics modelling program in Python.

Cosmology Group Project
The Cosmology Group Project is an option in the Particle with Cosmology and Astrophysics with Cosmology pathways.
Students will work as part of a team and will receive guidance on project management, planning and meetings. Students will prepare a group report and will also give an individual talk at the student conference, The PLACE, in addition to developing a research project with formulation, literature searches, data gathering, analysis and presentation.
The module provides an understanding of modern cosmology, including the areas where our understanding is still incomplete. In addition, students will investigate an openended Cosmologybased problem and will gain awareness of the tasks associated with a research project in Cosmology.
Assessment consists of a group mark for the report 50% and individual marks for contemporary record keeping 15%, peer assessment 20% and student conference 15%. Each group should submit a single report, and every group member will receive the same mark for the report. Reports will be unseen double marked. During the project, each individual will complete a log book to give a contemporaneous account of their own work within the group, and at the end of the project, the log book which will be marked giving an individual contribution to the overall mark. Peer assessment will account for relative contributions of the members of the group. To further enhance and develop communication skills, a lay summary is written and a short talk on the work is to be presented at the summer student conference. All marks are moderated.

Energy
The module introduces students to energy demand in the past, present and future, looking at energy use by sector and country. Students will study thermal power stations, nuclear power and take a planetary view of energy sources. From there, the module moves to renewable energy, costing energy and looking at Hydrogen as a fuel for the future. Students will consider energy use in the home and at work, looking at energy efficiency and alternative smallscale energy sources.
By the end of the module, students will gain a broad overview of energy and the issues involved from a physical basis, and will be able to clearly explain the physics of energy and global warming and make an informed contribution to the debate.

Groups and Symmetries
The module is compulsory on the Particle Physics, Particle Physics with Cosmology and Theoretical Physics Pathways and an option on all others.
The module will cover various topics, such as symmetries and transformations; groups, group invariants and generators. As well as this, students will learn about irreducible representations; orthogonal groups O(2) and O(3); unitary groups SU(2) and SU(3) and applications to spin, isospin, colour and flavour of elementary particles.
By the end of the module, students will have a basic knowledge and understanding of the concepts and methods used in group theory. They will be able to apply these concepts and methods to problems in particle physics, cosmology and field theory.

Lasers and Quantum Optics
This module will address the necessary requirements for laser action, spontaneous and stimulated emission rates, Einstein coefficients, optical gain coefficient, and characteristics of the emitted light. Students will become aware of the different types of lasers, such as gas and solid state, semiconductor, dye, chemical and excimer lasers. Semiconductor lasers: homojunction, single and double heterojunction devices will be investigated, along with materials and operating requirements. The module explores fabrication methods, quantum well lasers, advantages and characteristics. There will be a focus on a range of applications including laser surgery, optical fibre communications, laser machining, pollution monitoring and remote sensing.
By the end of the module, students will be familiarised with lasers and their applications, including the operating principles of a variety of different lasers. Students will understand the many uses of lasers in industry, medicine and the environment.

Physics of Fluids
Introducing continuum mechanics, this module focuses on body and contact force, global balance laws, and decomposition of the contact force into shear and pressure components.
Students will explore static fluids, ideal fluids and the Euler equation. The module then examines Newtonian fluids, waves and the twofluid model of plasmas.
Students will be introduced to fluid dynamics and its applications within physics, and will develop an understanding of the origin, solution and application of NavierStokes equations, along with the wider applications of the NavierStokes theory to bio, geo and astrophysical systems. Students will also solve problems based on the application of the general principles of the physics of fluids.

Physics of Living Systems
This module focuses on what constitutes life. It explores the stability and synchronisation in complex and open interacting systems, entropy and information, and DNA as an information storage system. Students will investigate fundamental rate processes, ion channel mechanics and molecular diffusion and Brownian motion. In addition, cellular structure and function, along with membrane potential and action potential are studied, and the module examines the functioning of the cardiovascular system as an informationprocessing system and the interactions between cardiovascular oscillations and brain waves.
Students will develop an awareness of how physical principles help to understand the function of living systems at various levels of complexity, as well as an appreciation that living systems are structures in time as much as structures in space.
Ultimately, the module will equip students with the ability to explain the basic characteristics of living systems as thermodynamically open systems, in addition to teaching the physical principles of the functioning of a cell, how cells make ensembles (tissues and organs), and how they interact within larger biological systems. Students will then apply their knowledge of physics and mathematics to the understanding of basic principles of living systems – starting from a cell to the cardiovascular system and the brain.

Physics of Quarks and Leptons
The module is compulsory on the Particle Physics and Particle Physics with Cosmology Pathways and an option on all others.
This module covers various topics, including the CKM matrix and its parameterisations, unitarily constraints and the unitarity triangle and the status of experimental measurements, theory and observations of neutrino oscillations. Students will also study CP violation and current heavy flavour particle physics topics, such as c and bhadron production and decay analysis, along with top quark physics.
Students will develop a basic knowledge of the phenomenology of flavour mixing in the quark sector and neutrino oscillations, and they will gain an awareness of the concepts of transformation, invariance and symmetry and their mathematical descriptions. Additionally, students will reinforce their understanding of the basic ideas, concepts and analyses of the experimental data on flavour mixing in weak interactions of hadrons and neutrino oscillations, in addition to gaining knowledge of some current topics on the physics of heavy flavours, which are likely directions of the experimental particle physics research in Lancaster.

Quantum information processing
The module consolidates the theoretical concepts of quantum information processing, exploring Dirac notation, density matrices and evolution, and entanglement. Students will also explore qubits, quantum algorithms, circuit design and error connection. In addition, the module will address trapped ions and atoms, Josephson junctions and quantum optics.
By the end of the module, students will be familiar with the fundamental concepts of quantum processing, such as density matrices and the dynamics of quantum systems, and will be able to understand how these can be implemented in realistic devices. Students will learn about experimental implementation based on atomoptical realisations and realisations in the solid state, and will apply these to explore theoretical concepts that have a vast area of application in condensed matter physics and atomquantumoptics.

Solid State Quantum Technologies
This module is compulsory in the Quantum Pathway, and is an option on the other pathways.
This module will provide students with an overview of solidstate realisations of quantum technologies, including superconductivity, lowdimensional structures, and impurity and donor systems, and introduces students to fabrication and characterisation techniques for microstructures and nanostructures.
Students will develop skills to formulate problems in precise terms, while identifying key issues, to solve problems and provide welldefined solutions. Students will also understand how to collate and understand complex information from a range of sources, including verbal information from lectures, lecture notes, and key textbooks.

Space and auroral physics
The module is compulsory on the Astrophysics with Space Pathway and an option on all other Pathways.
Space and Auroral Physics explores the physics of the solarterrestrial environment, from the solar wind, which streams from the Sun towards Earth, to how the atmosphere couples to the local space environment. This module will introduce you to basic plasma physics, the dynamics of Earth’s magnetosphere, and the formation of the aurora. It will also address the causes and impacts of space weather of technology and society.

Teaching, Outreach and Public Engagement (TOPE)
This module is intended to provide students with handson experience in delivering scientific outreach and engagement. Students will first attend a series of online introductory lectures to cover the basics of education and engagement, including presenting science to a general audience and inspiring school pupils in STEM. During the second part of this module, students will then prepare and deliver either a taught lesson within a school, a school’s outreach activity (delivered either on campus or in the classroom), or a public engagement activity (such as writing a blog, making a video, or delivering a public lecture). Students will collect evaluation data, and then spend the final week of the course critically reflecting and evaluating the activity they produced.
For certain options, which involve working with young people, it will be necessary to have a DBS check. This will be arranged by the Faculty.

The Early Universe
The module is compulsory on the Particle Physics with Cosmology and Astrophysics with Cosmology Pathways and an option on all others.
The module follows the global dynamics of the Universe, the Friedmann equation, energy conservation and acceleration equations. Students will examine the early Universe, the initial singularity and the radiation era of the Hot Big Bang. The thermal history of the Hot Big Bang cosmology is studied as part of the module, along with the formation of largescale structure (galactic clusters and superclusters) in the Universe. Students will develop awareness of our current understanding of the observed Universe and the early Universe, and will be able to write down some of the equations that encode this understanding.
Core

Formation and Evolution of Galaxies
This module explores the structure and evolution of galaxies from the earliest times to the present Universe. Students will build upon their knowledge of stars to interpret the observed properties of galaxies with a particular emphasis on linking these with aspects of observational cosmology across the entire electromagnetic spectrum. In doing so, students will develop an understanding of the current status of research in galaxy formation and cosmology, the observations on which this is based, and how various forms of data can be generated and analysed qualitatively and quantitatively. Students will also learn about the links between the measurements of galaxy properties and the broader cosmological picture, developing an understanding of some of the fundamental questions about the Universe at the forefront of current observational astrophysics.
On successful completion of this module, students will understand the physics that regulates galaxy formation and evolution, and be able to explain the theoretical descriptions and observations of active galaxies. Students will also understand the different observational techniques required to detect radiation from a range of astrophysical sources. This module aims to enhance students’ problemsolving skills and the synthesis of advanced researchlevel material.

MPhys Project
MPhys projects vary from year to year and are tailored to suit the individual student and the available research facilities. This twomodule project commences with a dissertation or literature review. Students will write a report on the project work and will conduct a presentation for the miniconference in the summer term, along with gaining skills related to oral presentation of scientific research.
Project work gives students the opportunity to carry out research or a detailed investigation into a specific area of physics appropriate to their chosen degree theme. Students will develop and apply analytical and problemsolving skills in an open ended situation, involving use of the library, computer, and other resources as appropriate, working alone or in a small group.
By the end of this module, students will demonstrate the ability to plan, manage and execute an investigation an area of physics in a systematic way using appropriate techniques. They will formulate conclusions and critically compare with relevant theory, and may be required to generate and analyse data and critically assess experimental uncertainties.

Statistical Data Analysis in Physics
This module provides students with experience of implementing data analysis techniques for applications across multiple fields in Physics. Students will learn the skills needed to apply a range of statistical tests to data for the purposes of hypothesis testing, and to implement multiple analysis types on real and varied data. Students will develop the skills needed to select and employ the most appropriate statistical technique for a variety of different data types to improve their physical understanding of the specific context relevant to that data.
On successful completion of this module, students will have developed key skills in processing, synthesising and distilling complex information from a variety of sources using different methods, and apply their knowledge to solve challenging problems. Students will be able to visually convey complex quantitative information in a clear and professional way.
Optional

Advanced Electrodynamics and Gravity
This module introduces a range of geometry and exterior calculus, including scalar fields, vector fields and convector fields. Students will explore pforms, exterior derivative, metrics and Hodge dual, and will discover electrodynamics, more specifically Maxwell equations in terms of the Maxwell 2form, 4velocity fields and Lorentz force equation in terms of the Maxwell 2form. Gravity is also covered, and students will engage in topics such as Einstein 3forms, stressenergymomentum 3forms and Einstein equations. Additionally, students will gain knowledge of killing vectors, spacetimes with symmetry, conserved quantities and black holes.
Students will gain the knowledge required to display an understanding of the intrinsic, covariant nature of electrodynamic, along with a familiarity with handling the Einstein equations and field equations on curved spacetime. Students will also be able to formulate and tackle field theories on spacetime using tools from modern differential geometry.

Advanced Magnetism
Students will be offered a revision of elements of the theory of electromagnetism, before being introduced to the phenomenology of solid state magnetic phenomena. The module discusses Van Vleck's description of diamagnetism and diamagnetism as quantum phenomenon. Students will explore ferromagnetism and antiferromagnetism, ferromagnetic exchange and the Heisenberg model, which includes selfconsistent mean field theory. A description of ferromagnetic phase transitions and Curie temperature will be provided as part of the module, along with the elements of the GinzburgLandau theory of magnetic phase transitions.
By the end of the module, students will develop a knowledge and understanding of magnetic and electric phenomena in condensed matter physics, in addition to an enhanced awareness of recent advances and current problems in condensed matter physics.

Advanced Relativity and Gravity
The module offers a short review of special relativity, tensor calculus on Minkowski spacetime, differential calculus on Minkowski spacetime, and curved spacetimes. Students will explore general relativity, gravity as intrinsic curvature of spacetime, and the Einstein equations, along with predictions of the linearized Einstein equations, gravitational waves, and gravitomagnetic field equations. Students will investigate exact solutions of the Einstein equations, black holes and event horizons.
By the end of the module, students will have a basis knowledge and understanding of the theories of special and general relativity, and possess a conceptual understanding of the links between Newtonian mechanics and relativity. The module also provides a geometrical insight into the properties of spacetime and relativity.

Computer Modelling
Building on the skills developed in the Scientific Programming and Modelling project, this module will introduce students to new elements of Python, and will involve more sophisticated modelling of physical systems, such as calculating the range of a cannon ball, and simulating the motion of the moon around the earth.
Students will develop a more thorough knowledge of the Python language, including the use of inheritance, and will be able to write a physics modelling program in Python.

Cosmological Inflation
This module introduces students to the concepts of modern inflationary cosmology based on scalar particles and fields. Topics featured on this module include primordial density perturbations, scalar field theory, scalar fieldbased inflation models, the generation of primordial density perturbations and primordial gravitational waves via quantum fluctuations of scalar fields, and testing inflation models via the cosmic microwave background and the largescale structure of the universe.
Students will develop an understanding of the nature of the observed universe and the most favoured theory for its explanation.

Energy
The module introduces students to energy demand in the past, present and future, looking at energy use by sector and country. Students will study thermal power stations, nuclear power and take a planetary view of energy sources. From there, the module moves to renewable energy, costing energy and looking at Hydrogen as a fuel for the future. Students will consider energy use in the home and at work, looking at energy efficiency and alternative smallscale energy sources.
By the end of the module, students will gain a broad overview of energy and the issues involved from a physical basis, and will be able to clearly explain the physics of energy and global warming and make an informed contribution to the debate.

Experimental Methods in Particle Physics
Students will study particle detection and experiments, exploring discoveries in particle physics and statistical tests, electroweak symmetry breaking and the Higgs mechanism. The module allows students to investigate CP violation and neutrino oscillations, and provides an introduction to supersymmetry and extensions to the standard model of particle physics.
By the end of the module, students will reinforce their knowledge and understanding of particle physics, and will gain a basic knowledge of experimental measurement and analysis techniques used in modern day particle physics research. Students will also develop an awareness of some recent advancements and current problems in particle physics research, and will go on to describe the successes and weaknesses of the standard model of particle physics and the possible theoretical extensions.

Gauge Theories
The module covers various topics including Lagrangians and gauge transformations, global and local gauge invariance, gauge group and its representations and QED as a gauge theory. Students will explore QCD and nonabelian theories, asymptotic freedom and renormalisation group equation. The module discusses spontaneous symmetry breaking and Higgs mechanism, gauge structure of the electroweak theory, grand unified theories and extensions of the Standard Model.
By the end of the module, students will understand the modern phenomenology of the Standard Model of fundamental particles and will gain the mathematical background and physical insight into the fieldtheoretical structure of the Standard Model. Students will have an increased awareness of modern developments in Quantum Field Theory.

Groups and Symmetries
The module is compulsory on the Particle Physics, Particle Physics with Cosmology and Theoretical Physics Pathways and an option on all others.
The module will cover various topics, such as symmetries and transformations; groups, group invariants and generators. As well as this, students will learn about irreducible representations; orthogonal groups O(2) and O(3); unitary groups SU(2) and SU(3) and applications to spin, isospin, colour and flavour of elementary particles.
By the end of the module, students will have a basic knowledge and understanding of the concepts and methods used in group theory. They will be able to apply these concepts and methods to problems in particle physics, cosmology and field theory.

Matter at low temperature
The module begins by discussing what physicists mean by high and low temperatures, and looks at the different types of ordering that may occur as systems cool. Students will explore cryogenic techniques used for accessing such low temperatures are described, including the design of useful cryostats. Students will observe the new phenomena that occur when systems are cooled below room temperature and will consider electron pairing leading to the zero resistance of superconducting materials, the effect of magnetic fields, and the role of macroscopic quantum mechanical wave functions. The module provides an overview of the practical uses in superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs).
The module seeks to explore a selection of fascinating phenomena that occurs when cooling matter to temperatures more than a million times colder than the familiar 290K of everyday life and observe the significance for both physics and technology. Additionally, students will appreciate the relation between temperature and order, will know how low temperatures are produced, including dilution refrigerators, and will also be able to describe the phenomena of superconductivity and superfluidity.

Physics at the Nanoscale
Students will familiarise themselves with crystal growth, including growth theory, faceting, impurity segregation and zone refining. The module presents students with a silicon case study, investigating semiconducting properties, silicon oxide, masking, surface pacification and photolithographic processing. Compound semiconductors will be discussed, covering band structure advantages over silicon, IIVI materials and effects of iconicity.
Additionally, students will explore thin film semiconductors, such as epitaxy, vapour phase growth, metalloorganic methods and liquid phase epitaxy, and the module provides a broad interdisciplinary overview of the linkage between the physics, chemistry and other materials sciences involved in the synthesis of semiconductors and the devices made from them.
By the end of the module, students will develop an understanding of the basic properties of crystals and crystal defects, and will be able to describe how crystals are grown and discuss the main semiconductor used for microelectronics as a detailed case study. Students will also demonstrate how physics continues to play a major role in enabling information technology.

Physics of Fluids
Introducing continuum mechanics, this module focuses on body and contact force, global balance laws, and decomposition of the contact force into shear and pressure components.
Students will explore static fluids, ideal fluids and the Euler equation. The module then examines Newtonian fluids, waves and the twofluid model of plasmas.
Students will be introduced to fluid dynamics and its applications within physics, and will develop an understanding of the origin, solution and application of NavierStokes equations, along with the wider applications of the NavierStokes theory to bio, geo and astrophysical systems. Students will also solve problems based on the application of the general principles of the physics of fluids.

Physics of Living Systems
This module focuses on what constitutes life. It explores the stability and synchronisation in complex and open interacting systems, entropy and information, and DNA as an information storage system. Students will investigate fundamental rate processes, ion channel mechanics and molecular diffusion and Brownian motion. In addition, cellular structure and function, along with membrane potential and action potential are studied, and the module examines the functioning of the cardiovascular system as an informationprocessing system and the interactions between cardiovascular oscillations and brain waves.
Students will develop an awareness of how physical principles help to understand the function of living systems at various levels of complexity, as well as an appreciation that living systems are structures in time as much as structures in space.
Ultimately, the module will equip students with the ability to explain the basic characteristics of living systems as thermodynamically open systems, in addition to teaching the physical principles of the functioning of a cell, how cells make ensembles (tissues and organs), and how they interact within larger biological systems. Students will then apply their knowledge of physics and mathematics to the understanding of basic principles of living systems – starting from a cell to the cardiovascular system and the brain.

Physics of Quarks and Leptons
The module is compulsory on the Particle Physics and Particle Physics with Cosmology Pathways and an option on all others.
This module covers various topics, including the CKM matrix and its parameterisations, unitarily constraints and the unitarity triangle and the status of experimental measurements, theory and observations of neutrino oscillations. Students will also study CP violation and current heavy flavour particle physics topics, such as c and bhadron production and decay analysis, along with top quark physics.
Students will develop a basic knowledge of the phenomenology of flavour mixing in the quark sector and neutrino oscillations, and they will gain an awareness of the concepts of transformation, invariance and symmetry and their mathematical descriptions. Additionally, students will reinforce their understanding of the basic ideas, concepts and analyses of the experimental data on flavour mixing in weak interactions of hadrons and neutrino oscillations, in addition to gaining knowledge of some current topics on the physics of heavy flavours, which are likely directions of the experimental particle physics research in Lancaster.

Physics of Space Plasmas
This module provides students with an introduction to the theory underpinning space plasmas and an understanding of how different plasma structures develop and evolve in solar and planetary systems. Students will learn how this translates into interpreting measurements and observations to infer the dynamics of remote and local space environments, for example, understanding how solar flares are generated, how the solar wind interacts with the atmosphere of Mars, and how Jupiter’s aurora are produced.
On successful completion of this module, students will be able to explain how to define a plasma and how they are characterised in solar and planetary environments, and understand how plasma structures are identified and interpreted in data. Students will be able to describe the equations of magnetohydrodynamics and use them to explain and interpret a range of space plasma phenomena, including oscillations, shock waves, and magnetic reconnection. This will enable students to be able to explain the behaviour of plasmas from the atmosphere of the Sun, to the magnetospheres of the planets (e.g., Earth, Saturn) and comets, and into the interstellar medium.

Quantum Field Theory of Many Body Systems
The module provides students with an introduction to nonrelativistic quantum field theory and its applications to singleparticle and many body systems. Students will develop knowledge of the path integral formulation of quantum mechanics for single particles, manybody systems and fields and will develop skills to perform computations with functional integrals and quantum field theory techniques in manybody physics. Field theory involves sophisticated physics concepts and mathematical formalisation, including advanced algebra and calculus, and its study requires strong skills in performing elaborate analytical calculations.
Successful completion of this module will see students be able to discuss the path integral formulation of quantum mechanics and use functional integral techniques to describe singleparticle quantum effects, including quantum tunnelling, and to compute physical properties of manybody systems.

Quantum information processing
The module consolidates the theoretical concepts of quantum information processing, exploring Dirac notation, density matrices and evolution, and entanglement. Students will also explore qubits, quantum algorithms, circuit design and error connection. In addition, the module will address trapped ions and atoms, Josephson junctions and quantum optics.
By the end of the module, students will be familiar with the fundamental concepts of quantum processing, such as density matrices and the dynamics of quantum systems, and will be able to understand how these can be implemented in realistic devices. Students will learn about experimental implementation based on atomoptical realisations and realisations in the solid state, and will apply these to explore theoretical concepts that have a vast area of application in condensed matter physics and atomquantumoptics.

Quantum transport in Low Dimensional Nanostructures
Students can expect to explore the electronic properties of twodimensional and onedimensional materials such as graphene and carbon nanotubes. They will learn how to describe transport in disordered systems including quantum interference effects. The LandauerBüttiker conductance formula is investigated, focusing on ballistic transport, impurities in quantum wires and the integer quantum Hall effect. The module concludes with an introduction to the concepts of geometric phase and topological insulators. By the end of the module, students will know how to describe electronic transport in lowdimensional quantum materials in various regimes, enhancing their awareness of recent advancements in cutting edge research in condensed matter physics.

Solid State Quantum Technologies
This module is compulsory in the Quantum Pathway, and is an option on the other pathways.
This module will provide students with an overview of solidstate realisations of quantum technologies, including superconductivity, lowdimensional structures, and impurity and donor systems, and introduces students to fabrication and characterisation techniques for microstructures and nanostructures.
Students will develop skills to formulate problems in precise terms, while identifying key issues, to solve problems and provide welldefined solutions. Students will also understand how to collate and understand complex information from a range of sources, including verbal information from lectures, lecture notes, and key textbooks.

Space and auroral physics
The module is compulsory on the Astrophysics with Space Pathway and an option on all other Pathways.
Space and Auroral Physics explores the physics of the solarterrestrial environment, from the solar wind, which streams from the Sun towards Earth, to how the atmosphere couples to the local space environment. This module will introduce you to basic plasma physics, the dynamics of Earth’s magnetosphere, and the formation of the aurora. It will also address the causes and impacts of space weather of technology and society.

The Early Universe
The module is compulsory on the Particle Physics with Cosmology and Astrophysics with Cosmology Pathways and an option on all others.
The module follows the global dynamics of the Universe, the Friedmann equation, energy conservation and acceleration equations. Students will examine the early Universe, the initial singularity and the radiation era of the Hot Big Bang. The thermal history of the Hot Big Bang cosmology is studied as part of the module, along with the formation of largescale structure (galactic clusters and superclusters) in the Universe. Students will develop awareness of our current understanding of the observed Universe and the early Universe, and will be able to write down some of the equations that encode this understanding.
Fees and funding
Our annual tuition fee is set for a 12month session, starting in the October of your year of study.
Our Undergraduate Tuition Fees for 2024/25 are:
Home  International 

£9,250  £28,675 

Additional costs
There may be extra costs related to your course for items such as books, stationery, printing, photocopying, binding and general subsistence on trips and visits. Following graduation, you may need to pay a subscription to a professional body for some chosen careers.
Specific additional costs for studying at Lancaster are listed below.
College fees
Lancaster is proud to be one of only a handful of UK universities to have a collegiate system. Every student belongs to a college, and all students pay a small college membership fee which supports the running of college events and activities. Students on some distancelearning courses are not liable to pay a college fee.
For students starting in 2023 and 2024, the fee is £40 for undergraduates and research students and £15 for students on oneyear courses. Fees for students starting in 2025 have not yet been set.
Computer equipment and internet access
To support your studies, you will also require access to a computer, along with reliable internet access. You will be able to access a range of software and services from a Windows, Mac, Chromebook or Linux device. For certain degree programmes, you may need a specific device, or we may provide you with a laptop and appropriate software  details of which will be available on relevant programme pages. A dedicated IT support helpdesk is available in the event of any problems.
The University provides limited financial support to assist students who do not have the required IT equipment or broadband support in place.
Study abroad courses
In addition to travel and accommodation costs, while you are studying abroad, you will need to have a passport and, depending on the country, there may be other costs such as travel documents (e.g. VISA or work permit) and any tests and vaccines that are required at the time of travel. Some countries may require proof of funds.
Placement and industry year courses
In addition to possible commuting costs during your placement, you may need to buy clothing that is suitable for your workplace and you may have accommodation costs. Depending on the employer and your job, you may have other costs such as copies of personal documents required by your employer for example.

What is my fee status?
The fee that you pay will depend on whether you are considered to be a home or international student. Read more about how we assign your fee status.

Fees in subsequent years
Home fees are subject to annual review, and may be liable to rise each year in line with UK government policy. International fees (including EU) are reviewed annually and are not fixed for the duration of your studies. Read more about fees in subsequent years.

Fees for study abroad and work placements
We will charge tuition fees to Home undergraduate students on fullyear study abroad/work placements in line with the maximum amounts permitted by the Department for Education. The current maximum levels are:
 Students studying abroad for a year: 15% of the standard tuition fee
 Students taking a work placement for a year: 20% of the standard tuition fee
International students on fullyear study abroad/work placements will be charged the same percentages as the standard International fee.
Please note that the maximum levels chargeable in future years may be subject to changes in Government policy.
Scholarships and bursaries
You will be automatically considered for our main scholarships and bursaries when you apply, so there's nothing extra that you need to do.
You may be eligible for the following funding opportunities, depending on your fee status:
Unfortunately no scholarships and bursaries match your selection, but there are more listed on scholarships and bursaries page.
Scheme  Based on  Amount 

Based on {{item.eligibility_basis}}  Amount {{item.amount}} 
We also have other, more specialised scholarships and bursaries  such as those for students from specific countries.
Browse Lancaster University's scholarships and bursaries.
Similar courses

Physics
 Physics BSc Hons : F300
 Physics MPhys Hons : F303
 Physics (Study Abroad) MPhys Hons : F305
 Physics with Astrophysics BSc Hons : F3FM
 Theoretical Physics BSc Hons : F340
 Theoretical Physics MPhys Hons : F321
 Theoretical Physics with Mathematics BSc Hons : F3GC
 Theoretical Physics with Mathematics MSci Hons : F3G1
 Theoretical Physics with Mathematics (Study Abroad) MSci Hons : F3G5
Important information
The information on this site relates primarily to 2025/2026 entry to the University and every effort has been taken to ensure the information is correct at the time of publication.
The University will use all reasonable effort to deliver the courses as described, but the University reserves the right to make changes to advertised courses. In exceptional circumstances that are beyond the University’s reasonable control (Force Majeure Events), we may need to amend the programmes and provision advertised. In this event, the University will take reasonable steps to minimise the disruption to your studies. If a course is withdrawn or if there are any fundamental changes to your course, we will give you reasonable notice and you will be entitled to request that you are considered for an alternative course or withdraw your application. You are advised to revisit our website for uptodate course information before you submit your application.
More information on limits to the University’s liability can be found in our legal information.
Our Students’ Charter
We believe in the importance of a strong and productive partnership between our students and staff. In order to ensure your time at Lancaster is a positive experience we have worked with the Students’ Union to articulate this relationship and the standards to which the University and its students aspire. View our Charter and other policies.
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