Introducing your course
Find out what it's like to study Economics, Politics and International Relations at Lancaster University Management School.
11th for Research Quality for Economics
The Times and Sunday Times Good University Guide (2024)
15th for Graduate Prospects for Economics
The Times and Sunday Times Good University Guide (2023)
Lancaster University is top 10 in The Complete University Guide 2024
What makes some countries richer than others? How can we measure inequality or the impact of climate change, and what should we do about it? What impact does war have on the global economy? Are education or healthcare investments like the others? How do you measure the success of a political voting system?
BA Economics, Politics and International Relations (Industry) provides you with the analytical skills and intellectual toolbox to help answer these pressing economics questions and many more. You will also have the possibility of directly applying them through a paid placement in industry. You will learn how to interpret data, understand (and quantify) the decisions made by individuals, organisations, and governments and evaluate public policy both nationally and globally.
The course begins by introducing the foundational principles of economic theory, international relations and politics. This degree connects the analytical skills of economics with insights and ways of thinking from politics and international relations. This is an incredibly flexible degree, allowing you to weight your studies to any and all of the three main subject areas.
Year one will cover the fundamentals of economic theory and practice, politics in the modern world, and the fundamentals of international relations.
Year two allows you to choose modules from across economics, politics and international relations.
You will be supported in securing a placement for your third year, with previous placement students joining companies in the public and private sectors. Most placements are in the UK, but there are some options overseas.
In your final year, just like in the second year, the rest of your modules are chosen by you, so as your degree progresses and you discover more about both the subjects and about yourself, you have the opportunity to flex this course in ways that speak to your changing interests and strengths. This might lead you to choose modules in:
Amongst many other specialisations
An incredibly flexible degree course with opportunities to study across the full spectrum of our economics, politics and international relations undergraduate modules.
You do not need an A level in Economics or Mathematics to enrol in this course.
Throughout your degree, we’ll supply training in CV writing, interview assessment centres and telephone interviews. We are proud of our aspiring economists and aim to nurture the potential in every one of them.
You will graduate with a thorough grounding in economics, an understanding of how a complex world functions, and the dynamics of international relations and policy. Graduates have gone on to work for a wide variety of international Non-governmental organisations, think tanks, consultancies and multinational corporations.
Graduates of this course develop a wide range of skills, which are highly valued by employers both in the UK and abroad. Together with a thorough understanding of global economics and politics, you’ll develop well-rounded communication, analytical and IT skills, all of which are increasingly sought after in the workplace.
Typical career paths for our graduates include the civil service and local government, with a large number opting for positions in the private sector, in industries such as finance, accountancy and law.
Lancaster University is dedicated to ensuring you not only gain a highly reputable degree, you also graduate with relevant life and work-based skills. We are unique in that every student is eligible to participate in The Lancaster Award, which allows you to complete key activities such as work experience, employability awareness, career development, campus community and social development. Visit our employability section for more details.
The Management School has an award-winning careers team to provide a dedicated careers and placement service, offering a range of innovative services for LUMS students. Our high reputation means we attract a wide range of leading global employers to campus, offering you the opportunity to interact with graduate recruiters from day one of your degree.
A level AAB
GCSE Mathematics grade B or 6, English Language grade C or 4
IELTS 6.5 overall with at least 5.5 in each component. For other English language qualifications we accept, please see our English language requirements web pages.
International Baccalaureate 35 points overall with 16 points from the best 3 Higher Level subjects
BTEC Distinction, Distinction, Distinction
We welcome applications from students with a range of alternative UK and international qualifications, including combinations of qualifications. Further guidance on admission to the University, including other qualifications that we accept, frequently asked questions and information on applying, can be found on our general admissions web pages.
Contact Admissions Team + 44 (0) 1524 592028 or via firstname.lastname@example.org
Delivered in partnership with INTO Lancaster University, our one-year tailored foundation pathways are designed to improve your subject knowledge and English language skills to the level required by a range of Lancaster University degrees. Visit the INTO Lancaster University website for more details and a list of eligible degrees you can progress onto.
Lancaster University offers a range of programmes, some of which follow a structured study programme, and some which offer the chance for you to devise a more flexible programme to complement your main specialism.
Information contained on the website with respect to modules is correct at the time of publication, and the University will make every reasonable effort to offer modules as advertised. In some cases changes may be necessary and may result in some combinations being unavailable, for example as a result of student feedback, timetabling, Professional Statutory and Regulatory Bodies' (PSRB) requirements, staff changes and new research. Not all optional modules are available every year.
Each year, students receive specific training by the Management School Careers Team, to prepare them for the graduate labour market. In the first year, the focus is on growing the student’s awareness of labour market dynamics and his or her professional aspirations and inclinations. The second year focuses on goal setting, action planning, and the development of a personalised career plan. The third year focuses on one-to-one sessions with career advisors. The Career Team is based in the Management School, organises events with employers and alumni, and coaches students on how to best perform in the graduate job market through seminars, surgeries, mock interviews and one-to-one advice.
This full-year module is a self-contained introduction to Economics, and can be taken by students both with and without prior knowledge of the subject. It is divided into three parts. The first part provides a thorough introduction to Microeconomics (including the theory of demand, costs and pricing under various forms of market structure, and welfare economics). The second part provides a thorough introduction to Macroeconomics (including national income analysis, monetary theory, business cycles, inflation, unemployment, and the great macroeconomic debates).
The third part of the module, taught in parallel with the first two parts, first covers the key mathematical tools required for a good understanding of Economics (including linear and nonlinear equations, and differentiation), and then shows how the key Micro- and Macroeconomics ideas can help us understand the world around us. In this part, you will participate in economic experiments involving games with and without strategic behaviour. We will also discuss the lessons from the Great Depression and the Great Recession, speculative attacks and currency crises, inequality, democracy and growth, government deficits and inflation, and the macroeconomic implications of Brexit and Covid-19.
We will introduce you to some of the central aspects of the discipline of International Relations, providing a firm grounding in the major concepts and debates necessary to understand the modern world of international politics. You will have the opportunity to learn about: the dominant features and power relations of the contemporary global system; the nature of sovereignty and security, their expression and limitations; the real-world problems confronting the international community today.
Areas of study typically include:
+ International Relations Theory: the study of how relations between states can and should be viewed and theorised, Realism, Liberalism, Constructivism and Feminism.
+ Regional Studies: the study of some of the key regions of the world, and the politics of their interactions.
+ International Institutions and Law: the international organisations, customs, and rules that govern inter-state relationships.
+ Global Politics and Belief: the study of how religious and ideological belief can shape international politics and the relation of states.
+ International Crises: the study of pressing issues confronting the international community, such as environmental collapse, technological advance, the rise of non-state actors, and terrorism.
+ International Relations and the Domestic: the study of how the domestic agendas can shape and influence international politics.
Because of the increasing interdependence of the national and global, domestic politics and international relations can no longer be properly understood in isolation from one another. To ensure the best possible foundation for a degree in International Relations, in first year, we strongly recommend you also take Politics in the Modern World.
You’ll be introduced to some of the key themes in the study of modern politics, and will have the chance to gain critical insight into the nature and use of political power in the contemporary world. You will learn about: the foundations of the modern nation-state, and the ways in which our institutions can reflect or fail to meet the ideals of liberal democracy; the behaviour of individuals and groups in political contexts; the workings of national constitutions and international organisations; the interaction of global events and domestic agendas.
Areas of study typically include:
+ Political Theory: the study of the scope, nature, and justification of state authority, and the history of political thought.
+ British Politics: the study of the theory, and political reality, of British governance in the twenty-first century.
+ Comparative Politics: the study of the various institutions of the nation-state, in a comparative context.
+ Ideologies: the study of political ideologies such as (neo-)liberalism, (neo-)conservatism, socialism, and fascism, their cohesiveness and social/political function.
+ Political Behaviour: the study of the ways in which agents and groups engage with politics in the age of mass and social-media.
+ Politics and Religion: the study of the relevance of religion to politics in contemporary society.
+ Politics in a Global World: the influence of global movements and events on domestic and international politics.
Because of the increasing interdependence of the national and global, domestic politics and international relations can no longer be properly understood in isolation from one another. To ensure the best possible foundation for a degree in Politics, in first year, we strongly recommend you also take International Relations: Theory and Practice.
During this Preparation for Placement module, you will learn about the competitive recruitment processes in the UK and the skills and expertise employers expect you to evidence; how to produce excellent CVs and cover letters; how to make an impact on application forms, what to expect at interviews and assessment centres.
You will get to hear from final year students about their placement experience and a chance for you to learn about the placement opportunities on offer from graduate employers. You will be offered the opportunity to experience a mock interview with a real employer and attend a mock assessment centre. You will be shown the range of resources and support we offer in LUMS Careers and how that will continue throughout the placement programme, in order to seek a suitable year in industry placement.
Students compete with others nationally to secure placements and we also offer exclusive opportunities with employers, however, we cannot guarantee that all students will progress on to a year in industry placement.
Each year, students receive specific training by the Management School Careers Team, to prepare them for the graduate labour market. In the first year the focus is on growing the student’s awareness of labour market dynamics and his or her professional aspirations and inclinations. The second year focuses on goal setting, action planning, and developing a personalised career plan. The third year focuses on one-to-one sessions with career advisors. The Career Team is based in the Management School, organises events with employers and alumni, and coaches students on how to best perform in the graduate job market through seminars, surgeries, mock interviews and one-to-one advice.
The course provides students with general knowledge and understanding concerning social research and particular methods and methodologies that lie within the positivist and interpretivist paradigms. It is primarily aimed at students from across the management school that are planning to undertake an industrial placement and/or a dissertation in their final year of study. This module helps to prepare you to undertake your own research with a view to highlighting different research approaches and techniques that are used in the production of knowledge.
The module provides an insight into the various ways research can be undertaken and the implications of different approaches. We will examine the conceptual and practical complexities of undertaking research in practice. Initially you will be introduced to research methods and that are most commonly employed in business and management research. The module will then examine the methodological approaches and paradigms that are linked with these methods and the assumptions that underpin positivistic and interpretivist approaches. The final part of the module explores how this understanding can be used in writing your research proposal and dissertation.
This module examines how culture and religion impact on the national identity and political culture in Asian countries, and focuses on beliefs, values and ideas people have about their political system and authority. Political culture is built on shared historical (colonial) experiences, cultural symbols and collective memory, which unites as well as motivates people to participate in political movements and nation building. By using case studies, the course looks at how democracy is conceptualised and political authority legitimated in many Asian countries. In doing so, the module aims to generate a culturally-embedded understanding of the diverse political landscape in Asia. Students are introduced to political culture in Cambodia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand, Sri Lanka, Japan and China, and topics cover Asian values, colonialism, millenarian movements, religious fundamentalism, Sangkum socialism, Brahmanical kingship, state Shinto, Maoism, and the failure of democratic ideals of Aung San Suu Kyi.
This module focuses on the international relations of one of the most influential actors in world politics: China. The course explores the key question of when and how China’s actions conform with – and diverge from – various international relations (IR) theories. This offers students a twofold payoff. Students gain a broad understanding of how China’s foreign policies are made, its relations with its neighbours in East Asia, with international organizations, and with other global powers including Britain. At the same time, students gain a deeper, more concrete understanding of the uses and limitations of IR theory in explaining global politics.
The module describes and analyses the modern politics of the Gulf in a number of ways. It offers a country-by-country analysis of the countries overlooking the Persian Gulf: Saudi Arabia, Iran, Iraq, Bahrain, the UAE, Kuwait, Oman and Qatar. It also applies the main approaches in understanding each country such as institutionalism (formal, descriptive analysis of institutions such as parliament, executive and legislative), structuralism (relations between these units of the political system), functionalism (how these units functionalise or de-functionalise such as relations between the president and the supreme leader in Iran), political culture (public opinion, receptiveness of politics, socialisation through interest groups, and historical approach (patterns of history, development of Gulf states from the Ottoman Empire, British occupation all the way to independence and moving closer to the US).
This course introduces students to the politics surrounding a key challenge of our time: climate change and environmental collapse. We will consider the how environmental concerns are reflected and framed in political debate and behaviour, as well as the unequal distribution of the effects of climate change and how domestic and international institutions have responded to the crisis. The module will consider both current and future environmental issues, as well as the policy making in this area.
This module focuses on the politics and international relations of the European Union. This includes a focus on the political systems of key EU member states (especially Germany, France and Poland) and the wider dynamics of European integration. The module will also offer an account of the activities of the various European institutions in Brussels, Strasbourg and Luxembourg (Council, Commission, Parliament, Court of Justice).
Religions as involving the control of symbolic and sometimes coercive power, thereby intersecting with politics, International relations and philosophy. Religions as involving values expressed in norms, laws, and institutions which exercise social and political power,
locally and globally. The crucial impact of religious identities, practices, values, arguments and multidimensional ways of life on politics, international relations and philosophical thought. Religions as diverse traditions in different regions of the world undergoing global changes in different ways. Globalisation of religion and its interweaving with social, political and philosophical developments
This module helps you improve your strategic thinking. Over the course of this module, you will learn how to use ‘games’ to model strategic situations in the real world, and how to analyse and find out solutions to these games in situations in which players are intelligent and rational. Games including “normal form games”, “extensive form games”, “Bayesian games”, “repetitive games”, and “games with correlation device” will be introduced. Opportunities for playing games with the lecturer and other students will also be provided. The module requires a basic knowledge of algebra, calculus, and economics.
This module surveys and critically examines the main themes, key concepts, debates and approaches to the study of Hinduism. It pays particular attention to Hinduism in the modern world and Hinduism's relationship with other religions of South Asia during and since the 19th century. In this module, you will have the chance to develop an analytical and interpretative framework within which to situate competing Hindu traditions in a historical context. Typically, lectures will include topics such as: religious pluralism, the limitations of the term 'Hinduism', the impact of colonialism on Indian religious traditions, gender, the caste system, yoga, and the relationship between Hinduism and politics.
This module uses the tools of economics to study various macroeconomic variables (inflation, consumption, output, unemployment) and particularly their short-run and long-run dynamics. It covers topics related to fiscal policy and the sustainability of public debt in the intermediate run. In addition, students will study unemployment and labour market dynamics and more in general economic stability in the short run.
The module requires algebra, elementary calculus, logical thinking and general problem-solving ability.
This module first explores some of the key insights of New Keynesian economics, particularly that the monetary policy effectively influences output in the short-run but not in the long run. We will examine the crucial role of how the public formulates expectations for the economy’s stability, e.g. expectations about inflation and the importance of credible monetary policy. The second part of the module will cover topics explaining the “mysteries” of long-run economic growth. For example, how did we arrive at the vast degree of disparity between countries we observe today? This module covers topics like exogenous and endogenous growth, optimal growth, and dualism.
Note that this module is available only to students majoring in Economics.
Markets consist of individual buyers and sellers, each facing choices. A buyer must decide what, and how much, to purchase. A seller must decide how much to produce, how to produce it, and what price to charge. But how are these choices made? In this course, we will explore this question formally, with the aid of economic models. The topics include consumer choice, profit maximization and cost minimization. The module requires a basic knowledge of algebra and calculus.
By the end of the course, you will improve your logical thinking and problem-solving abilities.
This module builds on learning gained in Intermediate Microeconomics 1 (ECON220), developing on the theories and concepts covered as well as focusing on a range of new topics.
analysis of monopoly behaviour and regulation
price and quantity setting in duopoly markets
introduction to game theory and strategic behaviour by firms
auctions (including a study of eBay)
general equilibrium and welfare economics
The module is normally taken in conjunction with ECON220.
The module will introduce students to International Political Economy (IPE): the study of the interaction of economics and politics at the international level. It aims to discuss the political economy of the evolution of world capitalist by focusing on central questions, issues, and events that have shaped it. It examines the relevance and validity of different and competing approaches in the IPE, including, classical and neoclassical economics, historical materialism, critical approaches. We also examine key issues and concepts, such as globalisation, international trade, gender and race in global production, role of multinational corporations, and unevenness between and within countries.
The aim of this course is look at the main political and economic trends and security concerns of the Asia Pacific. The term, ‘Asia Pacific’ is a contested term but here it refers primarily to countries from both South Asia and East Asia. The course will introduce students to issues/debates in Asian politics and cover topics like Asian nationalism, Asian democracy, Asian regionalism, Asian bureaucracy and governance, gender and sexuality in Asia, Asian values and Asian security. The course takes a strong case studies approach and every lecture will be backed by a single case study from the region.
The module explores the main theoretical foundations to International Relations, including realism, liberalism, constructivism and critical IR (Marxism, Feminism, Postcolonialism). It explores the development of International Relations (IR) theory in the 20th and 21st centuries and examine it in the light of major historical developments and contemporary events. The module aims at providing the students with the necessary skills and background knowledge to engage critically with the world that we live in. To do so, the module pays special attention to the unequal power relations and Western dominance in the study of IR and politics, and to how they have become embedded into our institutions, theories and methods. The module will also introduce students to theories and debates in human and environmental sustainability.
This module examines the historical formation of Islam; its renewal movements past and present; and modern reform discourses on gender, politics, and law. The aim is to gain an understanding of continuities and discontinuities in the Islamic tradition in relation to religious authority, theology, politics and contemporary practice. Some of the topics studied include: the formation of Shari'a (Islamic law); competing Sunni and Shi'i orthodoxies; the rise of radical political movements and global Jihad; Islamic feminisms; Islam and the West; and Islam in Britain. The module offers you the chance to build a strong foundation for more specialised study in second and third year modules.
This module considers a range of issues currently being debated by political philosophers and political theorists. Specific topics may change slightly, but the current plan is cover the following, with attention to questions of freedom and justice throughout:
The objective of the course is to train students to use macroeconomic models to understand real-world economic phenomena. The students will learn how to interpret macroeconomic data and understand the implications of economic policies. The course will put emphasis on major issues related to economic growth, the causes of economic fluctuations, and the effectiveness of economic policy. We will investigate the link between financial openness and economic growth, and we will explain why emerging countries experience capital outflows. We will study the impact of the exchange rate regime on the effectiveness of fiscal policy, we will rationalise the increase of current account deficits in Europe after the beginning of the nineties, and we will analyse the cause(s) of cross-country differences in hours worked.
The module requires basic knowledge of basic calculus, logical thinking and problem-solving skills.
Various topics of interest to prospective managers are covered within this module, including production and demand, competition and strategic behaviour, advertising and distribution, capital budgeting and inventories, the foreign exchange market, the economics of the multinational enterprise and the politics of corporate economics. The module provides knowledge of aspects of microeconomics relevant to general management, and also emphasises techniques and tools of analysis alongside relevant theory.
The module is designed to as an introduction to aspects of the firm and its environment which are of particular relevance to management. The topics selected aim to bridge the gap between the traditional approach to managerial economics and the more modern study of the organisation.
This course explores ideas central to any understanding of politics. It focuses on two related themes: Equality, and Community. In the course we will explore the thought of thinkers who are associated with these ideas of equality and community (Rousseau, Marx, the Fabians, and Rawls). By the end of the course, you will have an understanding of the key ideas of the thinkers under review and be able to assess the contribution that these thinkers have made to our wider understanding of politics. You will also be able to recognise the relevance of these thinkers to our current political debates, and be able to employ their ideas within those debates. Additionally, you will be able to evaluate the key features of an argument, be confident to express your own views, and evaluate the responses of others.
Moral philosophy is the systematic theoretical study of morality or ethical life: what we ought to do, what we ought to be, what has value or is good. This module engages in this practice by critical investigation of some of the following topics, debates, and figures: value and valuing; personhood/selfhood; practical reason; moral psychology; freedom, agency, and responsibility; utilitarianism and its critics; virtue ethics and its critics; deontology and its critics; contractarianism and its critics; the nature of the good life; the source and nature of rights; the nature of justice; major recent and contemporary figures such as Bernard Williams, Martha Nussbaum, Peter Railton, Christine Korsgaard, Philippa Foot, Allan Gibbard, Simon Blackburn; major historical figures such as Aristotle, David Hume, Immanuel Kant, John Stuart Mill, G. E. Moore.
This module seeks to identify and analyse violent and non-violent conflict behaviour as well as the structural mechanisms that are required to seek peace. It examines various theoretical positions in this regard and their application in managing, preventing, and transforming conflicts into situations and outcomes that are more peaceful. This module looks at both top down and bottom-up approaches to peace enforcement and peacebuilding in ongoing conflict locations as well as in many post-conflict settings. During the course of the module, we interrogate various intervention strategies such as: the place of non-violence in peace activism, the concept of just war in imposing a resolution, the role that women play in peacebuilding, global institutions that facilitate peacekeeping, inter-faith debate and dialogue that contribute to addressing religious extremism and radicalism. The overriding question that we examine in the course of this module, is transition from a belligerent world to a more peaceful and harmonious one through cosmopolitan responsibility. The module ends by exploring the ways that seek to reaffirm the ideal of peace in an increasingly volatile and fractured international society.
This module explores efforts to facilitate peace in the contemporary Middle East. Following the US-led invasion of Iraq in 2003, the Middle East has endured a range of serious challenges to the ordering of political life across a number of different states, with serious repercussions for people and their daily lives. Focussing on a range of contemporary challenges including (but not limited to) the rise of sectarianism, geopolitical tensions, the struggle over political participation, and popular protest, the module asks how these issues can be addressed drawing on approaches found in Peace Studies and Political Theory.
This module examines some theoretical issues involved in gaining knowledge about human societies. We will look at the role of theories and models in economics and political science, the special nature of "social institutions," and whether economic and political knowledge can be separated from value-judgments:
In the few years that have passed, the Middle East has experienced momentous changes. Most notable of these changes are the so-called ‘‘Arab Spring’’ uprisings, which started in late 2010, and the following consequences of these uprisings on the international relations of the region. Topics include the early emergence of Arab states, origins and sustainability of authoritarian regimes, state types and personality cult, masculinity and constructions of identity and belonging, women’s movements, social mobilization and the Arab uprisings. The course offers students from a variety of backgrounds the opportunity to engage with the most important themes in the study of the politics of the Middle East and to locate and contextualise them within wider debates and scholarship of international politics.
This module will introduce students to the politics of Ireland, both Northern Ireland and the Republic. It will give them a grounding in the historical events that lie behind key issues and controversies in present-day Irish politics, as well as showing how the memory and interpretation of those events is shaped and contested as part of present-day debates. It will explain the workings of the constitutions of both Northern Ireland and the Republic, as well as the political parties, and the interaction of politics with social and economic factors. It will look at the roles that nationalism, religion, and sectarianism have played in Irish politics. It will also explore the position of Ireland and the Irish in relation to the rest of the world, including the role of the Irish diaspora in other parts of the world, and the relationship of Ireland to Britain, the EU, and other international bodies.
This course explores British politics by focusing on the role of its central figure – the Prime Minister. Judging by media coverage, it would seem that the Prime Minister dominates the decision-making process, dwarfing other institutions such as the Cabinet, Parliament and the judiciary. But does this impression reflect reality? Does Britain really have a system of ‘Prime Ministerial’ – or, as some commentators have claimed – even ‘Presidential’ government? The course attempts to answer these crucial questions through case-studies of recent Prime Ministers and an examination of the sources of Prime Ministerial power, such as the ability to appoint ministers, to influence public opinion and to shape Britain’s foreign policy.
The goal of this course is to introduce students to the key concepts of public policy both in theory and practice. The course is designed to give students a rich understanding of the actors, mechanisms and processes that underpin public policymaking, as well as a comprehensive overview of different public policies. The module will enable students to identify how and why public policy is made, the actors and factors that explain policy outputs and policy failures, and to be able to assess the explanatory power of different theories that seek to explain differences in policy outputs. Students will be able to assess policy outcomes associated with different policies and policymaking regimes. In addition, students will gain an understanding of a range of public policies as well a comprehensive understanding of a specific public policy arena, including the debates surrounding such policy, through their policy briefing assessment. The course will touch on a number of questions and themes related to public policy, including why does policy change? Who makes public policy? How can we explain differences in policy outputs? What explains the gap between policy outputs and outcomes (or policy failure)?
This module will explore how the religious process in South Asia (India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Tibet) was imbricated with the political from the ancient to the modern period. In particular we will look at issues that continue to impact contemporary South Asian culture and trace their genealogy, to see how ruptures and transformations shaped their long journey from the ancient to the modern. The issues focused on as having continued impact are (i) heterodoxies, heretics and religious others (ii) mythology and history (iii) ritual and power (iv) pilgrimages (v) religion, religious orders and state formation (vi) women and the religious economy (vii) the Goddess, gender and power (viii) caste, pluralism and identity (ix) gurus, matas and saints and (x) religion and sexuality. The understanding of these central issues of religious life and experience in South Asia today remains partial without a deeper understanding of their earlier backgrounds.
In this module we give you the opportunity to survey and critically examine the theoretical frameworks, methods and approaches used to study religion sociologically. You will also engage with contrasting empirical studies of religion, focussing particularly on religion in modern Britain. We aim to enable students to develop their own sociologically informed questions about religion that can serve as a basis for further enquiry. We will also survey various sociological study of religion and the underpinning social realities such as secularism, ideology, race, gender, class and diaspora. In this module we encourage students to consider the value of conducting their own field research if they choose a dissertation module (using the subject specific skills gained in the module), which may help to shape your own research proposals in the field of sociology and religion.
The module equips students with the skills they need to carry out independent research in politics. In doing so, it prepares students for their final year dissertations and significantly improves their employability by developing skills that are highly valued by employers. Students will learn how to come up with an original research question and will learn to employ one of the research methods taught on the course to answer their question. The course is designed to provide an accessible introduction to both qualitative and quantitative research methods. In the first part of the course, students will have the opportunity to use a large dataset on politics and explore the relationship between variables such as political ideology, class, voting behaviour and many more. They will learn how to analyse data and test for statistically significant relationships between variables using various regression methods. In the second part of the course, students will learn about three major approaches to qualitative research. They will learn how to conduct standard and elite interviews, how to analyse the discourse of political actors, and how to conduct case studies. At the end of the module, students will be asked to design their own piece of research and use one of the methods taught on the course to answer their research question.
This module examines the domestic and the external sphere of Russian politics. At the end of the module students will better understand some doctrines of Russian politics and its wide-ranging effects on Russia’s engagement with the EU, the US, NATO, countries in the former Soviet space and the Middle East. It assesses Russia’s response to the Arab Spring and its engagement in the conflict in Syria.
The course introduces students to Russia, an actor which gained presence and influence over several issue areas and regions. It prepares students for more extensive analyses of conceptualising Russia as an actor in their future studies.
For some the free-market economy has produced the greatest levels of freedom ever experienced by human society while other see it as the source of social ills, poverty and crisis. How can we reconcile the needs of the masses, or the demos, with those of a profit-driven economy? Can the state balance the two? Can the state intervene in the economy without undermining it? How should the state respond to demands for greater equality? Do we need more state or more market? The module examines the various answers that have been given to these questions by historical figures within the tradition of political economy. It introduces students to the main political economy approaches to the relationship between the state the market and raises some key issues regarding the state’s governance of the market economy. The module draws from liberal and critical state theories of the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries and discerns their implications for understanding main challenges facing the modern state today. The main themes scrutinised by the module are: (a) the theoretical evolution of liberal and critical approaches to the state; (b) the relationship between the state and the economy, (c) the relationship between liberalism and democracy; (d) the state management of market and democratic imperatives.
Knowledge is an essential aspect of our social lives. This module focuses on a range of real world social, ethical and political problems involving knowledge. Topics include: problems of epistemic injustice (where people are not believed because of identity prejudice); whether virtues of open-mindedness might provide a solution to epistemic injustice. A proper understanding of the ethics and politics of knowledge requires us to examine both doubt and ignorance. We consider whether systemic racism is sustained by an active kind of “wilful” ignorance. We explore how powerful corporations seek to deliberately engineer doubt to further their interests. We examine political deception and the idea of “Post-truth” politics. In the final section we turn to the limits of seeking knowledge and how to balance the interests that states and corporations have in knowing personal information, against our interests in keeping such information private.
This course serves as an introduction to the government of the United States and its historical foundations, ideologies, institutions, and political processes. Students will develop a detailed understanding of how the American government works, its development, and its challenges. The course will examine the founding ideologies of the United States, how the United States developed from a small colony into a global superpower, the three branches of the federal government, state governments, the influence of parties and interest groups, and the United States’ contemporary challenges. The course encourages students to think critically about the underlying assumptions about American politics.
This module aims (a) to provide students an introduction to issues within the philosophy and politics of higher education, and (b) to help students to reflect about their own position in, and aims while at the university. During the modules, students will consider key questions regarding the aims of university education and its political context and history, as well as dedicate time to thinking about how their own studies fit into those aims and context, and what they wish to achieve during their undergraduate degrees. Twice weekly lectures will be supplemented by seminars, but also by regular ‘keynotes’ in which those working within and alongside higher education will present their own views and approach to higher education. Invited figures may include senior figures from within Lancaster University, representatives of UCU, the Student Union, and local stakeholders.
This is a critical introduction to the underlying themes of development in the global South, such as debt, aid, inequality, migration; and how the state, the economy, national social movements and powerful external actors, including international NGOs, interact with each other. It begins by looking at how neoliberalism came to dominant development thinking and practice in institutions like the World Bank from the late 1970s onwards and its impact on development and then provides in-depth case-studies of recent alternative development models in Latin America and Syria. This course helps to broaden students’ understanding of Politics and International Relations away from a Western focus on the UK, Europe and the US in preparation for third-year modules such as PPR.336: The Global Politics of Africa.
Race has played a central role in shaping the political agendas of many nations around the world – and has acted both as a mechanism of political exclusion and as a form of politicised identity. In this module, we critically examine the notion of race, and its connection to other identities like gender, ethnicity and class. We examine the role race has played, and continues to play, in the determination of domestic policies and in the relations between states. We look at the way in which race is politicised and de-politicised and consider the nature of various forms of racism in politics and society. Taking a broad narrative arch from “race” to “post-race,” this course pursues three interconnected approaches to the subject: 1.intersectionality in that we analyse not only the multiple and shifting functions of racial classifications, but connect them to other forms of differentiation such as gender, class, sexuality, geography, the environment, and more; 2.interdisciplinarity in that the problem of race takes us directly to historical and ongoing processes of defining the human being and, as such, if we are to take race and its politics seriously, we need approaches from philosophical, historical, sociological, international relations literatures; and 3.the topics of each week together constitute an extensive toolkit of lenses through which to think about race, racism and the contexts of slavery, colonialism, exploitation, rebellion, expression, resistance and much more.
Questions about the nature, salience and consequences of gender have now become central to social debates. The politics of gender, however, is deeply influenced by cultural forms and the religious sources that inform them even in apparently secular contexts. In this module we will look at the textual traditions of Hinduism and Islam (together with some aspects of Christianity) and their intersection with social, political and ideological conditions today.
The aim of this course is to provide students with a critical understanding of the history, politics, and geography of war from the 20th century to the present. Students will explore how advances in weaponry, aviation, and information technologies have changed the nature of warfare and the possibilities for waging it. Students will additionally take special focus on the emergence and evolution of ‘geopolitics’ as an intellectual counterpart to the study of war. Throughout students will confront political and philosophical questions posed by the study of war.
This module provides students with a thorough understanding of the nature and operations of the company where they are working during their industrial placement year. Students need to be cognisant of the company's history, the current nature of its operations, the competition it faces, and the threats and opportunities for the organisation.
In your first year you'll apply for placements in business or industry, and will take a module to prepare you for the placement year. The whole of your third year will then be spent working in a paid placement, supported by the Careers team. Near the end of the placement, you'll submit a proposal for your dissertation topic, inspired by your experiences during the placement year, which you'll complete in fourth year under the supervision of an academic tutor.
This module equips students with experience of working within a business environment. You are expected to acquire not only knowledge of business problems and practices, but also experience of interpersonal relationships within a business context. The dissertation is undertaken during the work placement year.
Each year, students receive specific training by the Management School Careers Team, to prepare them for the graduate labour market. In the first year the focus is on growing the student’s awareness of labour market dynamics and his or her professional aspirations and inclinations. The second year focuses on goal setting, action planning, and developing a personalised career plan. The third year focuses on one-to-one sessions with career advisors. The Career Team is based in the Management School, organises events with employers and alumni, and coaches students on how to best perform in the graduate job market through seminars, surgeries, mock interviews and one-to-one advice.
This course provides a historical and thematic introduction to the issues facing Africa in the international system today. The course is divided into two sections. The first section explores the historical incorporation of the continent into the emerging international system centred on Europe from the sixteenth to the twentieth century. It focuses on the impact of colonialism and independence in terms of the economy, the state and the politics of race and the implications these have for the region’s prospects for democracy and development today. The second section looks at key contemporary issues and agents shaping the continent. The latter includes ‘top-down’ actors such as the Chinese state, as well as grassroots actors such as unionised South African workers.
This course examines the interaction between society & the visual arts, whether such interaction is explicit and intended or is implicit and revealed through analysis. The course situates this interaction into an (albeit partial) history of the last 200 years of visual art(s). While requiring no previous academic knowledge of art, the course does pre-suppose some interest in the history of art, social science(s) & their interaction. The course should allow you to solidify and further develop your ideas about how best to understand this interaction while also expanding your knowledge of visual culture and (specifically) art (widely understood). This hybrid course is delivered through a weekly two-hour workshop & your contribution to a moderated weekly online forum where you will (each week) offer a short analysis of a work of art of your choosing in response to the week’s theme/question
Recent years have seen a number of dramatic electoral shocks in established democracies that have challenged long-standing assumptions and theories about how elections work. Social change has undermined the support base of established mainstream political parties and created the environment for the emergence of populist parties and other challengers. This has transformed long-standing party systems and changed the nature of electoral competition in many countries. Once dominant parties of government have declined in significance as electorates have become more volatile and unpredictable in their preferences. This module aims to explore the causes and consequences of these developments in 21st Century electoral politics while developing highly employable quantitative analysis skills which will enable you to directly test different explanations and theories.
Behavioural Economics is the interface between economics and psychology. It is one of the fastest-growing fields in economics, and since the past decade, it is regarded as a standard tool for policymaking. The course will survey the empirical tools used by behavioural economists and in particular lab and field experiments. We will explore behavioural biases affecting economic and financial decision making, and the role of trust and cooperation in teamwork. We will discuss models and experimental results explaining how we make decisions in various contexts such as choice under uncertainty, intertemporal choice or decision making in a social framework.
This module examines gender and other related concepts such as the body through the lens of politics. Islam is the context and the approach is case study based. A wide range of religio-political movements within specific Muslim contexts, past and present, will be explored during the module, for example: the early gender egalitarianism of the Kharijite protest movements (especially 7th to 9th Centuries); the mystical (Sufi) contestations of dominant gender norms in the late classical period (13th to 16thth Century); the politicisation of gender in nation-based Islamism since the Iranian revolution in the 20th Century; and the rise of transnational Islamic feminism in the 21st century and the challenge of decolonial critique. These case-studies will enable students to understand the broader impact of relations of power on the production and life of particular readings of gender in Islam. The module will be delivered in weekly workshops, consisting of a lecture followed by workshop style discussion of designated readings, films, and documentaries.
This course presents a detailed analysis of the major developments in British foreign policy since 1945. It explains these developments within a global context, offering rival interpretations of Britain’s changing role and status – issues whose importance has been underlined by the debates surrounding the 2016 ‘Brexit’ referendum. The major themes include: the consequences of Britain’s participation in the Second World War; the retreat from Empire after 1945; the ‘special relationship’ with the United States; and the prolonged attempt to redefine Britain’s global role in the context of perceived economic and geopolitical decline.
China’s rise has reshaped world politics and the global economy. In this seminar-based course, students will become familiar with different approaches to understanding China and its place in the world, critically evaluating the opportunities and challenges for both. We will consider China's relation to the world from eight distinct but overlapping perspectives: politics, place, people, economy, culture, media, foreign policy and intellectual thought. The weekly student-led tutorials will explore key issues including the party-state and its techniques of governance; China’s urban and rural geography and contested territory; Chinese nationalism and ethnicities; the PRC economy and its prospects; traditional and contemporary Chinese culture(s); the implications of the Internet for China’s society, economy and politics; the CCP’s foreign policy and its influence on the outside world; and the emerging 'Chinese school' of International Relations theory.
The module will introduce students to processes and dynamics on how ‘first ladies’ provide unique case studies for political leadership and how can they forge unprecedented models of women’s leadership and advocacy. The module places contemporary politics and power dynamics, identities and roles related to the ‘first ladies’ within a broader historical, social and political context. The module allows students to trace how changes in the roles of ‘first ladies’ over the past two centuries track historical trends towards gender equitable marriages, women’s entry into workforce and expanding political participation in societies globally. The topics which the module cover also include gender, feminism, agency, power and politics Comparing ‘first ladies’ across authoritarian and democratic countries as they offer different opportunities, resources or constraints. Countries include Egypt, China, the US, Argentina and the Philippines
As is now commonly recognised, the world is becoming increasingly connected and complex. Just as policy and socio-political actors can no longer view the state, market and society as distinct and separate entities, we can no longer see the global as neatly divided between powerful and distinct nation-states. Global interaction via economics, the media and the internet overwhelm these earlier rigid barriers. But how do we understand this new world and, equally important, how do we act within. To try to answer that question we will explore complexity theory its applications to politics, policy and society. The module will begin with an introduction to the development of the earlier ‘orderly/Newtonian’ framework played in shaping 19th and 20th century social science and public policy. It will then go on to examine the paradigm shift in the natural sciences beyond the limits of that framework and towards a more complexity oriented paradigm. Following this the module will begin to explore how complexity has spilled over into the social sciences in the end of the 20th century and beginning of the 21st. It will then explore how complexity overlaps with some of the main concepts from pragmatist philosophy and its implications for ethics and values
Who killed John F. Kennedy? Did the moon landing really happen? Was Covid-19 caused by the erection of 5G network masts? Factual answers to such questions are easily accessible. And yet many people eschew documented facts in favour of conspiracy theories, which explain events and complex phenomena with reference to nefarious forces and alleged hidden machinations of powerful actors. Such narratives are nothing new, but they used to be regarded mostly as a curiosity rather than a serious subject of research. Today communities of conspiracists are no longer considered so benign. As they thrive online, they attract increasing interest of scholars and policymakers, who study their digital influence, their links with political movements and their status as participants in democratic public spheres. This module introduces students to the developing body of research on the origins, spread and the political and social effects of conspiracy theories, including multidisciplinary work seeking to explain why people embrace conspiracies, what (if any) are the harms of such beliefs, what insights can we draw from the study of historical conspiracies (19th and 20th century) and what is the relationship between conspiratorial thinking and other political beliefs.
This course provides an introduction to US Foreign Policy. The United States plays an important role in the international system. As one of the largest, wealthiest, and most militarily capable states, its foreign policy has a profound influence on the international system. Therefore, to fully comprehend international relations and world events, one needs to understand US foreign policy. The course examines how US foreign policy is made and conducted by studying the historical development of US foreign policy, the institutions and processes involved in the foreign policymaking process, how the US projects power in the international system, and contemporary challenges and issues in US foreign policy.
This module uses case studies from across the world to provide an insight into the role and relevance of decolonisation in the contemporary world, by examining the legacies of slavery, racism, colonialism and empire. The emphasis is on foregrounding the voices and experiences of citizens and communities from the Global South and unpacking the role that western European nations have played and continue to play in politics, economics and state-society relations in large parts of the post-colonial world. By using critical pedagogy and an interdisciplinary lens, the module highlights how various identities of race, class, gender, ethnicity, sexuality and religion intersect in different historical contexts to produce diverse outcomes. These outcomes are examined in relation to various current and emerging themes ranging from climate change and sustainable development to migration, borders and human rights to artificial intelligence, security, geopolitics and social justice.
The invasion of Ukraine has highlighted the crude realities of war and the crucial importance of military strategy. This module introduces students to this core aspect of International Relations. The module will examine the changing character of war as well as the strategic permanencies via a careful examination of strategic principles applied to various domains (land, air, sea, outer space, cyber space). We will elucidate and operationalize key concepts such as airpower, seapower, nuclear deterrence, escalation, manoeuvre, ruse, hybrid warfare, etc. You will gain the necessary skills to critically assess the choices and decisions made by states and their military commanders during war, and to devise rational solutions to address the risks inherent to the current turbulent geopolitical context.
This course focuses on the economics of growth and development, both from a theoretical and empirical perspective. Using examples from developing countries, it explores wide-ranging, policy-relevant topics such as investments in health, education and infrastructure, microeconomics of credit markets, corruption and other determinants of economic development.
This applied module is an introduction to the economics of health and health care and will develop your awareness of the main policy issues in this field. It provides a comprehensive set of economic tools for critically appraising fundamental issues in the economics of health while offering a broad overview of the UK’s National Health Service and other health care systems around the world. The emphasis is on the use and interpretation of microeconomic models and the latest empirical evidence.
This module aims to introduce and familiarise students to the interplay between politics, society and religion in the world’s largest democracy, India. At a time when India is emerging as a global power and economic powerhouse despite persistent poverty and various socio-political fissures, a critical balance must be struck in our understanding between its potential and its problems. India offers powerful lessons on the challenges and achievements of democracy in a deeply pluralistic and unequal society. An examination of these issues opens up our conceptual preconceptions about democracy, competing political philosophies, religion, secularism, discrimination, globalization and political mobilization, which tend to be structured by knowledge of Western polities.
This module builds on basic microeconomics concepts to explore competition between firms and the evolution of market structure. It focuses on understanding the way firms make decisions and the effects of those decisions on market outcomes like prices, quantities, the type of products offered, and social welfare. The module first introduces basic concepts in Industrial Organisation to study imperfect competition and the determinants of market power. It then proceeds to analyse important topics in competition policy, such as cartels and merger policy.
The module requires an understanding of intermediate microeconomics (especially production/cost theory), basic concepts of game theory, and basic calculus.
This module develops your understanding of concepts and theories of international trade and factor flows, with particular reference to the way in which such material can inform policymaking. Topics covered include the Ricardian model, the Heckscher-Ohlin model, international trade under imperfect competition, outsourcing and offshoring, trade models based on heterogeneous firms and multinational firms, and trade policy under perfect and imperfect competition. Throughout the module we emphasise the applicability of the models learned, and their relevance to real-world events. Examples include the relationship between labour productivity and wages, opinions toward free trade, and the impact of immigration.
Focusing on the microeconomics of labour and personnel, this module covers topics such as the economics of migration, wage determination, job search and labour market discrimination.
There is a particular emphasis on principal agent problems in human resources and the design of incentives within firms.
Economics theory is used to analyse the operation of labour markers and assess the empirical evidence. Areas covered include:
Policymakers at Central Banks lie in a unique position to influence economic activity. This module examines the role of monetary policy in influencing the expectations and behaviour of agents in the economy and the implications this has for outcomes such as inflation, GDP and household welfare. Students will focus on applications of monetary theory to central banks problems and the recent objectives of the Bank of England Monetary Policy Committee. Topics include Central Bank independence, inflation targeting and the zero lower bound on interest rates, money creation and quantitative easing, and the macroeconomics of pandemics.
This module will address central issues in contemporary ethical (including meta-ethical), legal and political philosophy, and will allow a systematic critical exploration of the connections between ideas and arguments in each of the three areas of the subject.
Topics covered will include some of the following: modern theory of moral motivation, value theory, contractualism, the 'moral problem'; responsibility and criminal liability, the justification of punishment, the proper scope of the law; democratic theory, egalitarianism, justice, nationalism, multiculturalism, liberty and human rights.
This course will examine some of the core philosophical questions raised by warfare and conflict. We will look at the ethics of war and killing, but also at more neglected philosophical issues in this area, and non-Western approaches as well as classic texts in the Western tradition.
We will do so by examining some of the central dilemmas faced by soldiers, policy makers and non-combatants, in the form of a weekly question for discussion. These questions include: Can war be beautiful? When, if ever, should we go to war? What counts as legitimate action in war? What, if anything, do we owe to our enemies? Is soldiering a good life? What does technological development mean for warfare? What should a responsible citizen do when their country is, or looks about to be, at war? Who has the epistemic authority to speak about war? Is war always tragic?
The emergence and consolidation of world capitalism has been marked by its uneven character in terms of development. This uneven development has created a polarisation between the Global North mainly consisting of advanced Western capitalist countries, and the Global South mainly consisting of underdeveloped/developing countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. This module focuses on the historical roots, present pillars, and empirical issues of the global interaction and integration regarding the making of the Global South. It traces the colonial and post-colonial history, politics, and power relations through which societies of the Global South have been integrated with the profoundly unequal, gendered, and racialised process of development of capitalist relations on a world scale.
This course examines central themes in the liberal branch of contemporary Anglo-American analytic political philosophy. The liberal positions on justice, liberty, equality, the state, power, rights and utility are all explored. The approach is philosophical rather than applied; its focus is on the ideas of liberal politics: how individual liberty can be maximised while not harming others; how an individual philosophical position can guide political determinants of a society and places the developments of liberal ideas in their appropriate historical contexts. The course also examines the connection between the ideas of liberalism and the idea of democracy to explore the philosophical tensions between the two and how these might be resolved. The course is a survey of major topics and concepts in Anglo-American liberal political ideas. The syllabus will include the following topics: questions about justice; visions of the state; negative and positive liberty; equality, utility and rights; toleration and multiculturalism; neutrality and the market.
Culture is, one of the most contentious features of contemporary politics and policy. Whether it be the perception of cultures, religious schism and ethnic conflict, migration, cultural diversity impacts on politics and policy. The aim of this module is to challenge and re-orient assumptions about culture and to provide students with the conceptual and analytical resources to understand and assess the politics of cultural diversity. The module grapples with how cultural identities play out in the politics of policymaking with a particular focus on conceptions of the ‘Other’, calling into question cultural categories which emanated from Western scholarship and legacies of colonialism. Using case studies. this module will comparatively study the politics of cultural diversity across nation-states e.g., UK, Canada, China and India to understand different approaches to cultural diversity in policymaking.
This course examines the changing character of war and security in a time of rapid and disruptive technological and geopolitical change. The course combines analysis of contemporary policy documents with the interdisciplinary insights of intellectuals that have examined how war has changed in the modern age. Students are introduced to a range of concepts that are currently significant in the policy debates about the future of war – concepts such as ambiguous war, the gray zone, the third offset strategy and the three block war. While the course is grounded in broader debates from social and political thought about war and modernity, it explores a range of evolving and inter-related case studies that are central to understanding how war is changing: cybersecurity/artificial intelligence; cities and urban war; drones and the future of robotics; climate change and ecological insecurity. Each year we try to bring a guest lecturer from the Ministry of Defence or the FCO to discuss questions relevant to the course – and to discuss how the course can be relevant to a broad range of careers.
This module presents an overview of the interactions between the government, firms, and citizens, using a mix of theory and empirical work. Sometimes, markets are not efficient, and government intervention is necessary. Sometimes, markets are efficient, but equity concerns create the need for government. There is often a tension between the socially optimal policy and the outcome of the democratic process.
Some questions we study in this module:
Latin America is a dynamic region dominated by a complex set of issues. This module examines the forces and events that have shaped the culture and politics of contemporary Latin America. The lectures in this module are arranged and organised along specific themes: an overview of politics of populism, the role of the Latin American left in shaping the public discourse, democracy and dictatorship, the emancipatory role of religion, the culture of everyday violence, politics of dependency and development, the political economy of migration and the role played by external actors in shaping its cultural, economic, social and political identity. This module provides students with an opportunity to develop their general as well as specialist knowledge of major issues in contemporary Latin American society and politics.
The module provides a comparative perspective drawing on the fields of religion and politics. It analyses how the rise of the modern nation-state impacted and reconstituted religion in a post-colonial, global context. It addresses questions such as: What place does religion have in diverse political systems in the modern world? How have religious ideologies and commitments shaped modern conceptions and practices of governance? To what extent has religion been engaged in supporting/contesting discourses of liberal democracy and human rights? And why does it remain a site for political protest in non-western contexts? These questions will be explored across various traditions such as Hinduism, Christianity, Islam as well as in diverse regional contexts, such as Europe, North Africa, the Middle East and South Asia. Key topics will typically include: Secularism, Religion and the Postcolonial Nation-State; Religion and law-making in modern nation-states; State, Religion, and human rights, with a focus on women’s rights or religious minority rights; State, Religion and Rebellion; and Civil Religion: Interrogating America’s Nationalism.
This module critically explores a range of key topics in the ethics and politics of communication. In the first half of the course, we begin by an introduction to some basic concepts in linguistics and philosophy of language – especially to do with the practical side of communication. We then focus on (a) how certain kinds of communication can bring about ethical change (e.g. making something permissible); (b) upon whether lying and other kinds of deception are permissible, and if so, when. In the second half we turn to some broadly political issues: whether political lying is justified in a way that everyday lying is not. We consider three domains where freedom of communication is both important and contentious: freedom of speech, freedom of the press, and freedom on social media, including the challenges posed by “content moderation”.
Global capitalism is at crossroads. It faces a deepening crisis in the world of work, its engine of growth is sputtering out while the climate emergency is aggravating. For some the 2008 recession, COVID-19 and the 2022 cost-of living of crisis offered tragic glimpses of the world that is to come if radical change is not pursued. How can we govern a world characterised by perpetual emergencies and chronic economic crises? Can capitalism be reformed? What does it take to address inequality, precarity or biodiversity collapse? What are the challenges and constraints faced by governments today? The module offers an opportunity to discuss these questions by examining a range of political economy approaches to the study of global capitalism. In doing so the module analyses the most important transformations of the past 50 years that radically transformed the global economy and the issues they raise for economic policy. It examines the constraints, limits and opportunities facing the governance of the global economic order and explores the governing dilemmas that arise in the era of so-called late capitalism.
The module aims to provide students with an in-depth knowledge of the different facets of contemporary Asian conflicts and how international organisations such as the UN, and how Western and Asian governments have attempted to deal with these challenges in recent times. Conceptually, the course will examine the principles of state failure; terrorism, ‘New Wars’, the New Security Agenda, Islamism, nationalism and sub nationalism, international conflict prevention; peace keeping and global governance. Empirically, the course will focus on conflict zones in Afghanistan, Pakistan, Indian Kashmir, the Indian northeast, Chinese Xinjiang and Tibet. Thus, the aim of this module is to provide students with an overview of the security of a region which is now of tremendous global importance.
This course aims to provide students with specialist and critical understanding of the relationship between war and communication. Students will learn how advances in communication technology have not only changed how wars are fought on the battlefield, but how war itself is communicated to various publics across the globe. Students will consider the origin and development of ‘psychological warfare’, its challenge to traditional civil-military relations, and the emergence of the ‘war of ideas’ in the international arena. Students will consider how the rise of digital social media has again changed the nature of contemporary war.
South and South East Asian religious traditions are globally unique for their reverence of female divine power. Called Devi (goddess) and Shakti (power/potentiality), the Goddess is thought to be multiform and worshipped in ‘power-sites’ (shaktipithas) scattered all over the subcontinent. In theological traditions of medieval India, she was conceptualized in some of the most sophisticated metaphysical arguments as an ultimate Consciousness. For worshippers, she is a symbol of many things: autonomous power, liberation, rulership, transgression, duality, sexuality, passion, motherhood, the colour red, Death, vision and sleep.
We set our fees on an annual basis and the 2025/26 entry fees have not yet been set.
As a guide, our fees in 2024/25 were:
There may be extra costs related to your course for items such as books, stationery, printing, photocopying, binding and general subsistence on trips and visits. Following graduation, you may need to pay a subscription to a professional body for some chosen careers.
Specific additional costs for studying at Lancaster are listed below.
Lancaster is proud to be one of only a handful of UK universities to have a collegiate system. Every student belongs to a college, and all students pay a small college membership fee which supports the running of college events and activities. Students on some distance-learning courses are not liable to pay a college fee.
For students starting in 2023 and 2024, the fee is £40 for undergraduates and research students and £15 for students on one-year courses. Fees for students starting in 2025 have not yet been set.
To support your studies, you will also require access to a computer, along with reliable internet access. You will be able to access a range of software and services from a Windows, Mac, Chromebook or Linux device. For certain degree programmes, you may need a specific device, or we may provide you with a laptop and appropriate software - details of which will be available on relevant programme pages. A dedicated IT support helpdesk is available in the event of any problems.
The University provides limited financial support to assist students who do not have the required IT equipment or broadband support in place.
In addition to travel and accommodation costs, while you are studying abroad, you will need to have a passport and, depending on the country, there may be other costs such as travel documents (e.g. VISA or work permit) and any tests and vaccines that are required at the time of travel. Some countries may require proof of funds.
In addition to possible commuting costs during your placement, you may need to buy clothing that is suitable for your workplace and you may have accommodation costs. Depending on the employer and your job, you may have other costs such as copies of personal documents required by your employer for example.
The fee that you pay will depend on whether you are considered to be a home or international student. Read more about how we assign your fee status.
Fees are set by the UK Government annually, and subsequent years' fees may be subject to increases. Read more about fees in subsequent years.
We will charge tuition fees to Home undergraduate students on full-year study abroad/work placements in line with the maximum amounts permitted by the Department for Education. The current maximum levels are:
International students on full-year study abroad/work placements will be charged the same percentages as the standard International fee.
Please note that the maximum levels chargeable in future years may be subject to changes in Government policy.
Details of our scholarships and bursaries for students starting in 2025 are not yet available. You can use our scholarships for 2024-entry applicants as guidance.
The information on this site relates primarily to 2025/2026 entry to the University and every effort has been taken to ensure the information is correct at the time of publication.
The University will use all reasonable effort to deliver the courses as described, but the University reserves the right to make changes to advertised courses. In exceptional circumstances that are beyond the University’s reasonable control (Force Majeure Events), we may need to amend the programmes and provision advertised. In this event, the University will take reasonable steps to minimise the disruption to your studies. If a course is withdrawn or if there are any fundamental changes to your course, we will give you reasonable notice and you will be entitled to request that you are considered for an alternative course or withdraw your application. You are advised to revisit our website for up-to-date course information before you submit your application.
More information on limits to the University’s liability can be found in our legal information.
We believe in the importance of a strong and productive partnership between our students and staff. In order to ensure your time at Lancaster is a positive experience we have worked with the Students’ Union to articulate this relationship and the standards to which the University and its students aspire. View our Charter and other policies.
Explore what Lancaster University can offer you. From accommodation, study spaces, sports facilities, cafes, restaurants and more, we've got you.Start your tour