Why Geography at Lancaster?
From our flexible degree pathways to our incredible fieldwork opportunities, find out why our students love studying Geography at Lancaster.
8th for Geography
The Guardian University Guide (2024)
11th for Research Quality for Economics
The Times and Sunday Times Good University Guide (2024)
12th for Geography and Environmental Science
The Times and Sunday Times Good University Guide (2024)
Studying a combined degree in economics and geography at Lancaster gives you the opportunity to benefit from expert teaching in both subjects. You’ll be taught jointly by staff in the Lancaster University Management School, which is consistently among the UK’s top ten, and our Geography Department, ranked Top 100 in the world (QS World University Rankings 2023).
In economics, you’ll learn about the production and distribution of wealth and the consumption of goods and services. You’ll also cover many contemporary world issues. In geography, you’ll study the impact of these issues in terms of geopolitics, sustainable development, environmental conservation and globalisation.
You’ll begin your degree following modules including the Principles of Economics as well as Society and Space - Human Geography. In your second year, you’ll study subjects such as Intermediate Microeconomics; Geographies of Political Economy, and Environment and Society.
In your third year, you will undertake your industry placement in a field related to either geography or economics. As well as working with one of our industry partners, you will also undertake a work-related learning module, which will encourage you to critically reflect upon your time in the workplace and consider how it has impacted your future career goals.
In your final year, you will undertake an extended essay, guided by your academic supervisor. This essay offers a chance to investigate a topic of your choice related to both aspects of your joint degree. While completing the essay, you will use the essential research, analytical and academic writing skills you have learnt throughout your degree.
Lancaster’s graduates in Economics and Geography develop a unique and insightful perspective on global issues along with excellent analytical skills – this combination of knowledge and skills is highly valued by employers in many areas. Traditional Geography-based careers include planning, teaching and research as well as less-obvious career paths in sectors such as marketing and tourism. Meanwhile, Economics graduates may go on to work in banking, the civil service, management consultancies and major national and international companies. Graduates from our courses are also well-paid, with the median starting salary of graduates from Lancaster Environment Centre and Economics Department being £24,347 and £30,000 respectively (HESA Graduate Outcomes Survey 2023).
Here are just some of the roles that our Geography and Economics students have progressed into upon graduating:
A Level AAB
Required Subjects A level Geography is recommended, or alternatively one of the following subjects: Anthropology, Classics, Economics, English Literature, History, Philosophy, Psychology, Religious Studies, Sociology, World Development.
GCSE Mathematics grade B or 6, English Language grade C or 4
IELTS 6.5 overall with at least 5.5 in each component. For other English language qualifications we accept, please see our English language requirements webpages.
International Baccalaureate 35 points overall with 16 points from the best 3 Higher Level subjects including Geography or alternative cognate subject at HL grade 6
BTEC Distinction, Distinction, Distinction in a related subject but may additionally require a supporting A level in Geography or alternative cognate subject at grade B. Please contact the Admissions Team for further advice.
We welcome applications from students with a range of alternative UK and international qualifications, including combinations of qualifications. Further guidance on admission to the University, including other qualifications that we accept, frequently asked questions and information on applying, can be found on our general admissions webpages.
Contact Admissions Team + 44 (0) 1524 592028 or via email@example.com
Delivered in partnership with INTO Lancaster University, our one-year tailored foundation pathways are designed to improve your subject knowledge and English language skills to the level required by a range of Lancaster University degrees. Visit the INTO Lancaster University website for more details and a list of eligible degrees you can progress onto.
Lancaster University offers a range of programmes, some of which follow a structured study programme, and some which offer the chance for you to devise a more flexible programme to complement your main specialism.
Information contained on the website with respect to modules is correct at the time of publication, and the University will make every reasonable effort to offer modules as advertised. In some cases changes may be necessary and may result in some combinations being unavailable, for example as a result of student feedback, timetabling, Professional Statutory and Regulatory Bodies' (PSRB) requirements, staff changes and new research. Not all optional modules are available every year.
Each year, students receive specific training by the Management School Careers Team, to prepare them for the graduate labour market. In the first year, the focus is on growing the student’s awareness of labour market dynamics and his or her professional aspirations and inclinations. The second year focuses on goal setting, action planning, and the development of a personalised career plan. The third year focuses on one-to-one sessions with career advisors. The Career Team is based in the Management School, organises events with employers and alumni, and coaches students on how to best perform in the graduate job market through seminars, surgeries, mock interviews and one-to-one advice.
This module provides an introduction to the skills used by geographers to analyse problems in both human and physical geography. The module begins by reviewing the principles of cartography and recent developments in the electronic delivery of map-based information through mobile devices and web-based services. This is followed by an introduction to Geographic Information Systems (GIS) which provide facilities for the capture, storage, analysis and display of spatially-referenced information. Later in the module we introduce remote sensing and explain its relationship to GIS. We also consider quantitative and qualitative techniques of analysis (which are taught within the context of contemporary conceptual approaches), with emphasis placed on the study of both environmental and societal processes.
Introducing you to contemporary human geography, this module focuses on the interactions between society and space, and between people and places at a variety of spatial scales and in different parts of the globe. We introduce the key processes driving geographical change affecting society, economies, the environment, and culture. We critically analyse relevant issues using theoretical models, with examples from across the world. The module encourages you to think critically, argue coherently, appraise published material, and relate real world issues to relevant theoretical frameworks.
This full-year module provides the foundation for your future study in Economics. It is divided into three parts. The first part provides a thorough introduction to Microeconomics (including the theory of demand, costs and pricing under various forms of market structure, and welfare economics). The second part provides a thorough introduction to Macroeconomics (including national income analysis, monetary theory, business cycles, inflation, unemployment, and the great macroeconomic debates).
The third part of the module, taught in parallel with the first two parts, shows how the key Micro- and Macroeconomics ideas can help us understand the world around us. In this part, we will use economic experiments to answer various questions, such as whether economists are selfish. We will analyse whether a sugar tax is a good idea, automation and the minimum wage, the structure, conduct and performance of big technology firms, and use the skills we have learned to analyse inequality, Brexit, and Covid-19. We will also discuss the distinction between transitory inflation and stagflation, central banks’ changing objectives, cryptocurrencies and the financial markets, fiscal and monetary policy responses to the pandemic, the Great Depression and the Great Recession, quantitative easing, currency crises, and the Euro debt crisis. Economics A is taught in conjunction with modules (ECON103 or MATH100, depending on the degree) which provide the quantitative foundations for further study in Economics.
This full-year module is a self-contained introduction to Economics, and can be taken by students both with and without prior knowledge of the subject. It is divided into three parts. The first part provides a thorough introduction to Microeconomics (including the theory of demand, costs and pricing under various forms of market structure, and welfare economics). The second part provides a thorough introduction to Macroeconomics (including national income analysis, monetary theory, business cycles, inflation, unemployment, and the great macroeconomic debates).
The third part of the module, taught in parallel with the first two parts, first covers the key mathematical tools required for a good understanding of Economics (including linear and nonlinear equations, and differentiation), and then shows how the key Micro- and Macroeconomics ideas can help us understand the world around us. In this part, you will participate in economic experiments involving games with and without strategic behaviour. We will also discuss the lessons from the Great Depression and the Great Recession, speculative attacks and currency crises, inequality, democracy and growth, government deficits and inflation, and the macroeconomic implications of Brexit and Covid-19.
This module integrates elementary economic theory, mathematical and statistical methods and the interpretation of data in order to analyse economic issues of current policy importance. You will therefore be introduced to the basic tools of mathematics essential for a proper understanding of economics and business. Teaching on quantitative methods is combined with numerous practical applications to economics, enabling you to practise applying your analytical and quantitative skills to the topics developed and analysed in depth over the course of the module.
Being a Geographer in the contemporary world means engaging critically with questions about how geographical knowledge is produced and applied, and developing skills that can transfer beyond academic settings during and after life at University. This module, which involves a programme of tutorials, lectures and online learning activities, focuses on these aspects of your development as a Geographer. It considers, first, a series of issues that provide a way of looking critically at what Geography is now, as well as understanding how it has developed over time and the intense debates that have periodically erupted about its practice, politics and ethics. This includes engaging with racism and calls for decolonising the geography curriculum; gender equality and inclusion of marginalised forms of knowledge; and ethical responsibilities in relation to injustice and harm to both humans and non-humans. These broad issues are then connected through applying ethical principles and practical skills to being a geographer, and specifically in designing research and producing new geographical knowledge. By the end of this course, you will be able to critically engage with contemporary ethical issues for the discipline of geography, and display an understanding of the history of the development of geographical knowledge and practice, and its relevance to contemporary debates.
Each year, students receive specific training by the Management School Careers Team, to prepare them for the graduate labour market. In the first year the focus is on growing the student’s awareness of labour market dynamics and his or her professional aspirations and inclinations. The second year focuses on goal setting, action planning, and developing a personalised career plan. The third year focuses on one-to-one sessions with career advisors. The Career Team is based in the Management School, organises events with employers and alumni, and coaches students on how to best perform in the graduate job market through seminars, surgeries, mock interviews and one-to-one advice.
More data has been generated in the last 2 years than over whole history of humanity prior to this. Of this data, 80% has spatial content. This module is about understanding properties of spatial data, whether derived from the map, an archive or the field or from space. The module will explore how these data are represented in computer systems and how, through spatial integration, new forms of information may be derived. There will be a focus on major sources of spatial data (topographic, environmental, and socio-economic) and their properties, major forms of analyses based on spatial relationships, and on effective communication of spatial data through adherence to principles of map design.
Students will develop an understanding of what makes spatial data special; this will be taught through exposure to data from a variety of primary, secondary, contemporary and historic data across the breadth of the geographic discipline. The module will introduce common forms of spatial analysis and will provide an understanding of which to use under given the situations. Students will learn the principles of map design and effective cartographic communication, as well as gaining practical experience of critiquing digital outputs. Finally, the module will offer students significant 'hands-on' experience of using state-of-the-art GIS software to capture, integrate, analyse and present geographic information.
Introducing cultural geography, this module addresses culture from a geographical perspective while, at the same time, studies space and the spatial from a cultural point of view. Students will explore the importance of variegated representations such as cultural materials, texts, art, landscapes, everyday objects, performances, and will discover how they interact and impact upon race, class, gender and sexuality. The module’s topics will include theories of power and nature, as well as teaching an appreciation of culture, nature, nation, cosmopolitanism, multiculturalism, community, colonialism and post-colonialism.
Students will develop skills such as the critical analysis of the concepts of landscape, place, space, scale and body. They should understand how to evaluate and apply this knowledge in a working environment, as well as gaining the ability to distinguish and criticise different theoretical traditions in cultural geography, and contemporary debates in cultural geography in relation to previous research traditions in the discipline. The module will provide relevant literature in geography and the social sciences and will ask students to apply it selectively to the methodologies at the core of specific assessments.
The relation between theories and practices of development will be explored in the module, as well as how these have changed over time. This evolution will be placed within the context of wider changes in global political economy. The ways in which development interventions have been contested on the ground while the concept of development has been subject to challenge intellectually will also be explored.
This module will explain the different approaches towards addressing development issues and the divergent understandings of the means and goals of development that these reflect. The way in which particular places can or cannot be placed into a geographical categories such as ‘developed countries’ or ‘Global South’ will be discussed.
Students will learn about some key challenges (e.g., poverty, inequality, environmental change) commonly defined as ‘development’ issues, and the ways in which ‘development’ initiatives seek to address these problems. They shall then critically evaluate the differential impacts (e.g., along gender lines, or rural vs. urban areas) these initiatives may have. Finally, they will build on their fieldwork experience by designing a field trip on a similar theme to a new location.
Economic Geography is a vibrant and dynamic subdiscipline that has been a key aspect of human geography for 120 years. This module allows students to understand the history and theoretical outlooks of economic geography, which underpin our everyday lives.
Students will focus on key topics such as austerity, the international trade system, and the geography of finance, developing their critical thinking skills throughout the module. They will learn key analytical skills to draw upon existing theoretical and empirical evidence and case studies, linking concepts and processes together in order to tackle real-world issues in economic geography.
Completion of this module will enable students to critique data, produce insight reports, apply social theory to real-world case studies, and evaluate the quality of current research. Students will understand how to critically analyse the global economy and produce resolutions tackle current issues in economic geography.
This module introduces students to some of the major issues and debates related to the environment-society relationship through a series of lectures and workshops. The lecture series will provide explanations and insights regarding key ideas, concepts and theories and also provide examples of their practical application. Students will be actively encouraged to think critically about environmentalism and environmental management and to consider the lessons and the implications of the subject matter covered in each lecture. Group work conducted in workshops will include an analysis of how a major environmental controversy is presented to the public.
Students will engage with important historical, contemporary and emerging themes within environmentalism and environmental management, and will develop a broad understanding of the history of environmentalism and the different ways in which environmental concerns and interests are expressed. The module will address how different management approaches and strategies can be used to deal with change, complexity, uncertainty and conflict, and will promote the relevance of environmentalism and environmental management in contemporary society.
Additionally, students will develop practical skills for secondary research using published and web resources. The module will reinforce students’ ability to think critically about the nature of environmentalism and environmental management, as well as the ability to express and defend these thoughts through the medium of essay and examination questions.
This module focuses on the role of governments within the economy, looking at the extent to which they can intervene in markets and in other areas such as climate change. It builds your skills in evaluating the effectiveness of economic policies, and provides insights into the difficulties of decision-making in collective-choice environments.
This ‘hands on’ module provides an exciting opportunity for you to put your geographical skills to work in a real-life classroom setting and to gain some valuable work experience. We organise for you to spend half a day per week in a local primary or secondary school for a whole term so that you can gain first-hand experience as a classroom assistant and learn how Geography (or a related discipline) is communicated in a school setting. Not only is this module a great choice for anyone considering a career in teaching, but it also provides an excellent opportunity to escape from the lecture theatre and learn in a real-world environment. You’ll come back from your experiences as a confident communicator who is well versed in the latest debates in Geography and Education.
This module helps you improve your strategic thinking. Over the course of this module, you will learn how to use ‘games’ to model strategic situations in the real world, and how to analyse and find out solutions to these games in situations in which players are intelligent and rational. Games including “normal form games”, “extensive form games”, “Bayesian games”, “repetitive games”, and “games with correlation device” will be introduced. Opportunities for playing games with the lecturer and other students will also be provided. The module requires a basic knowledge of algebra, calculus, and economics.
This module uses the tools of economics to study various macroeconomic variables (inflation, consumption, output, unemployment) and particularly their short-run and long-run dynamics. It covers topics related to fiscal policy and the sustainability of public debt in the intermediate run. In addition, students will study unemployment and labour market dynamics and more in general economic stability in the short run.
The module requires algebra, elementary calculus, logical thinking and general problem-solving ability.
This module first explores some of the key insights of New Keynesian economics, particularly that the monetary policy effectively influences output in the short-run but not in the long run. We will examine the crucial role of how the public formulates expectations for the economy’s stability, e.g. expectations about inflation and the importance of credible monetary policy. The second part of the module will cover topics explaining the “mysteries” of long-run economic growth. For example, how did we arrive at the vast degree of disparity between countries we observe today? This module covers topics like exogenous and endogenous growth, optimal growth, and dualism.
Note that this module is available only to students majoring in Economics.
Markets consist of individual buyers and sellers, each facing choices. A buyer must decide what, and how much, to purchase. A seller must decide how much to produce, how to produce it, and what price to charge. But how are these choices made? In this course, we will explore this question formally, with the aid of economic models. The topics include consumer choice, profit maximization and cost minimization. The module requires a basic knowledge of algebra and calculus.
By the end of the course, you will improve your logical thinking and problem-solving abilities.
This module builds on learning gained in Intermediate Microeconomics 1 (ECON220), developing on the theories and concepts covered as well as focusing on a range of new topics.
analysis of monopoly behaviour and regulation
price and quantity setting in duopoly markets
introduction to game theory and strategic behaviour by firms
auctions (including a study of eBay)
general equilibrium and welfare economics
The module is normally taken in conjunction with ECON220.
Eco-innovation, being the development of new products, processes or services that support business growth with a positive environmental impact, is one of the key enabling instruments identified by the European Union for the transition to a more resource efficient economy. It is embedded in the Europe 2020 strategy for supporting sustainable growth. This module will provide several case studies which outline the way in which businesses have applied eco-innovation in practice Students will gain knowledge of the key approaches to, and models of, eco-innovation in a range of business and policy contexts in addition to a reinforced understanding of how innovative ideas can be turned into practical solutions for complex socio-environmental problems, and how different business models and financing approaches can be used to make the solution commercially viable and potentially profitable.
Students will gain knowledge of eco-innovation and understand how the concept relates to business opportunities for environmental goods and services. In addition, students will gain the knowledge and skillset required to analyse how both small businesses and large global organisations apply eco-innovation into their business planning, whilst
Evaluating business opportunities related to the environment in the context of products and services to address flooding or other complex problems. Students will learn how to create proposals for eco-innovation, and prepare presentations for a panel of experts, and will develop the necessary level of understanding required to analyse technical, financial, and environmental information from a wide range of sources in order to comprehend and evaluate strategies to address complex environment-society problems and challenges.
This module provides an introduction to the theoretical concepts and applications of econometrics. Econometric techniques taught include bivariate regression, multiple regression, and two-stage least squares. The importance and relevance of statistical and diagnostic testing are emphasised in the context of econometrics applications.
You will also learn how to use STATA, a statistical package that is used by many academic, governmental, and non-governmental institutions to conduct research and consulting.
The objective of the course is to train students to use macroeconomic models to understand real-world economic phenomena. The students will learn how to interpret macroeconomic data and understand the implications of economic policies. The course will put emphasis on major issues related to economic growth, the causes of economic fluctuations, and the effectiveness of economic policy. We will investigate the link between financial openness and economic growth, and we will explain why emerging countries experience capital outflows. We will study the impact of the exchange rate regime on the effectiveness of fiscal policy, we will rationalise the increase of current account deficits in Europe after the beginning of the nineties, and we will analyse the cause(s) of cross-country differences in hours worked.
The module requires basic knowledge of basic calculus, logical thinking and problem-solving skills.
This module provides the tools necessary to produce the rigorous economic analyses that form the core of both microeconomics and macroeconomics.
During the first part of the course, the attention is on the dynamic analysis of systems, which is key to understanding how economic variables change over time, especially in response to shifts in government economic policy.
The second part of the course studies constrained optimization which is central to understanding how households and firms make their consumption and production decisions when faced with limited budgets. Throughout the whole course, we focus our analysis on concrete examples and intuition, with an emphasis on how to frame economic problems using the mathematical tools you will acquire in the course.
We will require you to apply the concepts learned in class, and to translate informal problems into formal language.
Various topics of interest to prospective managers are covered within this module, including production and demand, competition and strategic behaviour, advertising and distribution, capital budgeting and inventories, the foreign exchange market, the economics of the multinational enterprise and the politics of corporate economics. The module provides knowledge of aspects of microeconomics relevant to general management, and also emphasises techniques and tools of analysis alongside relevant theory.
The module is designed to as an introduction to aspects of the firm and its environment which are of particular relevance to management. The topics selected aim to bridge the gap between the traditional approach to managerial economics and the more modern study of the organisation.
Oceans are central to people’s cultures and identities, generate significant wealth, and are vital to securing food. However, the oceans, and the associated benefits, are increasingly under threat from human impacts. This module will examine the various relationships that people have developed with the marine environment, the threats facing these environments, and the policy narratives that have emerged.
Through a series of lectures that feed into seminars, students will learn about a range of topics that have informed ocean policy narratives. By digging deeper into the foundations of environmental thinking about the relationship between people and the sea, students will recognise the contribution oceans make to society and analyse contemporary grand challenges (e.g. climate change, food security, cultural integrity).
Students who demonstrate active engagement with the subject matter will develop a broad understanding of the diverse relationships people form with the sea. This would include an appreciation of the fact that the ocean provides a range of values and benefits to different people, and an insight into the threats and policies facing ocean ecosystems, fisheries, and coastal communities.
With this knowledge, students shall contrast two or more perspectives on ocean governance and coherently argue and defend the merits of a chosen perspective. To this end, they will present an articulate and coherent argument that synthesizes diverse sources of information in support for, or against, a particular narrative.
The contemporary world is full of intriguing political developments. Examples range from questions of national independence in the UK, through geopolitical concern with nuclear arms development, to humanitarian crises brought on by civil war. These political moments and their historical trajectories are united by an engagement with space and power; two themes that largely frame what might be called political geography. Against this background, this course examines the importance of politics to human geography and, indeed, geography to the study of politics. A range of classic ‘staples’ of political geography will be explored including engagements with geopolitics, nationalism and border studies. Additionally, we examine social movement activism and mobilisation, security and what it means to be a ‘superpower’. In all cases, theoretical grounding in these core themes will support empirical engagement with a range of case studies, both historical and contemporary.
This module will consist of lecture material and workshops where you will learn about a range of human geography research methods, their merits and disadvantages, and the appropriate research contexts in which to apply them. You will be introduced to a range of research methods and designs, learning how to apply your knowledge by carrying out your own research project. Workshops will explore types of methods you might use, including interviews, focus groups, ethnography and visual methods. By the end of this course, you will be able to utilise a variety of methodological approaches to frame human geographical enquiry, and understand the strengths and limitations of each of the approaches, techniques, and tools studied. You will be able to apply this understanding to interpret data outcomes in a relevant and appropriate manner within the context of Human Geography.
You will spend this year working in a graduate-level placement role. This is an opportunity to gain experience in an industry or sector that you might be considering working in once you graduate.
Our Careers and Placements Team will support you during your placement with online contact and learning resources.
You will undertake a work-based learning module during your placement year which will enable you to reflect on the value of the placement experience and to consider what impact it has on your future career plans.
Students will research and write an extended essay on a topic of their choice that is relevant to both aspects of their joint degree scheme. As such, there is no fixed syllabus.
Students will acquire experience of working independently over an extended period of time; developing their techniques of analysis, critique and synthesis of research literature and other materials appropriate to their topic beyond those gained in first and second year Geography. They will have written the essay to a professional standard.
Finishing this module will give students practice in identifying, formulating and contextualising their topic and the key questions, arguments or hypotheses they explore in their essay. They will also have demonstrated skills in constructing, analysing and sustaining an argument, considering and assessing counter-arguments, and synthesising and justifying a concluding position over a 5000-word essay.
The course introduces state-of-the-art methods used in current macroeconomics research to understand short-run business cycle and inflation dynamics, as well as economic stabilisation policies.
We will develop a broad and deep knowledge of modern Dynamic Stochastic General Equilibrium (DSGE) macroeconomic models that employ microeconomic foundations and rational expectations. These models will be solved using advanced analytical and numerical-computational approaches. More specifically, we will use the DSGE neoclassical Real Business Cycle and New Keynesian frameworks to understand the different sources of aggregate economic fluctuations, and to examine the positive and normative roles of fiscal and monetary policies.
Finally, the course examines contemporary issues such as inflationary shocks, government debt financing through distortionary taxation, optimal (un)conventional monetary and fiscal policies in a zero interest rate-liquidity trap environment, and financial frictions.
This module explores how the theoretical and mathematical tools of advanced microeconomic theory can be used to understand and model individual and strategic decision making. Topics it covers include advanced concepts of decision making of the main economic agents (consumers and firms), as well as specialised topics on game theory. The module requires algebra and calculus, along with logical thinking and problem-solving ability.
With a focus on pre-colonial, colonial and post-colonial history, this module provides a focus on the representations of Africa, such as how the ‘dark continent’ has been portrayed in different cultural settings by the media, art, NGOs, governments and public. These representations will be compared and contrasted with, on the one hand, our own perceptions of Africa and, on the other hand, how Africans see themselves. Students will discover African reactions to racial stereotyping during colonial and post-colonial times, and will be introduced to the work of Frantz Fanon, as well as exploring the challenges, constraints and opportunities of rural communities, such as how they manage their livelihood, welfare, development and survival in response to a changing socio-political, economic and ecological environment.
Students will learn to demonstrate a concise understanding of the topic through examinations and coursework, and will develop practical skills such as debating and group discussion, with the aim to critically engage with current perceptions of Africa in newspapers, film, television, visual art, literature amongst other media. Additionally, the module will address the different approaches towards the subject from a Euro-American versus African perspective and will equip students with the ability to develop a detailed understanding of post-colonial theory as a critical lens to study contemporary challenges in Africa.
This module develops your understanding of the application of macroeconomic theory and quantitative methods to the analysis of international economics and the economic history of the UK, and the pound sterling in particular. It also helps you to understand the role of international economics and finance in the world economy.
The module integrates intermediate macroeconomic theory, statistical methods, the interpretation of data, and empirical results. Analysis is applied to macroeconomic issues important to businesses and policymakers – including exchange rate regimes, international parity conditions, business cycles, and monetary unions.
All cities are shaped by the flows and forces that connect them to other places. Whilst these connections enable cities to become vibrant and creative, this module will focus on a number of challenges that might arise from globalisation.
Students undertaking this module will develop spatial thinking whilst exploring a range of features including urban networks and politics, such as poverty, global change and security. The module will explore the cities’ resulting transformations through a combination of readings, lectures, group activities and fieldwork. The module will also present students an opportunity to compare the experiences of cities in different parts of the world.
This module explores climate change in the context of it being a ‘wicked problem’. The aim is to provoke students to look beyond the simple narratives pushed at us about climate change and to start to think critically as wicked problems require us to do. In doing so, students are invariably forced to abandon often naive assumptions about what can and can't be done to tackle climate related risks.
This module employs developing and using an Integrated Assessment Model (IAM) as its primary learning device because, for all their deficiencies, IAMs have become the most important way synthesising the various components of the climate change 'problem'. Practical decision making is a theme running through the module supported by quantitative analysis. However, this necessarily involves debate and discussion over the normative values we use in our analysis of climate change and students will be expected to actively participate in this debate, holding and developing their line of argument both in small groups and in class wide discussions.
By the end of this module, students will recognise the role of societal and climate dynamics in climate change management, and will gain the necessary knowledge required to comprehend the basis of sustainable development in the context of climate change management. They will also be able to perform simple, yet meaningful evaluation of a range of climate related options.
This course focuses on the economics of growth and development, both from a theoretical and empirical perspective. Using examples from developing countries, it explores wide-ranging, policy-relevant topics such as investments in health, education and infrastructure, microeconomics of credit markets, corruption and other determinants of economic development.
This module introduces up-to-date quantitative econometric methods used in applied research/empirical work. We will discuss various economic applications, including “returns to schooling” and “the effect of minimum wages on employment”. The module will also provide students with the data analytical skills necessary to conduct applied research in economics/policy analysis using popular statistical software, STATA. Key topics include linear regression, instrumental variables, causal inferences, binary choice models, panel data, time series modelling, and forecasting.
This module allows students the freedom to explore a research topic of their choice. It combines all of the previous skills acquired throughout the course of study. Students will be expected to write an original work of approximately 7,500 words. While the research topic will vary from student to student, each student will be assigned a supervisor to help guide them through the process of their first large scale research project in economics.
This module is essential for any student wishing to engage in graduate study in economics or for students wishing to work as a professional economist.
The aim is to demonstrate to students the complexities and controversies in environmental decision making through a focus of one of the global grand challenges – energy provisioning. This will involve teaching them the extremes – from grass roots environment pressure groups to top down policy frameworks.
Within this module, students will gain a deep understanding of aspects of the energy decision making process, taking into account economic, environmental, social and security of supply considerations. The role of local, national and international policies; citizens; scientists; the media and business will be covered. This module will foster an understanding of how to contribute to policy at the national level and how to influence local authority decisions.
There is an emphasis on real world applicability – students will learn about the House of Commons Select Committee inquiry process, submitting evidence if there is a relevant live inquiry, and critically analyse reports for real energy planning applications.
This interdisciplinary module draws on perspectives from Geography, Conservation Science, Archaeology and more to explore the past, present and future of Amazonia. You will cover a broad range of topics, including debates around the question of whether the Amazon is a pristine forest or a cultural artefact; deforestation and agricultural transitions; conservation and extractive reserves; mega-dams and environmental justice; rural-urban migration and future resilience of Amazonian socio-ecological systems. By the end you will have learnt to see the world’s largest rainforest and its people through a variety of lenses, and that almost everything you thought previously about the Amazon was wrong!
Food and Agriculture in the 21st century explores the social, political and environmental challenges facing food systems in the world today. This includes the history, culture and development of contemporary food systems. The focus is on the industries’ interactions with plants, animals and the landscape, and the resultant debates regarding food security and food sovereignty. Through the exploration of case studies from across the globe, students will consider the connections between changing diets, landscapes and agrarian reform. They will also develop innovative and alternative solutions for the future.
The module encourages the development of skills in debate and analysis by drawing on environmental history, human geography, anthropology, sociology, historical and political ecology and cultural studies.
Students will ultimately be able to describe the social, ethical, economic and environmental challenges facing food systems and understand the connections between production and consumption and how these have shaped the contemporary food systems.
This module covers both the principles of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and GIScience, and provides practical experience in the use of GIS using ArcGIS, a leading windows-based package. Students will engage with a number of theoretical issues, such as the problems of representing real world phenomena in GIS databases, and will consider emerging trends within the discipline such as WebGIS and the Open Source GIS movement. Lectures also explore the use of GI in government, commercial and academic sectors and related employment opportunities, and are complimented by a series of practical sessions in ArcGIS. Initial exercises are concerned with creating, manipulating and querying spatial data using the core functionality of the software, and subsequent exercises demonstrate more sophisticated forms of spatial analysis using a range of extension products including Spatial Analyst, Network Analyst and ArcScene.
Over the duration of the module, students are required to source their own data, conduct appropriate analyses and produce a project report. This combination of concepts, theories and practical experience provides students with the requisite skills to enter the graduate workplace, and they will learn how to explain how data may be modelled, captured, stored, manipulated and retrieved from within GIS. Additionally, the module will enhance students’ abilities in a range of areas, such as the design and implementation of a spatial database and appropriate forms of analysis, knowledge of the latest developments and emerging issues and trends in GIS and GISc.
This course is about understanding the sustainability challenges, issues and debates in moving towards a responsible form of global consumption. Through theoretical and practical learning based on both geographic and broader social science literature, we will analyse existing and prospective value chains in a critical fashion. We analyse contemporary debates over the possibilities for consumption to be sustainable. How do companies, government, producers and consumers negotiate consumption’s relationship with the environment, economic growth, justice and labour rights?
Topics investigated in more detail include Fair Trade, commodity chain analysis, the commodification of nature, and corporate social responsibility. In-class debates and learning will draw upon key theories and use a range of case studies and empirical material drawn from ‘real world’ examples and initiatives. These will be supplemented by a fieldtrip to Garstang (the world’s first ‘Fair Trade Town’) in order to see how ethical consumption can permeate across geographical scales and spaces.
This applied module is an introduction to the economics of health and health care and will develop your awareness of the main policy issues in this field. It provides a comprehensive set of economic tools for critically appraising fundamental issues in the economics of health while offering a broad overview of the UK’s National Health Service and other health care systems around the world. The emphasis is on the use and interpretation of microeconomic models and the latest empirical evidence.
This module builds on basic microeconomics concepts to explore competition between firms and the evolution of market structure. It focuses on understanding the way firms make decisions and the effects of those decisions on market outcomes like prices, quantities, the type of products offered, and social welfare. The module first introduces basic concepts in Industrial Organisation to study imperfect competition and the determinants of market power. It then proceeds to analyse important topics in competition policy, such as cartels and merger policy.
The module requires an understanding of intermediate microeconomics (especially production/cost theory), basic concepts of game theory, and basic calculus.
This course provides an introduction to the economics of International Business and their key role in the global economy, incorporating the analysis of internationalising firms and multinational enterprises (MNE). Its conceptual foundations derive from the critical application of relevant economic theories and addresses policy issues highlighting the economic, strategic and financial challenges facing businesses that operate across international borders in a multiple exchange rate environment.
The course covers a range of important topics that facilitate a deeper understanding of the determinants and implications of the activities of international firms in the global economy. These topics include: global trends in research and development (R&D) and implications; the Global Factory, global value chains and the decline of the global firm; the growth and employment effects of international business; and exchange rates, risk and international financial management.
This module develops your understanding of concepts and theories of international trade and factor flows, with particular reference to the way in which such material can inform policymaking. Topics covered include the Ricardian model, the Heckscher-Ohlin model, international trade under imperfect competition, outsourcing and offshoring, trade models based on heterogeneous firms and multinational firms, and trade policy under perfect and imperfect competition. Throughout the module we emphasise the applicability of the models learned, and their relevance to real-world events. Examples include the relationship between labour productivity and wages, opinions toward free trade, and the impact of immigration.
Focusing on the microeconomics of labour and personnel, this module covers topics such as the economics of migration, wage determination, job search and labour market discrimination.
There is a particular emphasis on principal agent problems in human resources and the design of incentives within firms.
Economics theory is used to analyse the operation of labour markers and assess the empirical evidence. Areas covered include:
This course aims at training ambitious economists to formal mathematical methods used in economic modelling and beyond. These techniques are necessary for students interested in pursuing postgraduate studies in Economics or working in analytically demanding jobs in the private sector. The course will cover material that usually is outside the scope of the regular mathematics education for economists, like decisions over time.
By the end of this course, students should have a good knowledge and understanding of these relevant mathematical techniques.
Policymakers at Central Banks lie in a unique position to influence economic activity. This module examines the role of monetary policy in influencing the expectations and behaviour of agents in the economy and the implications this has for outcomes such as inflation, GDP and household welfare. Students will focus on applications of monetary theory to central banks problems and the recent objectives of the Bank of England Monetary Policy Committee. Topics include Central Bank independence, inflation targeting and the zero lower bound on interest rates, money creation and quantitative easing, and the macroeconomics of pandemics.
This module presents an overview of the interactions between the government, firms, and citizens, using a mix of theory and empirical work. Sometimes, markets are not efficient, and government intervention is necessary. Sometimes, markets are efficient, but equity concerns create the need for government. There is often a tension between the socially optimal policy and the outcome of the democratic process.
Some questions we study in this module:
As the world becomes increasingly urbanised, so too does the power of urban infrastructure to shape the dynamics of cities and the experience of everyday life. Urban infrastructure is key to sustaining much that we take for granted, for example travel, food, water, energy, communications, and waste. It follows that changes to the way infrastructure is managed will impact both the city as a whole and the experience of everyday urban life. This module examines ways of understanding urban infrastructure as a ‘socio-technical assemblage’, a term that will become more familiar throughout the module. Using case studies from around the world you will engage with the changing pressures on infrastructure and the challenges of building resilient futures. You will learn through a combination of lectures, seminars, a workshop and field course activities.
Students undertaking this module will learn about the human and physical aspects of the Mediterranean environment. The module will focus on the distribution, allocation and use of water, whilst exploring the ways in which land use or land management affect the water environment.
Students will learn about the physical constraints on water availability whilst analysing the role of government institutions and private companies in developing and managing water for a range of purposes.
By participating in a four-day field course, students will have the opportunity to experience the distinctive environmental, cultural and socioeconomic nature of the Istrian peninsula. Generally, the module is designed to develop students' independent and group-based skills and enhance their knowledge related to water, particularly in the Mediterranean environment.
We set our fees on an annual basis and the 2025/26 entry fees have not yet been set.
As a guide, our fees in 2024/25 were:
There may be extra costs related to your course for items such as books, stationery, printing, photocopying, binding and general subsistence on trips and visits. Following graduation, you may need to pay a subscription to a professional body for some chosen careers.
Specific additional costs for studying at Lancaster are listed below.
Lancaster is proud to be one of only a handful of UK universities to have a collegiate system. Every student belongs to a college, and all students pay a small college membership fee which supports the running of college events and activities. Students on some distance-learning courses are not liable to pay a college fee.
For students starting in 2023 and 2024, the fee is £40 for undergraduates and research students and £15 for students on one-year courses. Fees for students starting in 2025 have not yet been set.
To support your studies, you will also require access to a computer, along with reliable internet access. You will be able to access a range of software and services from a Windows, Mac, Chromebook or Linux device. For certain degree programmes, you may need a specific device, or we may provide you with a laptop and appropriate software - details of which will be available on relevant programme pages. A dedicated IT support helpdesk is available in the event of any problems.
The University provides limited financial support to assist students who do not have the required IT equipment or broadband support in place.
In addition to travel and accommodation costs, while you are studying abroad, you will need to have a passport and, depending on the country, there may be other costs such as travel documents (e.g. VISA or work permit) and any tests and vaccines that are required at the time of travel. Some countries may require proof of funds.
In addition to possible commuting costs during your placement, you may need to buy clothing that is suitable for your workplace and you may have accommodation costs. Depending on the employer and your job, you may have other costs such as copies of personal documents required by your employer for example.
The fee that you pay will depend on whether you are considered to be a home or international student. Read more about how we assign your fee status.
Fees are set by the UK Government annually, and subsequent years' fees may be subject to increases. Read more about fees in subsequent years.
We will charge tuition fees to Home undergraduate students on full-year study abroad/work placements in line with the maximum amounts permitted by the Department for Education. The current maximum levels are:
International students on full-year study abroad/work placements will be charged the same percentages as the standard International fee.
Please note that the maximum levels chargeable in future years may be subject to changes in Government policy.
Details of our scholarships and bursaries for students starting in 2025 are not yet available. You can use our scholarships for 2024-entry applicants as guidance.
The information on this site relates primarily to 2025/2026 entry to the University and every effort has been taken to ensure the information is correct at the time of publication.
The University will use all reasonable effort to deliver the courses as described, but the University reserves the right to make changes to advertised courses. In exceptional circumstances that are beyond the University’s reasonable control (Force Majeure Events), we may need to amend the programmes and provision advertised. In this event, the University will take reasonable steps to minimise the disruption to your studies. If a course is withdrawn or if there are any fundamental changes to your course, we will give you reasonable notice and you will be entitled to request that you are considered for an alternative course or withdraw your application. You are advised to revisit our website for up-to-date course information before you submit your application.
More information on limits to the University’s liability can be found in our legal information.
We believe in the importance of a strong and productive partnership between our students and staff. In order to ensure your time at Lancaster is a positive experience we have worked with the Students’ Union to articulate this relationship and the standards to which the University and its students aspire. View our Charter and other policies.
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